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Entry version 177 (12 Aug 2020)
Sequence version 4 (11 Jan 2011)
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Protein

Period circadian protein homolog 3

Gene

PER3

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Originally described as a core component of the circadian clock. The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, regulates various physiological processes through the generation of approximately 24 hour circadian rhythms in gene expression, which are translated into rhythms in metabolism and behavior. It is derived from the Latin roots 'circa' (about) and 'diem' (day) and acts as an important regulator of a wide array of physiological functions including metabolism, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, and renal function. Consists of two major components: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, and the peripheral clocks that are present in nearly every tissue and organ system. Both the central and peripheral clocks can be reset by environmental cues, also known as Zeitgebers (German for 'timegivers'). The predominant Zeitgeber for the central clock is light, which is sensed by retina and signals directly to the SCN. The central clock entrains the peripheral clocks through neuronal and hormonal signals, body temperature and feeding-related cues, aligning all clocks with the external light/dark cycle. Circadian rhythms allow an organism to achieve temporal homeostasis with its environment at the molecular level by regulating gene expression to create a peak of protein expression once every 24 hours to control when a particular physiological process is most active with respect to the solar day. Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and CRY2) plays a critical role in rhythm generation, whereas delays imposed by post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important for determining the period (tau) of the rhythms (tau refers to the period of a rhythm and is the length, in time, of one complete cycle). A diurnal rhythm is synchronized with the day/night cycle, while the ultradian and infradian rhythms have a period shorter and longer than 24 hours, respectively. Disruptions in the circadian rhythms contribute to the pathology of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, metabolic syndromes and aging. A transcription/translation feedback loop (TTFL) forms the core of the molecular circadian clock mechanism. Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the form of a heterodimer and activate the transcription of core clock genes and clock-controlled genes (involved in key metabolic processes), harboring E-box elements (5'-CACGTG-3') within their promoters. The core clock genes: PER1/2/3 and CRY1/2 which are transcriptional repressors form the negative limb of the feedback loop and interact with the CLOCK|NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1|ARNTL2/BMAL2 heterodimer inhibiting its activity and thereby negatively regulating their own expression. This heterodimer also activates nuclear receptors NR1D1, NR1D2, RORA, RORB and RORG, which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. Has a redundant role with the other PER proteins PER1 and PER2 and is not essential for the circadian rhythms maintenance. In contrast, plays an important role in sleep-wake timing and sleep homeostasis probably through the transcriptional regulation of sleep homeostasis-related genes, without influencing circadian parameters. Can bind heme.5 Publications

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Biological processBiological rhythms, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Enzyme and pathway databases

Pathway Commons web resource for biological pathway data

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PathwayCommonsi
P56645

SIGNOR Signaling Network Open Resource

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SIGNORi
P56645

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Period circadian protein homolog 3
Short name:
hPER3
Alternative name(s):
Cell growth-inhibiting gene 13 protein
Circadian clock protein PERIOD 3
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:PER3
ORF Names:GIG13
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

Eukaryotic Pathogen Database Resources

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EuPathDBi
HostDB:ENSG00000049246.14

Human Gene Nomenclature Database

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HGNCi
HGNC:8847, PER3

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

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MIMi
603427, gene

neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

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neXtProti
NX_P56645

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section provides information on the disease(s) associated with genetic variations in a given protein. The information is extracted from the scientific literature and diseases that are also described in the <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=omim">OMIM</a> database are represented with a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/diseases">controlled vocabulary</a> in the following way:<p><a href='/help/involvement_in_disease' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Involvement in diseasei

Advanced sleep phase syndrome, familial, 3 (FASPS3)1 Publication
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA disorder characterized by very early sleep onset and offset. Individuals are 'morning larks' with a 4 hours advance of the sleep, temperature and melatonin rhythms.
Related information in OMIM
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural variantiVAR_076416414 – 416PVH → AVR in FASPS3; decreased stability; decreased protein abundance. 1 Publication3

Keywords - Diseasei

Disease mutation

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNET

More...
DisGeNETi
8863

MalaCards human disease database

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MalaCardsi
PER3
MIMi616882, phenotype

Open Targets

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OpenTargetsi
ENSG00000049246

Orphanet; a database dedicated to information on rare diseases and orphan drugs

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Orphaneti
164736, Familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome

The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base

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PharmGKBi
PA33186

Miscellaneous databases

Pharos NIH Druggable Genome Knowledgebase

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Pharosi
P56645, Tbio

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMuta curated single-nucleotide variation and disease association database

