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Entry version 201 (02 Jun 2021)
Sequence version 3 (10 May 2002)
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Protein

Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2

Gene

AKR1C2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Cytosolic aldo-keto reductase that catalyzes the NADH and NADPH-dependent reduction of ketosteroids to hydroxysteroids (PubMed:19218247).

Most probably acts as a reductase in vivo since the oxidase activity measured in vitro is inhibited by physiological concentrations of NADPH (PubMed:14672942).

Displays a broad positional specificity acting on positions 3, 17 and 20 of steroids and regulates the metabolism of hormones like estrogens and androgens (PubMed:10998348).

Works in concert with the 5-alpha/5-beta-steroid reductases to convert steroid hormones into the 3-alpha/5-alpha and 3-alpha/5-beta-tetrahydrosteroids. Catalyzes the inactivation of the most potent androgen 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5-alpha-DHT) to 5-alpha-androstane-3-alpha,17-beta-diol (3-alpha-diol) (PubMed:15929998, PubMed:17034817, PubMed:17442338, PubMed:8573067).

Also specifically able to produce 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one/5alphaDHT (PubMed:10998348).

May also reduce conjugated steroids such as 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone sulfate (PubMed:19218247).

Displays affinity for bile acids (PubMed:8486699).

8 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Inhibited by hexestrol with an IC50 of 2.8 µM, 1,10-phenanthroline with an IC50 of 2100 µM, 1,7-phenanthroline with an IC50 of 1500 µM, flufenamic acid with an IC50 of 0.9 µM, indomethacin with an IC50 of 75 µM, ibuprofen with an IC50 of 6.9 µM, lithocholic acid with an IC50 of 0.07 µM, ursodeoxycholic acid with an IC50 of 0.08 µM and chenodeoxycholic acid with an IC50 of 0.13 µM (PubMed:8573067). The oxidation reaction is inhibited by low micromolar concentrations of NADPH (PubMed:14672942).2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

kcat is 0.66 min-1 for the reduction of 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one (PubMed:10998348). kcat is 1.98 min-1 for the reduction of 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one (PubMed:19218247). kcat is 1.39 min-1 for the reduction of 5alpha-androstan-3,17-dione (PubMed:10998348). kcat is 0.42 min-1 for the oxidation of 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one/androsterone (PubMed:10998348). kcat is 0.24 min-1 for the oxidation of 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (PubMed:10998348). kcat is 1.0 min-1 for the reduction of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone sulfate (PubMed:19218247).2 Publications
  1. KM=260 µM for (s)-tetralol1 Publication
  2. KM=520 µM for (s)-indan-1-ol1 Publication
  3. KM=5000 µM for benzene dihydrodiol1 Publication
  4. KM=1 µM for 5-beta-pregnane-3-alpha,20-alpha-diol1 Publication
  5. KM=208 µM for 9-alpha,11-beta-prostaglandin F21 Publication
  6. KM=0.3 µM for 5-beta-androstane-3,17-dione1 Publication
  7. KM=79 µM for prostaglandin D21 Publication
  8. KM=26 µM for 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one (in the reduction assay)1 Publication
  9. KM=2.9 µM for 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one (in the reduction assay)1 Publication
  10. KM=6.26 µM for 5alpha-androstan-3,17-dione (in the reduction assay)1 Publication
  11. KM=9.73 µM for 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one/androsterone (in the oxidation assay)1 Publication
  12. KM=22.0 µM for 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (in the oxidation assay)1 Publication
  13. KM=4.2 µM for 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone sulfate (in the reduction assay)1 Publication
  1. Vmax=6.24 nmol/min/mg enzyme for the reduction of 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one1 Publication
  2. Vmax=37.8 nmol/min/mg enzyme for the reduction of 5alpha-androstan-3,17-dione1 Publication
  3. Vmax=11.3 nmol/min/mg enzyme for the oxidation of 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one/androsterone1 Publication
  4. Vmax=6.58 nmol/min/mg enzyme for the oxidation of 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: Steroid metabolism

