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Protein

Growth/differentiation factor 6

Gene

Gdf6

Organism
Mus musculus (Mouse)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Growth factor that controls proliferation and cellular differentiation in the retina and bone formation. Plays a key role in regulating apoptosis during retinal development. Establishes dorsal-ventral positional information in the retina and controls the formation of the retinotectal map (PubMed:23307924). Required for normal formation of bones and joints in the limbs, skull, digits and axial skeleton. Plays a key role in establishing boundaries between skeletal elements during development. Regulation of GDF6 expression seems to be a mechanism for evolving species-specific changes in skeletal structures (PubMed:26774823). Seems to positively regulate differentiation of chondrogenic tissue through the growth factor receptors subunits BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2 and ACVR2A, leading to the activation of SMAD1-SMAD5-SMAD8 complex. The regulation of chondrogenic differentiation is inhibited by NOG (PubMed:12606286, PubMed:16049014). Also involved in the induction of adipogenesis from mesenchymal stem cells. This mechanism acts through the growth factor receptors subunits BMPR1A, BMPR2 and ACVR2A and the activation of SMAD1-SMAD5-SMAD8 complex and MAPK14/p38 (PubMed:23527555).5 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  • cytokine activity Source: GO_Central
  • growth factor activity Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • protein homodimerization activity Source: MGI
  • transforming growth factor beta receptor binding Source: GO_Central

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionCytokine, Developmental protein, Growth factor
Biological processApoptosis

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Growth/differentiation factor 6
Short name:
GDF-6
Alternative name(s):
Bone morphogenetic protein 13
Short name:
BMP-13
Growth/differentiation factor 16
Gene namesi
Name:Gdf6
Synonyms:Bmp13, Gdf-6, Gdf16
OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)
Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
Proteomesi
  • UP000000589 Componenti: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

MGIiMGI:95689 Gdf6

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Mice lacking GDF6 display photoreceptor degeneration. Animals exhibit abnormal electroretinograms with up to 66% decreases in the bipolar cell-driven b-wave and 54% decreases in the photoreceptor-mediated a-wave amplitudes, as well as 3 to 27% reduced photopic flicker fusion. The lengths, but not the widths, of dermal flat bones in the skull and the digits are significantly shorter than in wild type (PubMed:26774823).2 Publications

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 22Sequence analysisAdd BLAST22
PropeptideiPRO_000034220723 – 334Sequence analysisAdd BLAST312
ChainiPRO_0000033919335 – 454Growth/differentiation factor 6Add BLAST120

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Glycosylationi117N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Disulfide bondi353 ↔ 419By similarity
Disulfide bondi382 ↔ 451By similarity
Disulfide bondi386 ↔ 453By similarity
Disulfide bondi418InterchainBy similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP43028
PRIDEiP43028

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP43028
PhosphoSitePlusiP43028

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in different subsets of developing joints.1 Publication

Inductioni

Strongly up-regulated in tibialis anterior muscles after denervation.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSMUSG00000051279 Expressed in 38 organ(s), highest expression level in forelimb
CleanExiMM_GDF6
ExpressionAtlasiP43028 baseline and differential

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer; disulfide-linked.By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000062884

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP43028
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi27 – 35Poly-Ser9
Compositional biasi330 – 334Poly-Arg5

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the TGF-beta family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3900 Eukaryota
ENOG410XT8Z LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000118883
HOGENOMiHOG000231514
HOVERGENiHBG107938
InParanoidiP43028
KOiK20012
OMAiMNSMDPN
OrthoDBiEOG091G09KP
PhylomeDBiP43028
TreeFamiTF316134

