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Protein

High mobility group protein B1

Gene

Hmgb1

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Multifunctional redox sensitive protein with various roles in different cellular compartments. In the nucleus is one of the major chromatin-associated non-histone proteins and acts as a DNA chaperone involved in replication, transcription, chromatin remodeling, V(D)J recombination, DNA repair and genome stability. Proposed to be an universal biosensor for nucleic acids. Promotes host inflammatory response to sterile and infectious signals and is involved in the coordination and integration of innate and adaptive immune responses. In the cytoplasm functions as sensor and/or chaperone for immunogenic nucleic acids implicating the activation of TLR9-mediated immune responses, and mediates autophagy. Acts as danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule that amplifies immune responses during tissue injury. Released to the extracellular environment can bind DNA, nucleosomes, IL-1 beta, CXCL12, AGER isoform 2/sRAGE, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and activates cells through engagement of multiple surface receptors. In the extracellular compartment fully reduced HMGB1 (released by necrosis) acts as a chemokine, disulfide HMGB1 (actively secreted) as a cytokine, and sulfonyl HMGB1 (released from apoptotic cells) promotes immunological tolerance (PubMed:23519706, PubMed:23446148, PubMed:23994764, PubMed:25048472). Has proangiogenic activity. May be involved in platelet activation. Binds to phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamide (PubMed:11154118). Bound to RAGE mediates signaling for neuronal outgrowth (PubMed:1885601, PubMed:2461949, PubMed:7592757, PubMed:12183440). May play a role in accumulation of expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins.By similarity4 Publications5 Publications
Nuclear functions are attributed to fully reduced HGMB1. Associates with chromatin and binds DNA with a preference to non-canonical DNA structures such as single-stranded DNA, DNA-containing cruciforms or bent structures, supercoiled DNA and ZDNA (PubMed:2922595, PubMed:11513603). Can bent DNA and enhance DNA flexibility by looping thus providing a mechanism to promote activities on various gene promoters by enhancing transcription factor binding and/or bringing distant regulatory sequences into close proximity (PubMed:12486007). May be involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER), mismatch repair (MMR) and base excision repair (BER) pathways, and double strand break repair such as non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) (PubMed:10866811). Involved in V(D)J recombination by acting as a cofactor of the RAG complex: acts by stimulating cleavage and RAG protein binding at the 23 bp spacer of conserved recombination signal sequences (RSS) (By similarity). In vitro can displace histone H1 from highly bent DNA (PubMed:24551219). Can restructure the canonical nucleosome leading to relaxation of structural constraints for transcription factor-binding (By similarity). Enhances binding of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) such as SREBF1 to their cognate DNA sequences and increases their transcriptional activities (By similarity). Facilitates binding of TP53 to DNA (By similarity). May be involved in mitochondrial quality control and autophagy in a transcription-dependent fashion implicating HSPB1 (By similarity). Can modulate the activity of the telomerase complex and may be involved in telomere maintenance (By similarity).By similarity5 Publications