This protein is involved in Steroid metabolism.1 Publication
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in Steroid metabolism.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei24SubstrateBy similarity1
Binding sitei50NADP5 Publications1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei55Proton donor1
<p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence that are not defined in any other subsection. This subsection can be displayed in different sections ('Function', 'PTM / Processing', 'Pathology and Biotech') according to its content.<p><a href='/help/site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sitei84Lowers pKa of active site TyrBy similarity1
Binding sitei117Substrate1
Binding sitei190NADP5 Publications1
Binding sitei222SubstrateBy similarity1
Binding sitei227Substrate1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi20 – 24NADP5 Publications5
Nucleotide bindingi166 – 167NADP5 Publications2
Nucleotide bindingi216 – 222NADP5 Publications7
Nucleotide bindingi270 – 280NADP5 PublicationsAdd BLAST11

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionOxidoreductase
Biological processLipid metabolism, Steroid metabolism
LigandNADP

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

More...
BioCyci
MetaCyc:HS07754-MONOMER

BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

More...
BRENDAi
1.1.1.213, 2681
1.1.1.357, 2681
1.1.1.50, 2681
1.3.1.20, 2681

Pathway Commons web resource for biological pathway data

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PathwayCommonsi
P52895

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-HSA-193368, Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol
R-HSA-193775, Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 24-hydroxycholesterol
R-HSA-193807, Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 27-hydroxycholesterol

SABIO-RK: Biochemical Reaction Kinetics Database

More...
SABIO-RKi
P52895

SignaLink: a signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks

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SignaLinki
P52895

SIGNOR Signaling Network Open Resource

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SIGNORi
P52895

Chemistry databases

SwissLipids knowledge resource for lipid biology

More...
SwissLipidsi
SLP:000000803

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2Curated (EC:1.-.-.-7 Publications, EC:1.1.1.1121 Publication, EC:1.1.1.2091 Publication, EC:1.1.1.532 Publications, EC:1.1.1.621 Publication, EC:1.3.1.201 Publication)
Alternative name(s):
3-alpha-HSD3
Chlordecone reductase homolog HAKRD
Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 21 Publication
Short name:
DD-21 Publication
Short name:
DD21 Publication
Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase/bile acid-binding protein
Short name:
DD/BABP
Type III 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC:1.1.1.3574 Publications)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:AKR1C2
Synonyms:DDH2
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 10

Organism-specific databases

Human Gene Nomenclature Database

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HGNCi
HGNC:385, AKR1C2

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

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MIMi
600450, gene

neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

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neXtProti
NX_P52895

Eukaryotic Pathogen, Vector and Host Database Resources

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VEuPathDBi
HostDB:ENSG00000151632.16

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section provides information on the disease(s) associated with genetic variations in a given protein. The information is extracted from the scientific literature and diseases that are also described in the <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=omim">OMIM</a> database are represented with a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/diseases">controlled vocabulary</a> in the following way:<p><a href='/help/involvement_in_disease' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Involvement in diseasei

46,XY sex reversal 8 (SRXY8)1 Publication
The disease is caused by variants affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA disorder of sex development. Affected individuals have a 46,XY karyotype but present as phenotypically normal females.
Related information in OMIM
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural variantiVAR_06663279I → V in SRXY8; partially impaired activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs387906750EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_06663390H → Q in SRXY8; partially impaired activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs797044460EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_066634222H → Q in SRXY8; partially impaired activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs13222EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_066635300N → T in SRXY8; partially impaired activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs387906751EnsemblClinVar.1

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology%5Fand%5Fbiotech%5Fsection">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi24Y → A: Strongly decreases affinity for androstenedione. Decreases androstenedione reductase activity about 60-fold. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi31K → A or M: Increases the low androstenedione reductase activity. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi301R → A: Decreases 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid reductase activity about 50-fold. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi304R → A: Decreases 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid reductase activity about 500-fold. 1 Publication1