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BioMutai
PER3

Domain mapping of disease mutations (DMDM)

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DMDMi
317373535

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001626331 – 1201Period circadian protein homolog 3Add BLAST1201

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei919PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei994PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei1053PhosphoserineCombined sources1

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylation by CSNK1E is weak and appears to require association with PER1 and translocation to the nucleus.By similarity
Ubiquitinated.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics

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EPDi
P56645

jPOST - Japan Proteome Standard Repository/Database

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jPOSTi
P56645

MassIVE - Mass Spectrometry Interactive Virtual Environment

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MassIVEi
P56645

MaxQB - The MaxQuant DataBase

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MaxQBi
P56645

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

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PaxDbi
P56645

PeptideAtlas

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PeptideAtlasi
P56645

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

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PRIDEi
P56645

ProteomicsDB: a multi-organism proteome resource

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ProteomicsDBi
56931 [P56645-1]
56932 [P56645-2]

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

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iPTMneti
P56645

Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

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PhosphoSitePlusi
P56645

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

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Bgeei
ENSG00000049246, Expressed in sural nerve and 236 other tissues

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

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ExpressionAtlasi
P56645, baseline and differential

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

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Genevisiblei
P56645, HS

Organism-specific databases

Human Protein Atlas

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HPAi
ENSG00000049246, Low tissue specificity

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homodimer.

Component of the circadian core oscillator, which includes the CRY proteins, CLOCK or NPAS2, ARTNL/BMAL1 or ARTNL2/BMAL2, CSNK1D and/or CSNK1E, TIMELESS and the PER proteins.

Interacts directly with PER1, PER2, CRY1, CRY2, and TIMELESS; interaction with CRY1 and CRY2 is weak and not rhythmic.

Interacts with FBXW11 and BTRC.

1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the '<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">Interaction</a>' section provides information about binary protein-protein interactions. The data presented in this section are a quality-filtered subset of binary interactions automatically derived from the <a href="https://www.ebi.ac.uk/intact/">IntAct database</a>. It is updated at every <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/synchronization">UniProt release</a>.<p><a href='/help/binary_interactions' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binary interactionsi

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

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BioGRIDi
114386, 15 interactors

ComplexPortal: manually curated resource of macromolecular complexes

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ComplexPortali
CPX-3223, Cry1-Per3 complex
CPX-3224, Cry2-Per3 complex

Protein interaction database and analysis system

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IntActi
P56645, 10 interactors

Molecular INTeraction database

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MINTi
P56645

STRING: functional protein association networks

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STRINGi
9606.ENSP00000482093

Miscellaneous databases

RNAct, Protein-RNA interaction predictions for model organisms.

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RNActi
P56645, protein

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
P56645

Database of comparative protein structure models

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ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/family%5Fand%5Fdomains%5Fsection">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini121 – 188PAS 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST68
Domaini262 – 328PAS 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST67
Domaini337 – 380PACAdd BLAST44
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section indicates the positions and types of repeated sequence motifs or repeated domains within the protein.<p><a href='/help/repeat' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Repeati965 – 9821Add BLAST18
Repeati983 – 10002Add BLAST18
Repeati1001 – 10183Add BLAST18
Repeati1019 – 10364Add BLAST18
Repeati1037 – 10545Add BLAST18

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni555 – 760CSNK1E binding domainBy similarityAdd BLAST206
Regioni965 – 10545 X 18 AA tandem repeats of S-[HP]-[AP]-T-[AT]-[GST]-[ATV]-L-S-[MT]-G-[LS]-P-P-[MRS]-[EKR]-[NST]-PAdd BLAST90
Regioni1123 – 1201CRY binding domainBy similarityAdd BLAST79

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a short (usually not more than 20 amino acids) conserved sequence motif of biological significance.<p><a href='/help/motif' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Motifi55 – 64Nuclear export signal 1By similarity10
Motifi403 – 412Nuclear export signal 3By similarity10
Motifi729 – 745Nuclear localization signalBy similarityAdd BLAST17
Motifi925 – 932Nuclear export signal 2By similarity8

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes the position of regions of compositional bias within the protein and the particular amino acids that are over-represented within those regions.<p><a href='/help/compbias' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Compositional biasi567 – 570Poly-Ser4
Compositional biasi750 – 753Poly-Ser4
Compositional biasi769 – 895Pro-richAdd BLAST127
Compositional biasi962 – 1081Ser-richAdd BLAST120

