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Cofilin/actin-depolymerizing factor homolog



Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli


Exhibits F-actin depolymerizing activity and regulates actin cytoskeleton dynamics (PubMed:21205790). Required for cytokinesis in both mitotic and meiotic cells and for aster migration and separation (PubMed:8522587). Promotes cell motility during ovary development and oogenesis (PubMed:11175754). During larval development, required for the cell rearrangement needed for formation of terminal filaments which are stacks of somatic cells that are important for the initiation of ovarioles (PubMed:11175754). Also required for border cell migration during oogenesis (PubMed:11175754). During border cell migration, required for actin turnover and lamellipodial protrusion (PubMed:21205790). Required for the establishment of planar cell polarity (PCP) where cells adopt a uniform orientation within the plane of an epithelium (PubMed:16571634). During establishment of PCP, required for the redistribution of the PCP core proteins fz and stan/fmi to the proximodistal cell boundary (PubMed:16571634). During pupal development, required for elongation of the retinal cell body and for rhabdomere morphogenesis (PubMed:18423434). Required for mushroom body neuroblast proliferation and axon growth (PubMed:15572110). Plays a role in the positive regulation of protein secretion (PubMed:20026655). Plays a role in the regulation of nuclear localization of actin (PubMed:22323606). Required for the maintenance of epithelial integrity by controlling cell junctions and is also necessary for cell survival and tissue growth through regulation of JNK and yki signaling (PubMed:27041568).9 Publications


The name 'twinstar' derives from the characteristic aberrant arrangement of asters seen in mutants.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  • actin binding Source: FlyBase

GO - Biological processi

  • actin filament depolymerization Source: UniProtKB
  • actin filament organization Source: FlyBase
  • actin filament polymerization Source: FlyBase
  • actomyosin contractile ring assembly Source: FlyBase
  • axonogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • border follicle cell migration Source: UniProtKB
  • cell morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • centrosome separation Source: UniProtKB
  • compound eye development Source: FlyBase
  • compound eye morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • epithelial structure maintenance Source: UniProtKB
  • establishment of imaginal disc-derived wing hair orientation Source: FlyBase
  • establishment of ommatidial planar polarity Source: FlyBase
  • establishment of planar polarity Source: FlyBase
  • female gonad development Source: FlyBase
  • imaginal disc-derived leg segmentation Source: FlyBase
  • lamellipodium assembly Source: UniProtKB
  • meiotic cytokinesis Source: UniProtKB
  • mitotic cytokinesis Source: UniProtKB
  • mushroom body development Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of protein secretion Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of lamellipodium assembly Source: FlyBase
  • rhabdomere development Source: FlyBase


Molecular functionActin-binding
Biological processCell cycle, Cell division

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Cofilin/actin-depolymerizing factor homolog
Alternative name(s):
Protein D61
Protein twinstar1 Publication
Gene namesi
Name:tsr1 PublicationImported
ORF Names:CG4254Imported
OrganismiDrosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Taxonomic identifieri7227 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraHolometabolaDipteraBrachyceraMuscomorphaEphydroideaDrosophilidaeDrosophilaSophophora
  • UP000000803 Componenti: Chromosome 2R

Organism-specific databases

FlyBaseiFBgn0011726 tsr

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Late larval or pupal lethality with mutants showing defects in cytokinesis in both mitotic and meiotic cells, abnormal accumulation of F-actin in mature primary spermatocytes, and defective aster migration where the asters remain in close proximity to each other rather than separating from each other and migrating around the periphery of the nuclear envelope as in the wild type (PubMed:8522587). Failure of terminal filament formation in the ovary at the third larval instar at 25 degrees Celsius but formation occurs at 18 degrees Celsius (PubMed:11175754). Significantly thinner retina than controls, significantly increased F-actin levels in pupal eye disks and defective rhabdomere morphogenesis (PubMed:18423434). Defective mushroom body neuroblast proliferation with newly hatched larvae containing significantly fewer neurons than controls and severe axon growth defects with mutants failing to extend axons beyond the peduncle (PubMed:15572110). RNAi-mediated knockdown in the wing results in increased F-actin levels, altered subcellular location of the transcriptional coactivator yki, strong expression of the yki target genes wg and ex, cell extrusion from the basement membrane, reduced levels of the junction proteins dlg1, arm and shg, up-regulation of Rho1, apoptosis and JNK signaling (PubMed:27041568).5 Publications


Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi3S → A: Abolishes in vitro phosphorylation by LIMK1. Partial rescue of both the defective neuroblast proliferation and defective axon growth seen in null mutants. 2 Publications1
Mutagenesisi3S → E: No rescue of the defective neuroblast proliferation seen in null mutants but partial rescue of the defective axon growth. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi27V → Q: Defective distal orientation of wing hairs and incorrect localization of the planar cell polarity proteins fz and stan/fmi; when associated with 139-AAALA-143. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi139 – 143EEKLR → AAALA: Defective distal orientation of wing hairs and incorrect localization of the planar cell polarity proteins fz and stan/fmi; when associated with Q-27. 1 Publication5

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00002149161 – 148Cofilin/actin-depolymerizing factor homologAdd BLAST148

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase LIMK1 (PubMed:20026655). Phosphorylation is required for inactivation of tsr and for cell proliferation and axon growth (PubMed:15572110). Phosphorylation is negatively regulated by the panthothenate kinase fbl which catalyzes the first step in the conversion of panthothenic acid to coenzyme A (PubMed:22912811).3 Publications
Dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase ssh which activates tsr.2 Publications

Keywords - PTMi


Proteomic databases


PTM databases



Developmental stagei

Expressed during all stages of development and peaks in late larval and pupal stages. Expressed in both male and female adults.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiP45594 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP45594 DM


GO - Molecular functioni

  • actin binding Source: FlyBase

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi63422, 45 interactors
IntActiP45594, 48 interactors


Secondary structure

Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Helixi9 – 20Combined sources12
Beta strandi26 – 32Combined sources7
Turni33 – 35Combined sources3
Beta strandi36 – 43Combined sources8
Helixi49 – 59Combined sources11
Beta strandi61 – 63Combined sources3
Beta strandi65 – 77Combined sources13
Beta strandi80 – 94Combined sources15
Helixi101 – 113Combined sources13
Helixi114 – 116Combined sources3
Beta strandi122 – 127Combined sources6
Turni130 – 132Combined sources3
Helixi135 – 144Combined sources10

3D structure databases


Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini4 – 143ADF-HPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST140


Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Motifi19 – 23Nuclear localization signalSequence analysis5

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the actin-binding proteins ADF family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1735 Eukaryota

Family and domain databases

CDDicd11286 ADF_cofilin_like, 1 hit
Gene3Di3.40.20.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR002108 ADF-H
IPR029006 ADF-H/Gelsolin-like_dom_sf
IPR017904 ADF/Cofilin
PANTHERiPTHR11913 PTHR11913, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00241 Cofilin_ADF, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00102 ADF, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51263 ADF_H, 1 hit


Sequence statusi: Complete.

P45594-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

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110 120 130 140
Mass (Da):17,153
Last modified:November 1, 1995 - v1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
Links Updated
U08217 mRNA Translation: AAA19856.1
U24490 mRNA Translation: AAC46962.1
U24676 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC46963.1
AE013599 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF47146.1
BT089017 mRNA Translation: ACT98664.1
RefSeqiNP_477034.1, NM_057686.4

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0072188; FBpp0072097; FBgn0011726

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCADF_DROME
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P45594
Secondary accession number(s): C6SV25, Q9W1C4
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1995
Last sequence update: November 1, 1995
Last modified: July 18, 2018
This is version 152 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programDrosophila annotation project


Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome


  1. Drosophila
    Drosophila: entries, gene names and cross-references to FlyBase
  2. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

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