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Protein

FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductase

Gene

azoR

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes the reductive cleavage of azo bond in aromatic azo compounds to the corresponding amines. Requires NADH, but not NADPH, as an electron donor for its activity. The enzyme can reduce ethyl red and methyl red, but is not able to convert sulfonated azo dyes.

Miscellaneous

The stoichiometry implies that 2 cycles of the ping-pong mechanism are required for the cleavage.

Caution

Was originally thought to be an ACP phosphodiesterase.1 Publication

Cofactori

FMN1 PublicationNote: Binds 1 FMN per subunit.1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=17.9 µM for methyl red
  2. KM=31.6 µM for NADH

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Binding sitei10FMN1 Publication1

    Regions

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Nucleotide bindingi16 – 18FMN1 Publication3
    Nucleotide bindingi96 – 99FMN1 Publication4
    Nucleotide bindingi140 – 145FMN1 Publication6

    GO - Molecular functioni

    • azobenzene reductase activity Source: EcoCyc
    • FMN binding Source: EcoCyc
    • oxidoreductase activity, acting on NAD(P)H, quinone or similar compound as acceptor Source: EcoCyc

    GO - Biological processi

    • response to oxidative stress Source: EcoCyc

    Keywordsi

    Molecular functionOxidoreductase
    LigandFlavoprotein, FMN, NAD

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciEcoCyc:G6731-MONOMER
    MetaCyc:G6731-MONOMER
    BRENDAi1.7.1.6 2026
    SABIO-RKiP41407

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductase (EC:1.7.-.-)
    Alternative name(s):
    Azo-dye reductase
    FMN-dependent NADH-azo compound oxidoreductase
    Gene namesi
    Name:azoR
    Synonyms:acpD
    Ordered Locus Names:b1412, JW1409
    OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
    Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacteralesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
    Proteomesi
    • UP000000318 Componenti: Chromosome
    • UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

    Organism-specific databases

    EcoGeneiEG12695 azoR

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    • cytosol Source: EcoCyc

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Chemistry databases

    DrugBankiDB02325 Isopropyl Alcohol
    DB03247 Riboflavin Monophosphate

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Initiator methionineiRemoved2 Publications
    ChainiPRO_00001663102 – 201FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductaseAdd BLAST200

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiP41407
    PRIDEiP41407

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Homodimer.2 Publications

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi4261518, 20 interactors
    STRINGi316385.ECDH10B_1538

    Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1201
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
    Show more details
    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Beta strandi3 – 8Combined sources6
    Helixi13 – 15Combined sources3
    Helixi17 – 32Combined sources16
    Beta strandi36 – 42Combined sources7
    Turni43 – 47Combined sources5
    Helixi53 – 58Combined sources6
    Helixi68 – 86Combined sources19
    Beta strandi88 – 93Combined sources6
    Helixi103 – 112Combined sources10
    Turni115 – 117Combined sources3
    Beta strandi118 – 122Combined sources5
    Beta strandi125 – 128Combined sources4
    Beta strandi134 – 140Combined sources7
    Helixi153 – 163Combined sources11
    Beta strandi169 – 174Combined sources6
    Helixi177 – 179Combined sources3
    Helixi181 – 199Combined sources19

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP41407
    SMRiP41407
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTraceiP41407

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the azoreductase type 1 family.Curated

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiENOG4108V3G Bacteria
    COG1182 LUCA
    HOGENOMiHOG000247892
    InParanoidiP41407
    KOiK01118
    OMAiAGITFKY
    PhylomeDBiP41407

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.40.50.360, 1 hit
    HAMAPiMF_01216 Azoreductase_type1, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR003680 Flavodoxin_fold
    IPR029039 Flavoprotein-like_sf
    IPR023048 NADH-azoreductase_FMN-depdnt
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF02525 Flavodoxin_2, 1 hit
    SUPFAMiSSF52218 SSF52218, 1 hit

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    P41407-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MSKVLVLKSS ILAGYSQSNQ LSDYFVEQWR EKHSADEITV RDLAANPIPV
    60 70 80 90 100
    LDGELVGALR PSDAPLTPRQ QEALALSDEL IAELKAHDVI VIAAPMYNFN
    110 120 130 140 150
    ISTQLKNYFD LVARAGVTFR YTENGPEGLV TGKKAIVITS RGGIHKDGPT
    160 170 180 190 200
    DLVTPYLSTF LGFIGITDVK FVFAEGIAYG PEMAAKAQSD AKAAIDSIVS

    A
    Length:201
    Mass (Da):21,658
    Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v3
    Checksum:iE28D30DC4DA42297
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Sequence conflicti23 – 35DYFVE…EKHSA → IILLNNGAKSTPR in BAA25408 (Ref. 1) CuratedAdd BLAST13
    Sequence conflicti23 – 35DYFVE…EKHSA → IILLNNGAKSTPR in BAA07684 (PubMed:7899078).CuratedAdd BLAST13

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    D85081 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA25408.1
    U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC74494.1
    AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA15024.1
    D42105 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA07684.1
    PIRiG64892
    RefSeqiNP_415930.1, NC_000913.3
    WP_000048950.1, NZ_LN832404.1

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriaiAAC74494; AAC74494; b1412
    BAA15024; BAA15024; BAA15024
    GeneIDi947569
    KEGGiecj:JW1409
    eco:b1412
    PATRICifig|1411691.4.peg.859

    Similar proteinsi

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiAZOR_ECOLI
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P41407
    Secondary accession number(s): P77143, Q93V21
    Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1995
    Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
    Last modified: March 28, 2018
    This is version 139 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Escherichia coli
      Escherichia coli (strain K12): entries and cross-references to EcoGene
    2. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

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