In the cytoplasm proposed to dissociate the BECN1:BCL2 complex via competitive interaction with BECN1 leading to autophagy activation (By similarity). Can protect BECN1 and ATG5 from calpain-mediated cleavage and thus proposed to control their proautophagic and proapoptotic functions and to regulate the extent and severity of inflammation-associated cellular injury (By similarity). In myeloid cells has a protective role against endotoxemia and bacterial infection by promoting autophagy (By similarity). Involved in endosomal translocation and activation of TLR9 in response to CpG-DNA in macrophages (By similarity).By similarity
In the extracellular compartment (following either active secretion or passive release) involved in regulation of the inflammatory response. Fully reduced HGMB1 (which subsequently gets oxidized after release) in association with CXCL12 mediates the recruitment of inflammatory cells during the initial phase of tissue injury; the CXCL12:HMGB1 complex triggers CXCR4 homodimerization (PubMed:22869893). Induces the migration of monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells and seems to regulate adhesive and migratory functions of neutrophils implicating AGER/RAGE and ITGAM (By similarity). Can bind to various types of DNA and RNA including microbial unmethylated CpG-DNA to enhance the innate immune response to nucleic acids. Proposed to act in promiscuous DNA/RNA sensing which cooperates with subsequent discriminative sensing by specific pattern recognition receptors. Promotes extracellular DNA-induced AIM2 inflammasome activation implicating AGER/RAGE (By similarity). Disulfide HMGB1 binds to transmembrane receptors, such as AGER/RAGE, TLR2, TLR4 and probably TREM1, thus activating their signal transduction pathways. Mediates the release of cytokines/chemokines such as TNF, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CXCL10 (PubMed:10952726, PubMed:20547845, PubMed:22869893). Promotes secretion of interferon-gamma by macrophage-stimulated natural killer (NK) cells in concert with other cytokines like IL-2 or IL-12. TLR4 is proposed to be the primary receptor promoting macrophage activation and signaling through TLR4 seems to implicate LY96/MD-2 (By similarity). In bacterial LPS- or LTA-mediated inflammatory responses binds to the endotoxins and transfers them to CD14 for signaling to the respective TLR4:LY96 and TLR2 complexes (PubMed:23508573). Contributes to tumor proliferation by association with ACER/RAGE (PubMed:10830965). Can bind to IL1-beta and signals through the IL1R1:IL1RAP receptor complex (By similarity). Binding to class A CpG activates cytokine production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells implicating TLR9, MYD88 and AGER/RAGE and can activate autoreactive B cells (By similarity). Via HMGB1-containing chromatin immune complexes may also promote B cell responses to endogenous TLR9 ligands through a B-cell receptor (BCR)-dependent and ACER/RAGE-independent mechanism (By similarity). Inhibits phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages; the function is dependent on poly-ADP-ribosylation and involves binding to phosphatidylserine on the cell surface of apoptotic cells (By similarity). In adaptive immunity may be involved in enhancing immunity through activation of effector T-cells and suppression of regulatory T (TReg) cells (By similarity). In contrast, without implicating effector or regulatory T-cells, required for tumor infiltration and activation of T-cells expressing the lymphotoxin LTA:LTB heterotrimer thus promoting tumor malignant progression (By similarity). Also reported to limit proliferation of T-cells (PubMed:18277947). Released HMGB1:nucleosome complexes formed during apoptosis can signal through TLR2 to induce cytokine production. Involved in induction of immunological tolerance by apoptotic cells; its pro-inflammatory activities when released by apoptotic cells are neutralized by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent oxidation specifically on Cys-106 (By similarity). During macrophage activation by activated lymphocyte-derived self apoptotic DNA (ALD-DNA) promotes recruitment of ALD-DNA to endosomes (By similarity).By similarity4 Publications

