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Entry version 155 (11 Dec 2019)
Sequence version 3 (22 Feb 2003)
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Protein

Amyloid-beta A4 protein

Gene

APP

Organism
Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating macaque) (Cynomolgus monkey)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Functions as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Interaction between APP molecules on neighboring cells promotes synaptogenesis. Involved in cell mobility and transcription regulation through protein-protein interactions (By similarity). Can promote transcription activation through binding to APBB1-KAT5 and inhibit Notch signaling through interaction with Numb (By similarity). Couples to apoptosis-inducing pathways such as those mediated by G(O) and JIP (By similarity). Inhibits G(o) alpha ATPase activity (By similarity). Acts as a kinesin I membrane receptor, mediating the axonal transport of beta-secretase and presenilin 1 (By similarity). By acting as a kinesin I membrane receptor, plays a role in axonal anterograde transport of cargo towards synapes in axons (By similarity). May be involved in copper homeostasis/oxidative stress through copper ion reduction (By similarity). In vitro, copper-metallated APP induces neuronal death directly or is potentiated through Cu2+-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation (By similarity). Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular matrix such as heparin and collagen I and IV. Induces a AGER-dependent pathway that involves activation of p38 MAPK, resulting in internalization of amyloid-beta peptide and mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured cortical neurons. Provides Cu2+ ions for GPC1 which are required for release of nitric oxide (NO) and subsequent degradation of the heparan sulfate chains on GPC1 (By similarity).By similarity
Amyloid-beta peptides are lipophilic metal chelators with metal-reducing activity. Binds transient metals such as copper, zinc and iron (By similarity).By similarity
The gamma-CTF peptides as well as the caspase-cleaved peptides, including C31, are potent enhancers of neuronal apoptosis.By similarity
N-APP binds TNFRSF21 triggering caspase activation and degeneration of both neuronal cell bodies (via caspase-3) and axons (via caspase-6).By similarity

Miscellaneous

Chelation of metal ions, notably copper, iron and zinc, can induce histidine-bridging between amyloid-beta molecules resulting in amyloid-beta-metal aggregates. Extracellular zinc-binding increases binding of heparin to APP and inhibits collagen-binding.By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the ‘Description’ field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi147Copper 1PROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Metal bindingi151Copper 1PROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Metal bindingi168Copper 1PROSITE-ProRule annotation1
<p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence that are not defined in any other subsection. This subsection can be displayed in different sections (‘Function’, ‘PTM / Processing’, ‘Pathology and Biotech’) according to its content.<p><a href='/help/site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sitei170Required for Cu(2+) reductionPROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Sitei301 – 302Reactive bondBy similarity2
Metal bindingi677Copper or zinc 2By similarity1
Metal bindingi681Copper or zinc 2By similarity1
Metal bindingi684Copper or zinc 2By similarity1
Metal bindingi685Copper or zinc 2By similarity1
Sitei704Implicated in free radical propagationBy similarity1
Sitei706Susceptible to oxidationBy similarity1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionHeparin-binding, Protease inhibitor, Serine protease inhibitor
Biological processApoptosis, Cell adhesion, Endocytosis, Notch signaling pathway
LigandCopper, Iron, Metal-binding, Zinc

Protein family/group databases

MEROPS protease database

More...
MEROPSi
I02.015

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Amyloid-beta A4 protein
Alternative name(s):
ABPP
Short name:
APP
Alzheimer disease amyloid A4 protein homolog
Amyloid precursor proteinCurated
Amyloid-beta precursor proteinCurated
Cleaved into the following 14 chains:
Soluble APP-alpha
Short name:
S-APP-alpha
Soluble APP-beta
Short name:
S-APP-beta
Alternative name(s):
Beta-secretase C-terminal fragment
Short name:
Beta-CTF
Amyloid-beta protein 42
Short name:
Abeta42
Alternative name(s):
Beta-APP42
Amyloid-beta protein 40
Short name:
Abeta40
Alternative name(s):
Beta-APP40
Alternative name(s):
Alpha-secretase C-terminal fragment
Short name:
Alpha-CTF
Alternative name(s):
Gamma-CTF(59)
Alternative name(s):
Gamma-CTF(57)
Alternative name(s):
Gamma-CTF(50)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:APP
ORF Names:QccE-15949
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiMacaca fascicularis (Crab-eating macaque) (Cynomolgus monkey)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9541 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniCercopithecidaeCercopithecinaeMacaca
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000233100 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 3