Keywords - Diseasei

Disease variant

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNET

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DisGeNETi
1646

MalaCards human disease database

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MalaCardsi
AKR1C2
MIMi614279, phenotype

Open Targets

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OpenTargetsi
ENSG00000151632

Orphanet; a database dedicated to information on rare diseases and orphan drugs

More...
Orphaneti
443087, 46,XY disorder of sex development due to testicular 17,20-desmolase deficiency

The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base

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PharmGKBi
PA24678

Miscellaneous databases

Pharos NIH Druggable Genome Knowledgebase

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Pharosi
P52895, Tchem

Chemistry databases

ChEMBL database of bioactive drug-like small molecules

More...
ChEMBLi
CHEMBL5847

Drug and drug target database

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DrugBanki
DB06777, Chenodeoxycholic acid
DB07768, Epitestosterone
DB01039, Fenofibrate
DB13751, Glycyrrhizic acid
DB06077, Lumateperone
DB00959, Methylprednisolone
DB00461, Nabumetone
DB00157, NADH
DB03461, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
DB00776, Oxcarbazepine
DB12612, Ozanimod
DB01586, Ursodeoxycholic acid

DrugCentral

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DrugCentrali
P52895

Genetic variation databases

BioMuta curated single-nucleotide variation and disease association database

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BioMutai
AKR1C2

Domain mapping of disease mutations (DMDM)

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DMDMi
20532374

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001246371 – 323Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2Add BLAST323

Proteomic databases

Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics

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EPDi
P52895

jPOST - Japan Proteome Standard Repository/Database

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jPOSTi
P52895

MassIVE - Mass Spectrometry Interactive Virtual Environment

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MassIVEi
P52895

MaxQB - The MaxQuant DataBase

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MaxQBi
P52895

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

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PaxDbi
P52895

PeptideAtlas

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PeptideAtlasi
P52895

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

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PRIDEi
P52895

ProteomicsDB: a multi-organism proteome resource

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ProteomicsDBi
56548 [P52895-1]
56549 [P52895-2]

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

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iPTMneti
P52895

Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

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PhosphoSitePlusi
P52895

SwissPalm database of S-palmitoylation events

More...
SwissPalmi
P52895

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified 'at protein level'.<br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Expressed in fetal testes. Expressed in fetal and adult adrenal glands.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSG00000151632, Expressed in islet of Langerhans and 116 other tissues

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

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ExpressionAtlasi
P52895, baseline and differential

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

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Genevisiblei
P52895, HS

Organism-specific databases

Human Protein Atlas

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HPAi
ENSG00000151632, Tissue enhanced (breast, liver, tongue)

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

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BioGRIDi
108013, 19 interactors

Protein interaction database and analysis system

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IntActi
P52895, 6 interactors

STRING: functional protein association networks

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STRINGi
9606.ENSP00000370129

Chemistry databases

BindingDB database of measured binding affinities

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BindingDBi
P52895

Miscellaneous databases

RNAct, Protein-RNA interaction predictions for model organisms.

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RNActi
P52895, protein

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1323
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
P52895

Database of comparative protein structure models

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ModBasei
Search...

Protein Data Bank in Europe - Knowledge Base

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PDBe-KBi
Search...

Miscellaneous databases

Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

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EvolutionaryTracei
P52895

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the aldo/keto reductase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

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eggNOGi
KOG1577, Eukaryota

Ensembl GeneTree

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GeneTreei
ENSGT00940000167640

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

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HOGENOMi
CLU_023205_19_2_1

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

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InParanoidi
P52895

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

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OMAi
HEFETHP

Database of Orthologous Groups

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OrthoDBi
1016440at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

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PhylomeDBi
P52895

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

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TreeFami
TF106492

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

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CDDi
cd19108, AKR_AKR1C1-35, 1 hit

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

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Gene3Di
3.20.20.100, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