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section specifies the position and type of each DNA-binding domain present within the protein.<p><a href='/help/dna_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>DNA bindingi9 – 79HMG box 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST71
DNA bindingi95 – 163HMG box 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST69

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionDNA-binding, Heparin-binding
Biological processAdaptive immunity, Autophagy, Chemotaxis, DNA damage, DNA recombination, DNA repair, Immunity, Inflammatory response, Innate immunity

Protein family/group databases

MoonProt database of moonlighting proteins

More...
MoonProti
P63159

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
High mobility group protein B1
Alternative name(s):
Amphoterin
Heparin-binding protein p30
High mobility group protein 1
Short name:
HMG-1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:Hmgb1
Synonyms:Hmg-1, Hmg1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unplaced

Organism-specific databases

Rat genome database

More...
RGDi
2802 Hmgb1

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Chromosome, Cytoplasm, Endosome, Membrane, Nucleus, Secreted

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology_and_biotech_section">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi23C → S: No effect on nuclear localization. Decreases interaction with BCN1 and impairs in autophagy induction. Abolishes cytokine-stimulating activity and no effect on chemoattractant activity; when associated with S-45. 3 Publications1
Mutagenesisi28 – 30KKK → AAA: Partial cytoplasmic localization; when associated with 181-A--A-183. 1 Publication3
Mutagenesisi28 – 30KKK → QQQ: Partial cytoplasmic localization (mimicks acetylation); when associated with 181-Q--Q-183. 1 Publication3
Mutagenesisi38F → A: Disrupts association with chromatin; when associated A-103 and A-122. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi45C → A: Reduces TNF-stimulating activity. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi45C → S: No effect on nuclear localization. Decreases interaction with BCN1 and impairs autophagy induction. Abolishes cytokine-stimulating activity and no effect on chemoattractant activity; when associated with S-23. 3 Publications1
Mutagenesisi103F → A: Disrupts association with chromatin; when associated A-38 and A-122. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi106C → A: Disrupts interaction with TLR4:LY96 receptor complex and abolishes TNF release from macrophages. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi106C → S: Abolishes cytokine-stimulating activity; no effect on chemoattractant activity; impaired nuclear and enhanced cytoplasmic localization, retained activity in autophagy regulation. 3 Publications1
Mutagenesisi122I → A: Disrupts association with chromatin; when associated A-38 and A-103. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi182 – 184KKK → AAA: Partial cytoplasmic localization; when associated with 27-A--A-29. 1 Publication3
Mutagenesisi182 – 184KKK → QQQ: Partial cytoplasmic localization (mimicks acetylation); when associated with 27-Q--Q-29. 1 Publication3

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section indicates that the initiator methionine is cleaved from the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/init_met' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Initiator methionineiRemoved1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00000485302 – 215High mobility group protein B1Add BLAST214

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei3N6-acetyllysine1 Publication1
Modified residuei7N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei8N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei12N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi23 ↔ 45In disulfide HMGB1; alternate3 Publications
Modified residuei23Cysteine sulfonic acid (-SO3H); alternate1 Publication1
Modified residuei28N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei29N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei30N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei35PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei43N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei45Cysteine sulfonic acid (-SO3H); alternate1 Publication1
Modified residuei90N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei100PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei106Cysteine sulfonic acid (-SO3H)1 Publication1
Modified residuei127N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei128N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei141N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei172N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei173N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei177N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei180N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei181ADP-ribosylserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei182N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei183N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei184N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei185N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated at serine residues. Phosphorylation in both NLS regions is required for cytoplasmic translocation followed by secretion.By similarity
Acetylated on multiple sites upon stimulation with LPS (By similarity). Acetylation on lysine residues in the nuclear localization signals (NLS 1 and NLS 2) leads to cytoplasmic localization and subsequent secretion (PubMed:14532127). Acetylation on Lys-3 results in preferential binding to DNA ends and impairs DNA bending activity (PubMed:17269659).By similarity2 Publications
Reduction/oxidation of cysteine residues Cys-23, Cys-45 and Cys-106 and a possible intramolecular disulfide bond involving Cys-23 and Cys-45 give rise to different redox forms with specific functional activities in various cellular compartments: 1- fully reduced HMGB1 (HMGB1C23hC45hC106h), 2- disulfide HMGB1 (HMGB1C23-C45C106h) and 3- sulfonyl HMGB1 (HMGB1C23soC45soC106so).Curated4 Publications
Poly-ADP-ribosylated by PARP1 when secreted following stimulation with LPS.By similarity
In vitro cleavage by CASP1 is liberating a HMG box 1-containing peptide which may mediate immunogenic activity; the peptide antagonizes apoptosis-induced immune tolerance. Can be proteolytically cleaved by a thrombin:thrombomodulin complex; reduces binding to heparin and proinflammatory activities (By similarity).By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence that are not defined in any other subsection. This subsection can be displayed in different sections (‘Function’, ‘PTM / Processing’, ‘Pathology and Biotech’) according to its content.<p><a href='/help/site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sitei10 – 11Cleavage; by thrombin:thrombomodulinBy similarity2
Sitei67 – 68Cleavage; by CASP1By similarity2

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, ADP-ribosylation, Disulfide bond, Oxidation, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