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular_location_section">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the subcellular compartment where each non-membrane region of a membrane-spanning protein is found.<p><a href='/help/topo_dom' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Topological domaini18 – 701ExtracellularCuratedAdd BLAST684
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular_location_section">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the extent of a membrane-spanning region of the protein. It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel transmembrane proteins.<p><a href='/help/transmem' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Transmembranei702 – 722HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini723 – 770CytoplasmicCuratedAdd BLAST48

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Amyloid, Cell membrane, Cell projection, Coated pit, Cytoplasm, Cytoplasmic vesicle, Endosome, Membrane, Nucleus, Secreted

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 17By similarityAdd BLAST17
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_000000010118 – 770Amyloid-beta A4 proteinAdd BLAST753
ChainiPRO_000000010218 – 687Soluble APP-alphaSequence analysisAdd BLAST670
ChainiPRO_000000010318 – 671Soluble APP-betaSequence analysisAdd BLAST654
ChainiPRO_000038196718 – 286N-APPBy similarityAdd BLAST269
ChainiPRO_0000000104672 – 770C99Sequence analysisAdd BLAST99
ChainiPRO_0000000105672 – 713Amyloid-beta protein 42Sequence analysisAdd BLAST42
ChainiPRO_0000000106672 – 711Amyloid-beta protein 40Sequence analysisAdd BLAST40
ChainiPRO_0000000107688 – 770C83Sequence analysisAdd BLAST83
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the position and length of an active peptide in the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/peptide' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PeptideiPRO_0000000108688 – 713P3(42)Sequence analysisAdd BLAST26
PeptideiPRO_0000000109688 – 711P3(40)Sequence analysisAdd BLAST24
ChainiPRO_0000384575691 – 770C80Add BLAST80
ChainiPRO_0000000110712 – 770Gamma-secretase C-terminal fragment 59Sequence analysisAdd BLAST59
ChainiPRO_0000000111714 – 770Gamma-secretase C-terminal fragment 57Sequence analysisAdd BLAST57
ChainiPRO_0000000112721 – 770Gamma-secretase C-terminal fragment 50Sequence analysisAdd BLAST50
ChainiPRO_0000000113740 – 770C31Sequence analysisAdd BLAST31

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi38 ↔ 62PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Disulfide bondi73 ↔ 117PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Disulfide bondi98 ↔ 105PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Disulfide bondi133 ↔ 187PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Disulfide bondi144 ↔ 174PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Disulfide bondi158 ↔ 186PROSITE-ProRule annotation
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei198Phosphoserine; by CK2By similarity1
Modified residuei206Phosphoserine; by CK1By similarity1
Modified residuei217SulfotyrosineSequence analysis1
Modified residuei262SulfotyrosineSequence analysis1
Disulfide bondi291 ↔ 341PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Disulfide bondi300 ↔ 324PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Disulfide bondi316 ↔ 337PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Modified residuei336SulfotyrosineSequence analysis1
Modified residuei441PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei497PhosphotyrosineBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section specifies the position and type of each covalently attached glycan group (mono-, di-, or polysaccharide).<p><a href='/help/carbohyd' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Glycosylationi542N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineCurated1
Glycosylationi571N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineCurated1
Modified residuei729PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei730Phosphoserine; by APP-kinase IBy similarity1
Modified residuei743Phosphothreonine; by CDK5 and MAPK10By similarity1
Modified residuei757Phosphotyrosine; by ABL1By similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section describes <strong>covalent linkages</strong> of various types formed <strong>between two proteins (interchain cross-links)</strong> or <strong>between two parts of the same protein (intrachain cross-links)</strong>, except the disulfide bonds that are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/disulfid">'Disulfide bond'</a> subsection.<p><a href='/help/crosslnk' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-linki763Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ubiquitin)By similarity