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InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR020471, AKR
IPR044482, AKR1C
IPR018170, Aldo/ket_reductase_CS
IPR023210, NADP_OxRdtase_dom
IPR036812, NADP_OxRdtase_dom_sf

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00248, Aldo_ket_red, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

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PIRSFi
PIRSF000097, AKR, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

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PRINTSi
PR00069, ALDKETRDTASE

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

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SUPFAMi
SSF51430, SSF51430, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

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PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00062, ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_2, 1 hit
PS00063, ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_3, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (2+)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 <p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

This entry has 2 described isoforms and 2 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Isoform 1 (identifier: P52895-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the <div> <p><b>What is the canonical sequence?</b><p><a href='/help/canonical_and_isoforms' target='_top'>More...</a></p>canonicali sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MDSKYQCVKL NDGHFMPVLG FGTYAPAEVP KSKALEAVKL AIEAGFHHID
60 70 80 90 100
SAHVYNNEEQ VGLAIRSKIA DGSVKREDIF YTSKLWSNSH RPELVRPALE
110 120 130 140 150
RSLKNLQLDY VDLYLIHFPV SVKPGEEVIP KDENGKILFD TVDLCATWEA
160 170 180 190 200
MEKCKDAGLA KSIGVSNFNH RLLEMILNKP GLKYKPVCNQ VECHPYFNQR
210 220 230 240 250
KLLDFCKSKD IVLVAYSALG SHREEPWVDP NSPVLLEDPV LCALAKKHKR
260 270 280 290 300
TPALIALRYQ LQRGVVVLAK SYNEQRIRQN VQVFEFQLTS EEMKAIDGLN
310 320
RNVRYLTLDI FAGPPNYPFS DEY
Length:323
Mass (Da):36,735
Last modified:May 10, 2002 - v3
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i0D7B6F983FCE85E1
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: P52895-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     124-139: PGEEVIPKDENGKILF → EDIGILTWKKSPKHNS
     140-323: Missing.

Show »
Length:139
Mass (Da):15,748
Checksum:i11CAE1B299B378AC
GO

<p>In eukaryotic reference proteomes, unreviewed entries that are likely to belong to the same gene are computationally mapped, based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.<p><a href='/help/gene_centric_isoform_mapping' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 2 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
B4DK69B4DK69_HUMAN
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member...
AKR1C2
297Annotation score:

Annotation score:3 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
S4R3P0S4R3P0_HUMAN
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member...
AKR1C2
200Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti76R → S AA sequence (PubMed:8486699).Curated1
Sequence conflicti87S → C AA sequence (PubMed:8486699).Curated1
Sequence conflicti93E → EE AA sequence (PubMed:8486699).Curated1
Sequence conflicti111V → A in AAB38486 (PubMed:7959017).Curated1
Sequence conflicti164G → R in BAF82993 (PubMed:14702039).Curated1
Sequence conflicti179K → E in AAD14013 (PubMed:8274401).Curated1
Sequence conflicti179K → E in AAB38486 (PubMed:7959017).Curated1
Sequence conflicti185K → E in AAD14013 (PubMed:8274401).Curated1
Sequence conflicti185K → E in AAB38486 (PubMed:7959017).Curated1
Sequence conflicti188C → H AA sequence (PubMed:8486699).Curated1
Sequence conflicti193C → H AA sequence (PubMed:8486699).Curated1
Sequence conflicti319F → I in AAD14013 (PubMed:8274401).Curated1
Sequence conflicti319F → I in AAB38486 (PubMed:7959017).Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_04821646F → Y1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs2854482Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_06663279I → V in SRXY8; partially impaired activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs387906750EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_06663390H → Q in SRXY8; partially impaired activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs797044460EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_014748172L → Q. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs11474Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_066634222H → Q in SRXY8; partially impaired activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs13222EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_066635300N → T in SRXY8; partially impaired activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs387906751EnsemblClinVar.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_043779124 – 139PGEEV…GKILF → EDIGILTWKKSPKHNS in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST16
Alternative sequenceiVSP_043780140 – 323Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST184