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PaxDbi
P63159

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

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PRIDEi
P63159

PTM databases

CarbonylDB database of protein carbonylation sites

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CarbonylDBi
P63159

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

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iPTMneti
P63159

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Interacts (fully reduced HMGB1) with CXCL12; probably in a 1:2 ratio involving two molecules of CXCL12, each interacting with one HMG box of HMGB1; inhibited by glycyrrhizin (PubMed:22869893). Associates with the TLR4:LY96 receptor complex (PubMed:20547845). Component of the RAG complex composed of core components RAG1 and RAG2, and associated component HMGB1 or HMGB2 (By similarity). Interacts (in cytoplasm upon starvation) with BECN1; inhibits the interaction of BECN1 and BCL2 leading to promotion of autophagy (PubMed:20819940). Interacts with KPNA1; involved in nuclear import (By similarity). Interacts with AGER (PubMed:12183440). Interacts with PTPRZ1 isoform 3/phosphacan (PubMed:9507007). Interacts with SREBF1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, APEX1, FEN1, POLB, TERT, IL1B, MSH2, XPA, XPC, HNF1A, TP53 (By similarity). Interacts with CD24; the probable CD24:SIGLEC10 complex is proposed to inhibit HGMB1-mediated tissue damage immune response. Interacts with THBD; prevents HGMB1 interaction with ACER/RAGE and inhibits HGMB1 proinflammatory activity. Interacts with HAVCR2; impairs HMGB1 binding to B-DNA and likely HMGB1-mediated innate immume response (By similarity). Interacts with XPO1; mediating nuclear export (PubMed:14532127).By similarity5 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

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BioGridi
247493, 7 interactors

Protein interaction database and analysis system

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IntActi
P63159, 2 interactors

STRING: functional protein association networks

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STRINGi
10116.ENSRNOP00000040874

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1215
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

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ProteinModelPortali
P63159

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
P63159

Database of comparative protein structure models

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ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

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MobiDBi
Search...

Miscellaneous databases

Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

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EvolutionaryTracei
P63159

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni2 – 97Sufficient for interaction with HAVCR2By similarityAdd BLAST96
Regioni2 – 10Heparin-bindingBy similarity9
Regioni3 – 15LPS binding (delipidated)By similarityAdd BLAST13
Regioni80 – 96LPS binding (Lipid A)By similarityAdd BLAST17
Regioni89 – 108Cytokine-stimulating activityBy similarityAdd BLAST20
Regioni150 – 183Binding to AGER/RAGE1 PublicationAdd BLAST34

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a short (usually not more than 20 amino acids) conserved sequence motif of biological significance.<p><a href='/help/motif' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Motifi27 – 43Nuclear localization signal (NLS) 11 PublicationAdd BLAST17
Motifi178 – 184Nuclear localization signal (NLS) 21 Publication7

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes the position of regions of compositional bias within the protein and the particular amino acids that are over-represented within those regions.<p><a href='/help/compbias' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Compositional biasi186 – 215Asp/Glu-rich (acidic)Add BLAST30

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides general information on the biological role of a domain. The term ‘domain’ is intended here in its wide acceptation, it may be a structural domain, a transmembrane region or a functional domain. Several domains are described in this subsection.<p><a href='/help/domain_cc' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini

The acidic C-terminal domain forms a flexible structure which can reversibly interact intramolecularily with the HMG boxes and modulate binding to DNA and other proteins.2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the HMGB family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

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eggNOGi
KOG0381 Eukaryota
COG5648 LUCA

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

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HOGENOMi
HOG000197861

The HOVERGEN Database of Homologous Vertebrate Genes

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HOVERGENi
HBG009000

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

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InParanoidi
P63159

KEGG Orthology (KO)

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KOi
K10802

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

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PhylomeDBi
P63159

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

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Gene3Di
1.10.30.10, 2 hits

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

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InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR009071 HMG_box_dom
IPR036910 HMG_box_dom_sf
IPR017967 HMG_boxA_CS

Pfam protein domain database

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Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00505 HMG_box, 1 hit
PF09011 HMG_box_2, 1 hit