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

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eggNOGi
KOG3753, Eukaryota

Ensembl GeneTree

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GeneTreei
ENSGT00940000160817

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

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HOGENOMi
CLU_006667_0_1_1

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

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InParanoidi
P56645

KEGG Orthology (KO)

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KOi
K21945

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

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OMAi
HAQLPFW

Database of Orthologous Groups

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OrthoDBi
331262at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

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PhylomeDBi
P56645

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

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TreeFami
TF318445

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

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CDDi
cd00130, PAS, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

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InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR000014, PAS
IPR035965, PAS-like_dom_sf
IPR013655, PAS_fold_3
IPR015524, Per_circ_prot_3
IPR022728, Period_circadian-like_C

The PANTHER Classification System

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PANTHERi
PTHR11269:SF13, PTHR11269:SF13, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

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Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF08447, PAS_3, 1 hit
PF12114, Period_C, 1 hit

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

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SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00091, PAS, 2 hits

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

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SUPFAMi
SSF55785, SSF55785, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

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PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS50112, PAS, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (2+)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 <p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform. This section is only present in reviewed entries, i.e. in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

This entry has 2 described isoforms and 2 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Isoform 1 (identifier: P56645-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the <div> <p><b>What is the canonical sequence?</b><p><a href='/help/canonical_and_isoforms' target='_top'>More...</a></p>canonicali sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MPRGEAPGPG RRGAKDEALG EESGERWSPE FHLQRKLADS SHSEQQDRNR
60 70 80 90 100
VSEELIMVVQ EMKKYFPSER RNKPSTLDAL NYALRCVHSV QANSEFFQIL
110 120 130 140 150
SQNGAPQADV SMYSLEELAT IASEHTSKNT DTFVAVFSFL SGRLVHISEQ
160 170 180 190 200
AALILNRKKD VLASSHFVDL LAPQDMRVFY AHTARAQLPF WNNWTQRAAR
210 220 230 240 250
YECAPVKPFF CRIRGGEDRK QEKCHSPFRI IPYLIHVHHP AQPELESEPC
260 270 280 290 300
CLTVVEKIHS GYEAPRIPVN KRIFTTTHTP GCVFLEVDEK AVPLLGYLPQ
310 320 330 340 350
DLIGTSILSY LHPEDRSLMV AIHQKVLKYA GHPPFEHSPI RFCTQNGDYI
360 370 380 390 400
ILDSSWSSFV NPWSRKISFI IGRHKVRTSP LNEDVFATKI KKMNDNDKDI
410 420 430 440 450
TELQEQIYKL LLQPVHVSVS SGYGSLGSSG SQEQLVSIAS SSEASGHRVE
460 470 480 490 500
ETKAEQMTLQ QVYASVNKIK NLGQQLYIES MTKSSFKPVT GTRTEPNGGG
510 520 530 540 550
ECKTFTSFHQ TLKNNSVYTE PCEDLRNDEH SPSYQQINCI DSVIRYLKSY
560 570 580 590 600
NIPALKRKCI SCTNTTSSSS EEDKQNHKAD DVQALQAGLQ IPAIPKSEMP
610 620 630 640 650
TNGRSIDTGG GAPQILSTAM LSLGSGISQC GYSSTIVHVP PPETARDATL
660 670 680 690 700
FCEPWTLNMQ PAPLTSEEFK HVGLTAAVLS AHTQKEEQNY VDKFREKILS
710 720 730 740 750
SPYSSYLQQE SRSKAKYSYF QGDSTSKQTR SAGCRKGKHK RKKLPEPPDS
760 770 780 790 800
SSSNTGSGPR RGAHQNAQPC CPSAASSPHT SSPTFPPAAM VPSQAPYLVP
810 820 830 840 850
AFPLPAATSP GREYAAPGTA PEGLHGLPLS EGLQPYPAFP FPYLDTFMTV
860 870 880 890 900
FLPDPPVCPL LSPSFLPCPF LGATASSAIS PSMSSAMSPT LDPPPSVTSQ
910 920 930 940 950
RREEEKWEAQ SEGHPFITSR SSSPLQLNLL QEEMPRPSES PDQMRRNTCP
960 970 980 990 1000
QTEYCVTGNN GSESSPATTG ALSTGSPPRE NPSHPTASAL STGSPPMKNP
1010 1020 1030 1040 1050
SHPTASALST GSPPMKNPSH PTASTLSMGL PPSRTPSHPT ATVLSTGSPP
1060 1070 1080 1090 1100
SESPSRTGSA ASGSSDSSIY LTSSVYSSKI SQNGQQSQDV QKKETFPNVA
1110 1120 1130 1140 1150
EEPIWRMIRQ TPERILMTYQ VPERVKEVVL KEDLEKLESM RQQQPQFSHG
1160 1170 1180 1190 1200
QKEELAKVYN WIQSQTVTQE IDIQACVTCE NEDSADGAAT SCGQVLVEDS