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

Proteolytically processed under normal cellular conditions. Cleavage either by alpha-secretase, beta-secretase or theta-secretase leads to generation and extracellular release of soluble APP peptides, S-APP-alpha and S-APP-beta, and the retention of corresponding membrane-anchored C-terminal fragments, C80, C83 and C99. Subsequent processing of C80 and C83 by gamma-secretase yields P3 peptides. This is the major secretory pathway and is non-amyloidogenic. Alternatively, presenilin/nicastrin-mediated gamma-secretase processing of C99 releases the amyloid-beta proteins, amyloid-beta protein 40 and amyloid-beta protein 42, major components of amyloid plaques, and the cytotoxic C-terminal fragments, gamma-CTF(50), gamma-CTF(57) and gamma-CTF(59). PSEN1 cleavage is more efficient with C83 than with C99 as substrate (in vitro).By similarity
Proteolytically cleaved by caspases during neuronal apoptosis. Cleavage at Asp-739 by either caspase-3, -8 or -9 results in the production of the neurotoxic C31 peptide and the increased production of amyloid-beta peptides.By similarity
N- and O-glycosylated.By similarity
Phosphorylation in the C-terminal on tyrosine, threonine and serine residues is neuron-specific. Phosphorylation can affect APP processing, neuronal differentiation and interaction with other proteins. Phosphorylated on Thr-743 in neuronal cells by Cdc5 kinase and Mapk10, in dividing cells by Cdc2 kinase in a cell-cycle dependent manner with maximal levels at the G2/M phase and, in vitro, by GSK-3-beta. The Thr-743 phosphorylated form causes a conformational change which reduces binding of Fe65 family members. In dopaminergic (DA) neurons, phosphorylation on Thr-743 by LRKK2 promotes the production and the nuclear translocation of the APP intracellular domain (AICD) which induces DA neuron apoptosis. Phosphorylation on Tyr-757 is required for SHC binding. Phosphorylated in the extracellular domain by casein kinases on both soluble and membrane-bound APP. This phosphorylation is inhibited by heparin.By similarity
Trophic-factor deprivation triggers the cleavage of surface APP by beta-secretase to release sAPP-beta which is further cleaved to release an N-terminal fragment of APP (N-APP).By similarity
Amyloid-beta peptides are degraded by IDE.By similarity
Sulfated on tyrosine residues.By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sitei197 – 198Cleavage; by caspasesBy similarity2
Sitei219 – 220Cleavage; by caspasesBy similarity2
Sitei671 – 672Cleavage; by beta-secretaseBy similarity2
Sitei687 – 688Cleavage; by alpha-secretaseBy similarity2
Sitei690 – 691Cleavage; by theta-secretaseBy similarity2
Sitei711 – 712Cleavage; by gamma-secretase; site 1By similarity2
Sitei713 – 714Cleavage; by gamma-secretase; site 2By similarity2
Sitei720 – 721Cleavage; by gamma-secretase; site 3By similarity2
Sitei739 – 740Cleavage; by a caspaseBy similarity2

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, Isopeptide bond, Phosphoprotein, Proteoglycan, Sulfation, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P53601

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Binds, via its C-terminus, to the PID domain of several cytoplasmic proteins, including APBB family members, the APBA family, MAPK8IP1, SHC1 and NUMB and DAB1 (By similarity). Binding to DAB1 inhibits its serine phosphorylation (By similarity).

Interacts (via NPXY motif) with DAB2 (via PID domain); the interaction is impaired by tyrosine phosphorylation of the NPXY motif.