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

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SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00398 HMG, 2 hits

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

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SUPFAMi
SSF47095 SSF47095, 2 hits

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

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PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00353 HMG_BOX_1, 1 hit
PS50118 HMG_BOX_2, 2 hits

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence (1+)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry has 1 described isoform and 1 potential isoform that is computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

P63159-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MGKGDPKKPR GKMSSYAFFV QTCREEHKKK HPDASVNFSE FSKKCSERWK
60 70 80 90 100
TMSAKEKGKF EDMAKADKAR YEREMKTYIP PKGETKKKFK DPNAPKRPPS
110 120 130 140 150
AFFLFCSEYR PKIKGEHPGL SIGDVAKKLG EMWNNTAADD KQPYEKKAAK
160 170 180 190 200
LKEKYEKDIA AYRAKGKPDA AKKGVVKAEK SKKKKEEEDD EEDEEDEEEE
210
EEEEDEDEEE DDDDE
Length:215
Mass (Da):24,894
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i8A868DE266D552B5
GO

<p>In eukaryotic reference proteomes, unreviewed entries that are likely to belong to the same gene are computationally mapped, based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.<p><a href='/help/gene_centric_isoform_mapping' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There is 1 potential isoform mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
D3ZXR5D3ZXR5_RAT
High mobility group protein B1
Hmgb1
214Annotation score:

Annotation score:4 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

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EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

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DDBJi
Links Updated
M64986 mRNA Translation: AAA40729.1
Y00463 mRNA Translation: CAA68526.1
AF275734 mRNA Translation: AAF82799.1
BC061779 mRNA Translation: AAH61779.1
BC081839 mRNA Translation: AAH81839.1
BC088402 mRNA Translation: AAH88402.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

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PIRi
A41175 NSRTH1

NCBI Reference Sequences

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RefSeqi
NP_037095.1, NM_012963.2

UniGene gene-oriented nucleotide sequence clusters

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UniGenei
Rn.144565
Rn.151172
Rn.165951
Rn.4121

Genome annotation databases

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

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GeneIDi
25459

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

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KEGGi
rno:25459

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M64986 mRNA Translation: AAA40729.1
Y00463 mRNA Translation: CAA68526.1
AF275734 mRNA Translation: AAF82799.1
BC061779 mRNA Translation: AAH61779.1
BC081839 mRNA Translation: AAH81839.1
BC088402 mRNA Translation: AAH88402.1
PIRiA41175 NSRTH1
RefSeqiNP_037095.1, NM_012963.2
UniGeneiRn.144565
Rn.151172
Rn.165951
Rn.4121

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

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PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

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RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

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PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1AABNMR-A2-84[»]
1CKTX-ray2.50A8-78[»]
1HMENMR-A89-165[»]
1HMFNMR-A89-165[»]
2GZKNMR-A82-165[»]
4QR9X-ray2.00A/B8-81[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP63159
SMRiP63159
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi247493, 7 interactors
IntActiP63159, 2 interactors
STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000040874

Protein family/group databases

MoonProtiP63159

PTM databases

CarbonylDBiP63159
iPTMnetiP63159

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP63159
PRIDEiP63159

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi25459
KEGGirno:25459

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
3146
RGDi2802 Hmgb1

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0381 Eukaryota
COG5648 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000197861
HOVERGENiHBG009000
InParanoidiP63159
KOiK10802
PhylomeDBiP63159

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP63159

Protein Ontology

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PROi
PR:P63159

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.30.10, 2 hits
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR009071 HMG_box_dom
IPR036910 HMG_box_dom_sf
IPR017967 HMG_boxA_CS
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00505 HMG_box, 1 hit
PF09011 HMG_box_2, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00398 HMG, 2 hits
SUPFAMiSSF47095 SSF47095, 2 hits
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00353 HMG_BOX_1, 1 hit
PS50118 HMG_BOX_2, 2 hits

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiHMGB1_RAT
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P63159
Secondary accession number(s): P07155
, P27109, P27428, Q548R9
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 1, 1988
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: November 7, 2018
This is version 138 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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