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
S68330 mRNA Translation: AAD14013.1
U05598 mRNA Translation: AAA20937.1
L32592 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB38486.1
AB021654 mRNA Translation: BAA36169.1
AB031084 mRNA Translation: BAA92884.1
AB032153 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA92891.1
AK290304 mRNA Translation: BAF82993.1
AK296686 mRNA Translation: BAG59281.1
BT006653 mRNA Translation: AAP35299.1
AL391427 Genomic DNA No translation available.
AL713867 Genomic DNA No translation available.
BC007024 mRNA Translation: AAH07024.1
BC063574 mRNA Translation: AAH63574.1

The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

More...
CCDSi
CCDS44350.1 [P52895-2]
CCDS7062.1 [P52895-1]

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
I73676
JC5240
S61516

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_001128713.1, NM_001135241.2 [P52895-2]
NP_001345.1, NM_001354.5 [P52895-1]
NP_995317.1, NM_205845.2 [P52895-1]

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENST00000380753; ENSP00000370129; ENSG00000151632 [P52895-1]
ENST00000455190; ENSP00000408440; ENSG00000151632 [P52895-2]

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
1646

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
hsa:1646

UCSC genome browser

More...
UCSCi
uc010qao.2, human [P52895-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
S68330 mRNA Translation: AAD14013.1
U05598 mRNA Translation: AAA20937.1
L32592 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB38486.1
AB021654 mRNA Translation: BAA36169.1
AB031084 mRNA Translation: BAA92884.1
AB032153 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA92891.1
AK290304 mRNA Translation: BAF82993.1
AK296686 mRNA Translation: BAG59281.1
BT006653 mRNA Translation: AAP35299.1
AL391427 Genomic DNA No translation available.
AL713867 Genomic DNA No translation available.
BC007024 mRNA Translation: AAH07024.1
BC063574 mRNA Translation: AAH63574.1
CCDSiCCDS44350.1 [P52895-2]
CCDS7062.1 [P52895-1]
PIRiI73676
JC5240
S61516
RefSeqiNP_001128713.1, NM_001135241.2 [P52895-2]
NP_001345.1, NM_001354.5 [P52895-1]
NP_995317.1, NM_205845.2 [P52895-1]

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1IHIX-ray3.00A/B1-323[»]
1J96X-ray1.25A/B2-323[»]
1XJBX-ray1.90A/B2-323[»]
2HDJX-ray2.00A/B1-323[»]
2IPJX-ray1.80A/B3-323[»]
4JQ1X-ray1.60A/B1-323[»]
4JQ2X-ray1.75A/B1-323[»]
4JQ3X-ray1.75A/B1-323[»]
4JQ4X-ray1.52A/B1-323[»]
4JQAX-ray1.45A/B1-323[»]
4JTQX-ray1.60A/B1-323[»]
4JTRX-ray1.30A/B1-323[»]
4L1WX-ray2.20A/B2-323[»]
4L1XX-ray2.00A/B2-323[»]
4XO6X-ray1.20A/B2-323[»]
4XO7X-ray1.75A/B1-323[»]
SMRiP52895
ModBaseiSearch...
PDBe-KBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGRIDi108013, 19 interactors
IntActiP52895, 6 interactors
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000370129

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP52895
ChEMBLiCHEMBL5847
DrugBankiDB06777, Chenodeoxycholic acid
DB07768, Epitestosterone
DB01039, Fenofibrate
DB13751, Glycyrrhizic acid
DB06077, Lumateperone
DB00959, Methylprednisolone
DB00461, Nabumetone
DB00157, NADH
DB03461, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
DB00776, Oxcarbazepine
DB12612, Ozanimod
DB01586, Ursodeoxycholic acid
DrugCentraliP52895
SwissLipidsiSLP:000000803