C
Length:1,201
Mass (Da):131,888
Last modified:January 11, 2011 - v4
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i8129C4246EDD1816
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: P56645-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     197-197: R → RA
     499-499: G → GGESANGG
     954-954: Y → YQ

Show »
Length:1,210
Mass (Da):132,660
Checksum:iD63BD326292813F6
GO

<p>In eukaryotic reference proteomes, unreviewed entries that are likely to belong to the same gene are computationally mapped, based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.<p><a href='/help/gene_centric_isoform_mapping' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 2 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
A0A087WV69A0A087WV69_HUMAN
Period circadian protein homolog 3
PER3
1,191Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
Q8TAR6Q8TAR6_HUMAN
PER3 protein
PER3
378Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

The sequence BAB32925 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Extended N-terminus.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti943Q → R in BAB32925 (PubMed:11306557).Curated1

<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section provides information on polymorphic variants. If the variant is associated with a disease state, the description of the latter can be found in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/involvement%5Fin%5Fdisease">'Involvement in disease'</a> subsection.<p><a href='/help/polymorphism' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Polymorphismi

The number of repeats of 18 amino acids in positions 966 to 1055 is polymorphic and varies among at least 2 different alleles. Alleles corresponding in size to a 4 (PER3.4) and 5 (PER3.5) repeats have been described. The sequence shown is that of allele PER3.5. In most populations around 10% of individuals are homozygous for the 5-repeat (PER3.5), whereas approximately 50% are homozygous for the 4-repeat (PER3.4). In some populations in Papua New Guinea the prevalence of the various genotypes appears to be reversed. These repeats and polymorphism are not present in non-primate mammals. Homozygosity for PER3.5 is more likely to show morning preference, whereas homozygosity for the PER3.4 associates with evening preferences. PER3.5 homozygous show vulnerability to sleep loss with a greater cognitive decline in response to total sleep deprivation (PubMed:11306557, PubMed:17346965, PubMed:19716732, PubMed:24439663, PubMed:24577121).5 Publications

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_076416414 – 416PVH → AVR in FASPS3; decreased stability; decreased protein abundance. 1 Publication3
Natural variantiVAR_076417414P → A1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs150812083EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_076418416H → R1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs139315125EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_025532639V → G Associated with delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs10462020Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022428827L → P1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs228696Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_015514856P → A1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs228697Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_0710491001 – 1018Missing Associated with eveningness and better cognitive performance during sleep deprivation experiments. 4 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs57875989Add BLAST18
Natural variantiVAR_0287281007A → T. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1776342Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_0287291010T → I. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs12033719Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_0255331028M → T Only found in PER3.4 allele. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs2640909Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_0287301081S → C. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs2640905Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_0255341149H → R1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs10462021Ensembl.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_040326197R → RA in isoform 2. 1 Publication1
Alternative sequenceiVSP_040327499G → GGESANGG in isoform 2. 1 Publication1
Alternative sequenceiVSP_040328954Y → YQ in isoform 2. 1 Publication1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

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EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB047521 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB63250.1
AB047530 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB63251.1
AB047531 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB63252.1
AB047532 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB63253.1
AB047533 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB63254.1
AB047534 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB63255.1
AB047686 mRNA Translation: BAB32925.2 Different initiation.
AL157954 mRNA Translation: CAB76084.1
AY493418 mRNA Translation: AAS72879.1
Z98884 Genomic DNA No translation available.