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.10.90.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR029034 Cystine-knot_cytokine
IPR001839 TGF-b_C
IPR001111 TGF-b_propeptide
IPR015615 TGF-beta-rel
IPR017948 TGFb_CS
PANTHERiPTHR11848 PTHR11848, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00019 TGF_beta, 1 hit
PF00688 TGFb_propeptide, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00204 TGFB, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF57501 SSF57501, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00250 TGF_BETA_1, 1 hit
PS51362 TGF_BETA_2, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P43028-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MDTPRVLLWA IFLISFLWDL PGFQQASISS SSSSSTELDS TKDVGNRKEG
60 70 80 90 100
KMQRTPQESA EGRTPPEHGL RQKDLRRRPP GQHQGQEPPG RGLRVVPHEY
110 120 130 140 150
MLSIYKTYSI AEKLGINASF FQSSKSANTI TSFVDRGLDD LSHTPLRRQK
160 170 180 190 200
YLFDVSTLSD KEELVGAELR LYRQAPPTPW GLPARPLHLQ LFPCLSPLLL
210 220 230 240 250
DARTLDPQGP TQAGWEVFDV WQGLRPQPWK QLCLELRAAW GELDAGDTGA
260 270 280 290 300
RARGPQQPPP LDLRSLGFGR RVRPPQERAL LVVFTRSQRK NLFTEMHEQL
310 320 330 340 350
GSAEAAGAEG SWPAPSGSPD AGSWLPSPGR RRRRTAFASR HGKRHGKKSR
360 370 380 390 400
LRCSRKPLHV NFKELGWDDW IIAPLEYEAY HCEGVCDFPL RSHLEPTNHA
410 420 430 440 450
IIQTLMNSMD PGSTPPSCCV PTKLTPISIL YIDAGNNVVY KQYEDMVVES

CGCR
Length:454
Mass (Da):50,942
Last modified:October 11, 2005 - v2
Checksum:i5A3FADDA539CCB38
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AJ537425 mRNA Translation: CAD60935.1
U08338 Unassigned DNA Translation: AAA18779.1
CCDSiCCDS17960.1
PIRiS43295
RefSeqiNP_038554.1, NM_013526.1
UniGeneiMm.302555

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000057613; ENSMUSP00000062884; ENSMUSG00000051279
GeneIDi242316
KEGGimmu:242316
UCSCiuc008ryt.1 mouse

Similar proteinsi

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AJ537425 mRNA Translation: CAD60935.1
U08338 Unassigned DNA Translation: AAA18779.1
CCDSiCCDS17960.1
PIRiS43295
RefSeqiNP_038554.1, NM_013526.1
UniGeneiMm.302555

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP43028
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000062884

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP43028
PhosphoSitePlusiP43028

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP43028
PRIDEiP43028

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000057613; ENSMUSP00000062884; ENSMUSG00000051279
GeneIDi242316
KEGGimmu:242316
UCSCiuc008ryt.1 mouse

Organism-specific databases

CTDi392255
MGIiMGI:95689 Gdf6

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3900 Eukaryota
ENOG410XT8Z LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000118883
HOGENOMiHOG000231514
HOVERGENiHBG107938
InParanoidiP43028
KOiK20012
OMAiMNSMDPN
OrthoDBiEOG091G09KP
PhylomeDBiP43028
TreeFamiTF316134

Miscellaneous databases

PROiPR:P43028
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSMUSG00000051279 Expressed in 38 organ(s), highest expression level in forelimb
CleanExiMM_GDF6
ExpressionAtlasiP43028 baseline and differential

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.10.90.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR029034 Cystine-knot_cytokine
IPR001839 TGF-b_C
IPR001111 TGF-b_propeptide
IPR015615 TGF-beta-rel
IPR017948 TGFb_CS
PANTHERiPTHR11848 PTHR11848, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00019 TGF_beta, 1 hit
PF00688 TGFb_propeptide, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00204 TGFB, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF57501 SSF57501, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00250 TGF_BETA_1, 1 hit
PS51362 TGF_BETA_2, 1 hit
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGDF6_MOUSE
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P43028
Secondary accession number(s): Q70UT4
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1995
Last sequence update: October 11, 2005
Last modified: November 7, 2018
This is version 133 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. MGD cross-references
    Mouse Genome Database (MGD) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

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