Also interacts with GPCR-like protein BPP, APPBP1, IB1, KNS2 (via its TPR domains), APPBP2 (via BaSS) and DDB1. In vitro, it binds MAPT via the MT-binding domains (By similarity). Associates with microtubules in the presence of ATP and in a kinesin-dependent manner (By similarity).

Interacts, through a C-terminal domain, with GNAO1. Amyloid-beta protein 42 binds CHRNA7 in hippocampal neurons (By similarity). Amyloid-beta associates with HADH2 (By similarity).

Interacts with CPEB1, ANKS1B, TNFRSF21 and AGER (By similarity).

Interacts with ITM2B.

Interacts with ITM2C.

Interacts with IDE. Can form homodimers; dimerization is enhanced in the presence of Cu2+ ions. Can form homodimers; this is promoted by heparin binding (By similarity). Amyloid-beta protein 40 interacts with S100A9 (By similarity). CTF-alpha product of APP interacts with GSAP (By similarity). Isoform APP695 interacts with SORL1 (via N-terminal ectodomain); this interaction retains APP in the trans-Golgi network and reduces processing into soluble APP-alpha and amyloid-beta peptides (By similarity). Isoform APP770 interacts with SORL1 (By similarity). The C99 fragment also interacts with SORL1 (By similarity).

Interacts with PLD3 (By similarity).

Interacts with VDAC1 (By similarity).

Interacts with NSG1; could regulate APP processing (By similarity). Amyloid-beta protein 42 interacts with FPR2 (By similarity).

Interacts (via transmembrane region) with PSEN1; the interaction is direct (By similarity).

Interacts with LRRK2 (By similarity).

Interacts (via cytoplasmic domain) with KIF5B (By similarity).

By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
9541.XP_005548940.1

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
P53601

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/family_and_domains_section">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini28 – 189E1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST162
Domaini291 – 341BPTI/Kunitz inhibitorPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST51
Domaini374 – 565E2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST192

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni28 – 123GFLD subdomainPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST96
Regioni96 – 110Heparin-bindingBy similarityAdd BLAST15
Regioni131 – 189CuBD subdomainPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST59
Regioni181 – 188Zinc-bindingBy similarity8
Regioni391 – 423Heparin-bindingBy similarityAdd BLAST33
Regioni491 – 522Heparin-bindingBy similarityAdd BLAST32
Regioni523 – 540Collagen-bindingBy similarityAdd BLAST18
Regioni695 – 722Interaction with PSEN1By similarityAdd BLAST28
Regioni732 – 751Interaction with G(o)-alphaBy similarityAdd BLAST20
Regioni756 – 770Required for the interaction with KIF5B and for anterograde transport in axonsBy similarityAdd BLAST15

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a short (usually not more than 20 amino acids) conserved sequence motif of biological significance.<p><a href='/help/motif' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Motifi344 – 365OX-2By similarityAdd BLAST22
Motifi724 – 734Basolateral sorting signalBy similarityAdd BLAST11
Motifi757 – 762YENPXY motif; contains endocytosis signalBy similarity6

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes the position of regions of compositional bias within the protein and the particular amino acids that are over-represented within those regions.<p><a href='/help/compbias' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Compositional biasi230 – 260Asp/Glu-rich (acidic)Add BLAST31
Compositional biasi274 – 280Poly-Thr7

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides general information on the biological role of a domain. The term ‘domain’ is intended here in its wide acceptation, it may be a structural domain, a transmembrane region or a functional domain. Several domains are described in this subsection.<p><a href='/help/domain_cc' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini

The transmembrane helix undergoes a conformation change and unravels partially when bound to PSEN1, facilitating cleavage by PSEN1.By similarity
The basolateral sorting signal (BaSS) is required for sorting of membrane proteins to the basolateral surface of epithelial cells.By similarity
The GFLD subdomain binds Cu2+ ions; this promotes homodimerization.By similarity
The NPXY sequence motif found in many tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins is required for the specific binding of the PID domain. However, additional amino acids either N- or C-terminal to the NPXY motif are often required for complete interaction. The PID domain-containing proteins which bind APP require the YENPTY motif for full interaction. These interactions are independent of phosphorylation on the terminal tyrosine residue. The YENPXY site is also involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.By similarity
The C-terminal region can bind zinc ions; this favors dimerization and formation of higher oligomers.By similarity
The OX-2 motif shows some similarity to a region in the N-terminus of CD200/MOX2.By similarity

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the APP family.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Signal, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

Ensembl GeneTree

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GeneTreei
ENSGT00530000063252

KEGG Orthology (KO)

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KOi
K04520

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

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OMAi
EGRCVQF

Database of Orthologous Groups

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OrthoDBi
953529at2759

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

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CDDi
cd00109 KU, 1 hit

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

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Gene3Di
1.20.120.770, 1 hit
2.30.29.30, 1 hit
3.30.1490.140, 1 hit
3.90.570.10, 1 hit
4.10.230.10, 1 hit
4.10.410.10, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

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InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR036669 Amyloid_Cu-bd_sf
IPR008155 Amyloid_glyco
IPR013803 Amyloid_glyco_Abeta
IPR037071 Amyloid_glyco_Abeta_sf
IPR011178 Amyloid_glyco_Cu-bd
IPR024329 Amyloid_glyco_E2_domain
IPR008154 Amyloid_glyco_extra
IPR015849 Amyloid_glyco_heparin-bd
IPR036454 Amyloid_glyco_heparin-bd_sf
IPR019745 Amyloid_glyco_intracell_CS
IPR028866 APP
IPR019543 APP_amyloid_C
IPR019744 APP_CUBD_CS
IPR036176 E2_sf
IPR002223 Kunitz_BPTI
IPR036880 Kunitz_BPTI_sf
IPR011993 PH-like_dom_sf
IPR020901 Prtase_inh_Kunz-CS

The PANTHER Classification System

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PANTHERi
PTHR23103 PTHR23103, 1 hit
PTHR23103:SF7 PTHR23103:SF7, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

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Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF10515 APP_amyloid, 1 hit
PF12924 APP_Cu_bd, 1 hit
PF12925 APP_E2, 1 hit
PF02177 APP_N, 1 hit
PF03494 Beta-APP, 1 hit
PF00014 Kunitz_BPTI, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

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PRINTSi
PR00203 AMYLOIDA4
PR00759 BASICPTASE
PR00204 BETAAMYLOID

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

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SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00006 A4_EXTRA, 1 hit
SM00131 KU, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

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SUPFAMi
SSF109843 SSF109843, 1 hit
SSF56491 SSF56491, 1 hit
SSF57362 SSF57362, 1 hit
SSF89811 SSF89811, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

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PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00319 APP_CUBD, 1 hit
PS51869 APP_E1, 1 hit
PS51870 APP_E2, 1 hit
PS00320 APP_INTRA, 1 hit
PS00280 BPTI_KUNITZ_1, 1 hit
PS50279 BPTI_KUNITZ_2, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (3+)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 3 <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket
Note: Additional isoforms seem to exist.