The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

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CCDSi
CCDS72695.1 [P56645-2]
CCDS89.1 [P56645-1]

NCBI Reference Sequences

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RefSeqi
NP_001276790.1, NM_001289861.1
NP_001276791.1, NM_001289862.1 [P56645-2]
NP_001276792.1, NM_001289863.1
NP_001276793.1, NM_001289864.1
NP_058515.1, NM_016831.2 [P56645-1]

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENST00000361923; ENSP00000355031; ENSG00000049246 [P56645-1]
ENST00000377532; ENSP00000366755; ENSG00000049246 [P56645-2]
ENST00000613533; ENSP00000482093; ENSG00000049246 [P56645-2]

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

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GeneIDi
8863

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

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KEGGi
hsa:8863

UCSC genome browser

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UCSCi
uc001aop.5, human [P56645-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB047521 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB63250.1
AB047530 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB63251.1
AB047531 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB63252.1
AB047532 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB63253.1
AB047533 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB63254.1
AB047534 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB63255.1
AB047686 mRNA Translation: BAB32925.2 Different initiation.
AL157954 mRNA Translation: CAB76084.1
AY493418 mRNA Translation: AAS72879.1
Z98884 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CCDSiCCDS72695.1 [P56645-2]
CCDS89.1 [P56645-1]
RefSeqiNP_001276790.1, NM_001289861.1
NP_001276791.1, NM_001289862.1 [P56645-2]
NP_001276792.1, NM_001289863.1
NP_001276793.1, NM_001289864.1
NP_058515.1, NM_016831.2 [P56645-1]

3D structure databases

SMRiP56645
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGRIDi114386, 15 interactors
ComplexPortaliCPX-3223, Cry1-Per3 complex
CPX-3224, Cry2-Per3 complex
IntActiP56645, 10 interactors
MINTiP56645
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000482093

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP56645
PhosphoSitePlusiP56645

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiPER3
DMDMi317373535

Proteomic databases

EPDiP56645
jPOSTiP56645
MassIVEiP56645
MaxQBiP56645
PaxDbiP56645
PeptideAtlasiP56645
PRIDEiP56645
ProteomicsDBi56931 [P56645-1]
56932 [P56645-2]

Protocols and materials databases

Antibodypedia a portal for validated antibodies

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Antibodypediai
13182, 192 antibodies

The DNASU plasmid repository

More...
DNASUi
8863

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000361923; ENSP00000355031; ENSG00000049246 [P56645-1]
ENST00000377532; ENSP00000366755; ENSG00000049246 [P56645-2]
ENST00000613533; ENSP00000482093; ENSG00000049246 [P56645-2]
GeneIDi8863
KEGGihsa:8863
UCSCiuc001aop.5, human [P56645-1]

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
8863
DisGeNETi8863
EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000049246.14

GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases

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GeneCardsi
PER3
HGNCiHGNC:8847, PER3
HPAiENSG00000049246, Low tissue specificity
MalaCardsiPER3
MIMi603427, gene
616882, phenotype
neXtProtiNX_P56645
OpenTargetsiENSG00000049246
Orphaneti164736, Familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome
PharmGKBiPA33186

GenAtlas: human gene database

More...
GenAtlasi
Search...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3753, Eukaryota
GeneTreeiENSGT00940000160817
HOGENOMiCLU_006667_0_1_1
InParanoidiP56645
KOiK21945
OMAiHAQLPFW
OrthoDBi331262at2759
PhylomeDBiP56645
TreeFamiTF318445

Enzyme and pathway databases

PathwayCommonsiP56645
SIGNORiP56645

Miscellaneous databases

BioGRID ORCS database of CRISPR phenotype screens

More...
BioGRID-ORCSi
8863, 7 hits in 874 CRISPR screens

ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data

More...
ChiTaRSi
PER3, human

The Gene Wiki collection of pages on human genes and proteins

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GeneWikii
PER3

Database of phenotypes from RNA interference screens in Drosophila and Homo sapiens

More...
GenomeRNAii
8863
PharosiP56645, Tbio

Protein Ontology

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PROi
PR:P56645
RNActiP56645, protein

The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

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SOURCEi
Search...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000049246, Expressed in sural nerve and 236 other tissues
ExpressionAtlasiP56645, baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP56645, HS

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00130, PAS, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000014, PAS
IPR035965, PAS-like_dom_sf
IPR013655, PAS_fold_3
IPR015524, Per_circ_prot_3
IPR022728, Period_circadian-like_C
PANTHERiPTHR11269:SF13, PTHR11269:SF13, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF08447, PAS_3, 1 hit
PF12114, Period_C, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00091, PAS, 2 hits
SUPFAMiSSF55785, SSF55785, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS50112, PAS, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiPER3_HUMAN
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P56645
Secondary accession number(s): Q5H8X4
, Q5H8X5, Q969K6, Q96S77, Q96S78, Q9C0J3, Q9NSP9, Q9UGU8
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 15, 1999
Last sequence update: January 11, 2011
Last modified: August 12, 2020
This is version 177 of the entry and version 4 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. Human chromosome 1
    Human chromosome 1: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  4. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
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