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP52895
PhosphoSitePlusiP52895
SwissPalmiP52895

Genetic variation databases

BioMutaiAKR1C2
DMDMi20532374

Proteomic databases

EPDiP52895
jPOSTiP52895
MassIVEiP52895
MaxQBiP52895
PaxDbiP52895
PeptideAtlasiP52895
PRIDEiP52895
ProteomicsDBi56548 [P52895-1]
56549 [P52895-2]

Protocols and materials databases

Antibodypedia a portal for validated antibodies

More...
Antibodypediai
23996, 280 antibodies

The CPTC Antibody Portal

More...
CPTCi
P52895, 3 antibodies

The DNASU plasmid repository

More...
DNASUi
1646

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000380753; ENSP00000370129; ENSG00000151632 [P52895-1]
ENST00000455190; ENSP00000408440; ENSG00000151632 [P52895-2]
GeneIDi1646
KEGGihsa:1646
UCSCiuc010qao.2, human [P52895-1]

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
1646
DisGeNETi1646

GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases

More...
GeneCardsi
AKR1C2
HGNCiHGNC:385, AKR1C2
HPAiENSG00000151632, Tissue enhanced (breast, liver, tongue)
MalaCardsiAKR1C2
MIMi600450, gene
614279, phenotype
neXtProtiNX_P52895
OpenTargetsiENSG00000151632
Orphaneti443087, 46,XY disorder of sex development due to testicular 17,20-desmolase deficiency
PharmGKBiPA24678
VEuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000151632.16

GenAtlas: human gene database

More...
GenAtlasi
Search...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1577, Eukaryota
GeneTreeiENSGT00940000167640
HOGENOMiCLU_023205_19_2_1
InParanoidiP52895
OMAiHEFETHP
OrthoDBi1016440at2759
PhylomeDBiP52895
TreeFamiTF106492

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:HS07754-MONOMER
BRENDAi1.1.1.213, 2681
1.1.1.357, 2681
1.1.1.50, 2681
1.3.1.20, 2681
PathwayCommonsiP52895
ReactomeiR-HSA-193368, Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol
R-HSA-193775, Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 24-hydroxycholesterol
R-HSA-193807, Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 27-hydroxycholesterol
SABIO-RKiP52895
SignaLinkiP52895
SIGNORiP52895

Miscellaneous databases

BioGRID ORCS database of CRISPR phenotype screens

More...
BioGRID-ORCSi
1646, 15 hits in 928 CRISPR screens

ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data

More...
ChiTaRSi
AKR1C2, human
EvolutionaryTraceiP52895

Database of phenotypes from RNA interference screens in Drosophila and Homo sapiens

More...
GenomeRNAii
1646
PharosiP52895, Tchem

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:P52895
RNActiP52895, protein

The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

More...
SOURCEi
Search...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000151632, Expressed in islet of Langerhans and 116 other tissues
ExpressionAtlasiP52895, baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP52895, HS

Family and domain databases

CDDicd19108, AKR_AKR1C1-35, 1 hit
Gene3Di3.20.20.100, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR020471, AKR
IPR044482, AKR1C
IPR018170, Aldo/ket_reductase_CS
IPR023210, NADP_OxRdtase_dom
IPR036812, NADP_OxRdtase_dom_sf
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00248, Aldo_ket_red, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF000097, AKR, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00069, ALDKETRDTASE
SUPFAMiSSF51430, SSF51430, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00062, ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_2, 1 hit
PS00063, ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_3, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiAK1C2_HUMAN
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P52895
Secondary accession number(s): A8K2N9
, B4DKR9, Q14133, Q5SR16, Q7M4N1, Q96A71
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1996
Last sequence update: May 10, 2002
Last modified: June 2, 2021
This is version 201 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 10
    Human chromosome 10: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with genetic variants
    List of human entries with genetic variants
  3. Human variants curated from literature reports
    Index of human variants curated from literature reports
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  6. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  7. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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