This entry has 3 described isoforms and 8 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Isoform APP770 (identifier: P53601-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the <div> <p><b>What is the canonical sequence?</b><p><a href='/help/canonical_and_isoforms' target='_top'>More...</a></p>canonicali sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MLPGLALLLL AAWTARALEV PTDGNAGLLA EPQIAMFCGR LNMHMNVQNG
60 70 80 90 100
KWDSDPSGTK TCIDTKEGIL QYCQEVYPEL QITNVVEANQ PVTIQNWCKR
110 120 130 140 150
GRKQCKTHPH FVIPYRCLVG EFVSDALLVP DKCKFLHQER MDVCETHLHW
160 170 180 190 200
HTVAKETCSE KSTNLHDYGM LLPCGIDKFR GVEFVCCPLA EESDNVDSAD
210 220 230 240 250
AEEDDSDVWW GGADTDYADG SEDKVVEVAE EEEVAEVEEE EADDDEDDED
260 270 280 290 300
GDEVEEEAEE PYEEATERTT SIATTTTTTT ESVEEVVREV CSEQAETGPC
310 320 330 340 350
RAMISRWYFD VTEGKCAPFF YGGCGGNRNN FDTEEYCMAV CGSVMSQSLR
360 370 380 390 400
KTTREPLTRD PVKLPTTAAS TPDAVDKYLE TPGDENEHAH FQKAKERLEA
410 420 430 440 450
KHRERMSQVM REWEEAERQA KNLPKADKKA VIQHFQEKVE SLEQEAANER
460 470 480 490 500
QQLVETHMAR VEAMLNDRRR LALENYITAL QAVPPRPRHV FNMLKKYVRA
510 520 530 540 550
EQKDRQHTLK HFEHVRMVDP KKAAQIRSQV MTHLRVIYER MNQSLSLLYN
560 570 580 590 600
VPAVAEEIQD EVDELLQKEQ NYSDDVLANM ISEPRISYGN DALMPSLTET
610 620 630 640 650
KTTVELLPVN GEFSLDDLQP WHSFGADSVP ANTENEVEPV DARPAADRGL
660 670 680 690 700
TTRPGSGLTN IKTEEISEVK MDAEFRHDSG YEVHHQKLVF FAEDVGSNKG
710 720 730 740 750
AIIGLMVGGV VIATVIVITL VMLKKKQYTS IHHGVVEVDA AVTPEERHLS
760 770
KMQQNGYENP TYKFFEQMQN
Length:770
Mass (Da):87,072
Last modified:February 22, 2003 - v3
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i55712A39152690F6
GO
Isoform APP695 (identifier: P53601-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     289-289: E → V
     290-345: Missing.

Show »
Length:714
Mass (Da):80,870
Checksum:i4FD426561C526164
GO
Isoform 3 (identifier: P53601-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     345-345: M → I
     346-364: Missing.

Show »
Length:751
Mass (Da):84,847
Checksum:i2E6ABD8B06430829
GO

<p>In eukaryotic reference proteomes, unreviewed entries that are likely to belong to the same gene are computationally mapped, based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.<p><a href='/help/gene_centric_isoform_mapping' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 8 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
A0A2K5U698A0A2K5U698_MACFA
Amyloid-beta A4 protein
APP
752Annotation score:

Annotation score:2 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
A0A2K5U6L4A0A2K5U6L4_MACFA
Amyloid-beta A4 protein
APP
714Annotation score:

Annotation score:2 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
A0A2K5U6Q9A0A2K5U6Q9_MACFA
Amyloid-beta A4 protein
APP
768Annotation score:

Annotation score:2 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
A0A2K5U6B3A0A2K5U6B3_MACFA
Amyloid-beta A4 protein
APP
695Annotation score:

Annotation score:2 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
A0A2K5U6L3A0A2K5U6L3_MACFA
Amyloid-beta A4 protein
APP
746Annotation score:

Annotation score:2 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
A0A2K5U6P1A0A2K5U6P1_MACFA
Amyloid-beta A4 protein
APP
760Annotation score:

Annotation score:2 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
A0A2K5U6R3A0A2K5U6R3_MACFA
Amyloid-beta A4 protein
APP
717Annotation score:

Annotation score:2 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
A0A2K5U6T0A0A2K5U6T0_MACFA
Amyloid-beta A4 protein
APP
770Annotation score:

Annotation score:2 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti464M → T in BAD51938 (Ref. 2) Curated1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_000010289E → V in isoform APP695. 1 Publication1
Alternative sequenceiVSP_000011290 – 345Missing in isoform APP695. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST56
Alternative sequenceiVSP_013360345M → I in isoform 3. 1 Publication1
Alternative sequenceiVSP_013361346 – 364Missing in isoform 3. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST19

