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Entry version 111 (13 Nov 2019)
Sequence version 1 (11 Oct 2004)
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Protein

Probable glutamate/gamma-aminobutyrate antiporter

Gene

gadC

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:4 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Involved in glutamate-dependent acid resistance. Imports glutamate inside the cell while simultaneously exporting to the periplasm the GABA produced by GadA and GadB. The gad system helps to maintain a near-neutral intracellular pH when cells are exposed to extremely acidic conditions. The ability to survive transit through the acidic conditions of the stomach is essential for successful colonization of the mammalian host by commensal and pathogenic bacteria.

Miscellaneous

The glutamate analog L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (L-PDC) blocks the uptake of glutamate by selective inhibition.

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Biological processAmino-acid transport, Antiport, Transport

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

More...
BioCyci
EcoCyc:XASA-MONOMER
ECOL316407:JW1487-MONOMER
MetaCyc:XASA-MONOMER

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Probable glutamate/gamma-aminobutyrate antiporter
Alternative name(s):
Extreme acid sensitivity protein
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:gadC
Synonyms:acsA, xasA
Ordered Locus Names:b1492, JW1487
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacteralesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000000318 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome
  • UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular_location_section">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the subcellular compartment where each non-membrane region of a membrane-spanning protein is found.<p><a href='/help/topo_dom' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Topological domaini1 – 14CytoplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST14
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular_location_section">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the extent of a membrane-spanning region of the protein. It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel transmembrane proteins.<p><a href='/help/transmem' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Transmembranei15 – 35HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini36 – 41PeriplasmicSequence analysis6
Transmembranei42 – 62HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini63 – 93CytoplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST31
Transmembranei94 – 114HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini115 – 127PeriplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST13
Transmembranei128 – 148HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini149 – 157CytoplasmicSequence analysis9
Transmembranei158 – 178HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini179 – 200PeriplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST22
Transmembranei201 – 221HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini222 – 239CytoplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST18
Transmembranei240 – 260HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini261 – 291PeriplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST31
Transmembranei292 – 312HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini313 – 335CytoplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST23
Transmembranei336 – 356HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini357 – 366PeriplasmicSequence analysis10
Transmembranei367 – 387HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini388 – 412CytoplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST25
Transmembranei413 – 433HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini434 – 445PeriplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST12
Transmembranei446 – 466HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini467 – 511CytoplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST45

GO - Cellular componenti

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell inner membrane, Cell membrane, Membrane

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00002130401 – 511Probable glutamate/gamma-aminobutyrate antiporterAdd BLAST511

Proteomic databases

jPOST - Japan Proteome Standard Repository/Database

More...
jPOSTi
P63235

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P63235

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P63235

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

By acidic conditions. Expression is regulated by a complex system involving RpoS, cAMP, CRP, EvgAS, H-NS, GadE, GadW and GadX. The level of involvement for each regulator varies depending upon the growth phase and the medium.6 Publications

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

More...
BioGridi
4260789, 37 interactors

Database of interacting proteins

More...
DIPi
DIP-48121N

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
511145.b1492

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1511
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P63235

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

Protein Data Bank in Europe - Knowledge Base

More...
PDBe-KBi
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
ENOG4105E5D Bacteria
COG0531 LUCA

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000058004

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P63235

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K20265

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
P63235

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR002293 AA/rel_permease1
IPR004759 Glu_antiport

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF13520 AA_permease_2, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

More...
PIRSFi
PIRSF006060 AA_transporter, 1 hit

TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

More...
TIGRFAMsi
TIGR00910 2A0307_GadC, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

P63235-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MATSVQTGKA KQLTLLGFFA ITASMVMAVY EYPTFATSGF SLVFFLLLGG
60 70 80 90 100
ILWFIPVGLC AAEMATVDGW EEGGVFAWVS NTLGPRWGFA AISFGYLQIA
110 120 130 140 150
IGFIPMLYFV LGALSYILKW PALNEDPITK TIAALIILWA LALTQFGGTK
160 170 180 190 200
YTARIAKVGF FAGILLPAFI LIALAAIYLH SGAPVAIEMD SKTFFPDFSK
210 220 230 240 250
VGTLVVFVAF ILSYMGVEAS ATHVNEMSNP GRDYPLAMLL LMVAAICLSS
260 270 280 290 300
VGGLSIAMVI PGNEINLSAG VMQTFTVLMS HVAPEIEWTV RVISALLLLG
310 320 330 340 350
VLAEIASWIV GPSRGMYVTA QKNLLPAAFA KMNKNGVPVT LVISQLVITS
360 370 380 390 400
IALIILTNTG GGNNMSFLIA LALTVVIYLC AYFMLFIGYI VLVLKHPDLK
410 420 430 440 450
RTFNIPGGKG VKLVVAIVGL LTSIMAFIVS FLPPDNIQGD STDMYVELLV
460 470 480 490 500
VSFLVVLALP FILYAVHDRK GKANTGVTLE PINSQNAPKG HFFLHPRARS
510
PHYIVMNDKK H
Length:511
Mass (Da):55,077
Last modified:October 11, 2004 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i85DF72B82816CE33
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC74565.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA15156.2
U13204 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB17694.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
G64902

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_416009.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000246019.1, NZ_STEB01000054.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblBacteriai
AAC74565; AAC74565; b1492
BAA15156; BAA15156; BAA15156

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
946057

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ecj:JW1487
eco:b1492

Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC)

More...
PATRICi
fig|1411691.4.peg.775

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC74565.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA15156.2
U13204 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB17694.1
PIRiG64902
RefSeqiNP_416009.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000246019.1, NZ_STEB01000054.1

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
4DJIX-ray3.19A/B1-511[»]
4DJKX-ray3.10A/B1-511[»]
SMRiP63235
ModBaseiSearch...
PDBe-KBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi4260789, 37 interactors
DIPiDIP-48121N
STRINGi511145.b1492

Proteomic databases

jPOSTiP63235
PaxDbiP63235
PRIDEiP63235

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaiAAC74565; AAC74565; b1492
BAA15156; BAA15156; BAA15156
GeneIDi946057
KEGGiecj:JW1487
eco:b1492
PATRICifig|1411691.4.peg.775

Organism-specific databases

EchoBASE - an integrated post-genomic database for E. coli

More...
EchoBASEi
EB2350

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG4105E5D Bacteria
COG0531 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000058004
InParanoidiP63235
KOiK20265
PhylomeDBiP63235

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciEcoCyc:XASA-MONOMER
ECOL316407:JW1487-MONOMER
MetaCyc:XASA-MONOMER

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:P63235

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR002293 AA/rel_permease1
IPR004759 Glu_antiport
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF13520 AA_permease_2, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF006060 AA_transporter, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR00910 2A0307_GadC, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiGADC_ECOLI
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P63235
Secondary accession number(s): P39183
, P76131, P77384, Q54152
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 11, 2004
Last sequence update: October 11, 2004
Last modified: November 13, 2019
This is version 111 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. Escherichia coli
    Escherichia coli (strain K12): entries and cross-references to EcoGene
  3. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
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