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Entry version 128 (17 Jun 2020)
Sequence version 1 (15 Mar 2004)
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Protein

Crotonobetainyl-CoA reductase

Gene

caiA

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the reduction of crotonobetainyl-CoA to gamma-butyrobetainyl-CoA (PubMed:8060125, PubMed:10209289, PubMed:10978161). The electron donor could be the FixA/FixB complex (PubMed:12081978).2 Publications2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

FADUniRule annotation1 PublicationNote: Binds 1 FAD per subunit.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 7.8.1 Publication

Temperature dependencei

Optimum temperature is 40-45 degrees Celsius.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: carnitine metabolism

This protein is involved in the pathway carnitine metabolism, which is part of Amine and polyamine metabolism.UniRule annotationCurated
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway carnitine metabolism and in Amine and polyamine metabolism.

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionOxidoreductase
LigandFAD, Flavoprotein

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

More...
BioCyci
EcoCyc:CROBETREDUCT-MONOMER
ECOL316407:JW0038-MONOMER
MetaCyc:CROBETREDUCT-MONOMER

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

More...
UniPathwayi
UPA00117

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Crotonobetainyl-CoA reductaseUniRule annotation (EC:1.3.8.13UniRule annotation1 Publication)
Alternative name(s):
Crotobetaine reductase1 Publication
Crotonobetainyl-CoA dehydrogenaseUniRule annotation
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:caiA1 PublicationUniRule annotation
Synonyms:yaaO
Ordered Locus Names:b0039, JW0038
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacteralesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000000318 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome
  • UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  • plasma membrane Source: GO_Central

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the in vivo effects caused by ablation of the gene (or one or more transcripts) coding for the protein described in the entry. This includes gene knockout and knockdown, provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell level.<p><a href='/help/disruption_phenotype' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disruption phenotypei

Deletion of the gene abolishes gamma-butyrobetaine formation and increases L-carnitine production under anaerobic and aerobic conditions.1 Publication

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00002011931 – 380Crotonobetainyl-CoA reductaseAdd BLAST380

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P60584

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P60584

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

Transcribed during anaerobic growth in the presence of L-carnitine or crotonobetaine.2 Publications

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homotetramer.

UniRule annotation1 Publication

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

More...
BioGRIDi
4263349, 362 interactors

Database of interacting proteins

More...
DIPi
DIP-9241N

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
P60584, 5 interactors

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
511145.b0039

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P60584

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family.UniRule annotationCurated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
ENOG4105C1G Bacteria
COG1960 LUCA

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_018204_0_2_6

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P60584

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K08297

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
P60584

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
1.10.540.10, 1 hit

HAMAP database of protein families

More...
HAMAPi
MF_01052 CaiA, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR006089 Acyl-CoA_DH_CS
IPR006091 Acyl-CoA_Oxase/DH_cen-dom
IPR036250 AcylCo_DH-like_C
IPR009075 AcylCo_DH/oxidase_C
IPR013786 AcylCoA_DH/ox_N
IPR037069 AcylCoA_DH/ox_N_sf
IPR009100 AcylCoA_DH/oxidase_NM_dom
IPR023450 CaiA

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00441 Acyl-CoA_dh_1, 1 hit
PF02770 Acyl-CoA_dh_M, 1 hit
PF02771 Acyl-CoA_dh_N, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF47203 SSF47203, 1 hit
SSF56645 SSF56645, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00072 ACYL_COA_DH_1, 1 hit
PS00073 ACYL_COA_DH_2, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

P60584-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MDFNLNDEQE LFVAGIRELM ASENWEAYFA ECDRDSVYPE RFVKALADMG
60 70 80 90 100
IDSLLIPEEH GGLDAGFVTL AAVWMELGRL GAPTYVLYQL PGGFNTFLRE
110 120 130 140 150
GTQEQIDKIM AFRGTGKQMW NSAITEPGAG SDVGSLKTTY TRRNGKIYLN
160 170 180 190 200
GSKCFITSSA YTPYIVVMAR DGASPDKPVY TEWFVDMSKP GIKVTKLEKL
210 220 230 240 250
GLRMDSCCEI TFDDVELDEK DMFGREGNGF NRVKEEFDHE RFLVALTNYG
260 270 280 290 300
TAMCAFEDAA RYANQRVQFG EAIGRFQLIQ EKFAHMAIKL NSMKNMLYEA
310 320 330 340 350
AWKADNGTIT SGDAAMCKYF CANAAFEVVD SAMQVLGGVG IAGNHRISRF
360 370 380
WRDLRVDRVS GGSDEMQILT LGRAVLKQYR
Length:380
Mass (Da):42,558
Last modified:March 15, 2004 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i7076984D735652C3
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
X73904 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA52111.1
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC73150.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB96608.2

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
G64724 I41011

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_414581.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000347117.1, NZ_STEB01000010.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblBacteriai
AAC73150; AAC73150; b0039
BAB96608; BAB96608; BAB96608

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
949064

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ecj:JW0038
eco:b0039

Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC)

More...
PATRICi
fig|1411691.4.peg.2244

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X73904 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA52111.1
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC73150.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB96608.2
PIRiG64724 I41011
RefSeqiNP_414581.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000347117.1, NZ_STEB01000010.1

3D structure databases

SMRiP60584
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGRIDi4263349, 362 interactors
DIPiDIP-9241N
IntActiP60584, 5 interactors
STRINGi511145.b0039

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP60584
PRIDEiP60584

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaiAAC73150; AAC73150; b0039
BAB96608; BAB96608; BAB96608
GeneIDi949064
KEGGiecj:JW0038
eco:b0039
PATRICifig|1411691.4.peg.2244

Organism-specific databases

EchoBASE - an integrated post-genomic database for E. coli

More...
EchoBASEi
EB1521

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG4105C1G Bacteria
COG1960 LUCA
HOGENOMiCLU_018204_0_2_6
InParanoidiP60584
KOiK08297
PhylomeDBiP60584

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00117
BioCyciEcoCyc:CROBETREDUCT-MONOMER
ECOL316407:JW0038-MONOMER
MetaCyc:CROBETREDUCT-MONOMER

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:P60584

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.540.10, 1 hit
HAMAPiMF_01052 CaiA, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR006089 Acyl-CoA_DH_CS
IPR006091 Acyl-CoA_Oxase/DH_cen-dom
IPR036250 AcylCo_DH-like_C
IPR009075 AcylCo_DH/oxidase_C
IPR013786 AcylCoA_DH/ox_N
IPR037069 AcylCoA_DH/ox_N_sf
IPR009100 AcylCoA_DH/oxidase_NM_dom
IPR023450 CaiA
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00441 Acyl-CoA_dh_1, 1 hit
PF02770 Acyl-CoA_dh_M, 1 hit
PF02771 Acyl-CoA_dh_N, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF47203 SSF47203, 1 hit
SSF56645 SSF56645, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00072 ACYL_COA_DH_1, 1 hit
PS00073 ACYL_COA_DH_2, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiCAIA_ECOLI
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P60584
Secondary accession number(s): P31571
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 15, 2004
Last sequence update: March 15, 2004
Last modified: June 17, 2020
This is version 128 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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