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

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EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
M58726 mRNA Translation: AAA36828.1
M58727 mRNA Translation: AAA36829.1
AB125150 mRNA Translation: BAD51938.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

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PIRi
A49795

NCBI Reference Sequences

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RefSeqi
XP_005548940.1, XM_005548883.2 [P53601-1]
XP_005548942.1, XM_005548885.2 [P53601-3]
XP_005548944.1, XM_005548887.2

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENSMFAT00000026579; ENSMFAP00000007885; ENSMFAG00000002479 [P53601-1]
ENSMFAT00000026583; ENSMFAP00000007889; ENSMFAG00000002479 [P53601-3]

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

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GeneIDi
101926433

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

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KEGGi
mcf:101926433

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M58726 mRNA Translation: AAA36828.1
M58727 mRNA Translation: AAA36829.1
AB125150 mRNA Translation: BAD51938.1
PIRiA49795
RefSeqiXP_005548940.1, XM_005548883.2 [P53601-1]
XP_005548942.1, XM_005548885.2 [P53601-3]
XP_005548944.1, XM_005548887.2

3D structure databases

SMRiP53601
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9541.XP_005548940.1

Protein family/group databases

MEROPSiI02.015

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP53601

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMFAT00000026579; ENSMFAP00000007885; ENSMFAG00000002479 [P53601-1]
ENSMFAT00000026583; ENSMFAP00000007889; ENSMFAG00000002479 [P53601-3]
GeneIDi101926433
KEGGimcf:101926433

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
351

Phylogenomic databases

GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063252
KOiK04520
OMAiEGRCVQF
OrthoDBi953529at2759

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00109 KU, 1 hit
Gene3Di1.20.120.770, 1 hit
2.30.29.30, 1 hit
3.30.1490.140, 1 hit
3.90.570.10, 1 hit
4.10.230.10, 1 hit
4.10.410.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR036669 Amyloid_Cu-bd_sf
IPR008155 Amyloid_glyco
IPR013803 Amyloid_glyco_Abeta
IPR037071 Amyloid_glyco_Abeta_sf
IPR011178 Amyloid_glyco_Cu-bd
IPR024329 Amyloid_glyco_E2_domain
IPR008154 Amyloid_glyco_extra
IPR015849 Amyloid_glyco_heparin-bd
IPR036454 Amyloid_glyco_heparin-bd_sf
IPR019745 Amyloid_glyco_intracell_CS
IPR028866 APP
IPR019543 APP_amyloid_C
IPR019744 APP_CUBD_CS
IPR036176 E2_sf
IPR002223 Kunitz_BPTI
IPR036880 Kunitz_BPTI_sf
IPR011993 PH-like_dom_sf
IPR020901 Prtase_inh_Kunz-CS
PANTHERiPTHR23103 PTHR23103, 1 hit
PTHR23103:SF7 PTHR23103:SF7, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF10515 APP_amyloid, 1 hit
PF12924 APP_Cu_bd, 1 hit
PF12925 APP_E2, 1 hit
PF02177 APP_N, 1 hit
PF03494 Beta-APP, 1 hit
PF00014 Kunitz_BPTI, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00203 AMYLOIDA4
PR00759 BASICPTASE
PR00204 BETAAMYLOID
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00006 A4_EXTRA, 1 hit
SM00131 KU, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF109843 SSF109843, 1 hit
SSF56491 SSF56491, 1 hit
SSF57362 SSF57362, 1 hit
SSF89811 SSF89811, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00319 APP_CUBD, 1 hit
PS51869 APP_E1, 1 hit
PS51870 APP_E2, 1 hit
PS00320 APP_INTRA, 1 hit
PS00280 BPTI_KUNITZ_1, 1 hit
PS50279 BPTI_KUNITZ_2, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

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ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiA4_MACFA
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P53601
Secondary accession number(s): Q60HH7, Q95KN7
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1996
Last sequence update: February 22, 2003
Last modified: December 11, 2019
This is version 155 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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