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Protein

Macrosialin

Gene

CD68

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Could play a role in phagocytic activities of tissue macrophages, both in intracellular lysosomal metabolism and extracellular cell-cell and cell-pathogen interactions. Binds to tissue- and organ-specific lectins or selectins, allowing homing of macrophage subsets to particular sites. Rapid recirculation of CD68 from endosomes and lysosomes to the plasma membrane may allow macrophages to crawl over selectin-bearing substrates or other cells.

Caution

CD68 is a commonly used marker for macrophages. However, a number of studies (PubMed:15194571, PubMed:15647451 and PubMed:18405323) have shown that CD68 antibodies react with other hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types, suggesting that CD68 may not be a macrophage-specific antigen.Curated

GO - Biological processi

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-6798695 Neutrophil degranulation
SIGNORiP34810

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Macrosialin
Alternative name(s):
Gp110
CD_antigen: CD68
Gene namesi
Name:CD68
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 17

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000129226.13
HGNCiHGNC:1693 CD68
MIMi153634 gene
neXtProtiNX_P34810

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Topological domaini22 – 319ExtracellularSequence analysisAdd BLAST298
Transmembranei320 – 344HelicalPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST25
Topological domaini345 – 354CytoplasmicPROSITE-ProRule annotation10

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Endosome, Lysosome, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi968
OpenTargetsiENSG00000129226
PharmGKBiPA26232

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiCD68
DMDMi147744552

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 21Sequence analysisAdd BLAST21
ChainiPRO_000001710222 – 354MacrosialinAdd BLAST333

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Glycosylationi88N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Glycosylationi96N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Glycosylationi118N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Glycosylationi126N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Glycosylationi164N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Disulfide bondi169 ↔ 207PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Glycosylationi199N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagine1 Publication1
Glycosylationi246N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Glycosylationi261N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagine2 Publications1
Disulfide bondi277 ↔ 314PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Glycosylationi279N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagine1 Publication1

Post-translational modificationi

N- and O-glycosylated.2 Publications

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

EPDiP34810
MaxQBiP34810
PaxDbiP34810
PeptideAtlasiP34810
PRIDEiP34810
ProteomicsDBi54942
54943 [P34810-2]

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP34810
PhosphoSitePlusiP34810

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Highly expressed by blood monocytes and tissue macrophages. Also expressed in lymphocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Expressed in many tumor cell lines which could allow them to attach to selectins on vascular endothelium, facilitating their dissemination to secondary sites.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000129226
CleanExiHS_CD68
ExpressionAtlasiP34810 baseline and differential

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB000051
CAB000066
CAB072861
CAB072862
HPA048982

Interactioni

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
TOMM6Q96B494EBI-2826276,EBI-10826510

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi107406, 15 interactors
IntActiP34810, 13 interactors
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000250092

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP34810
SMRiP34810
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Repeati70 – 991Add BLAST30
Repeati100 – 1292Add BLAST30

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni23 – 140Mucin-likeAdd BLAST118
Regioni70 – 1292 X 30 AA tandem repeatsAdd BLAST60

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi140 – 152Pro-rich (hinge)Add BLAST13

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the LAMP family.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, Signal, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG4818 Eukaryota
ENOG410XQ96 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063068
HOGENOMiHOG000070034
HOVERGENiHBG005287
InParanoidiP34810
KOiK06501
OMAiGNDCPHK
OrthoDBiEOG091G09EV
PhylomeDBiP34810
TreeFamiTF316339

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR018134 LAMP_CS
IPR002000 Lysosome-assoc_membr_glycop
PANTHERiPTHR11506 PTHR11506, 2 hits
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF01299 Lamp, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00336 LYSASSOCTDMP
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00311 LAMP_2, 1 hit
PS51407 LAMP_3, 1 hit

Sequences (3)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 3 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform Long (identifier: P34810-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: CD68.1

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MRLAVLFSGA LLGLLAAQGT GNDCPHKKSA TLLPSFTVTP TVTESTGTTS
60 70 80 90 100
HRTTKSHKTT THRTTTTGTT SHGPTTATHN PTTTSHGNVT VHPTSNSTAT
110 120 130 140 150
SQGPSTATHS PATTSHGNAT VHPTSNSTAT SPGFTSSAHP EPPPPSPSPS
160 170 180 190 200
PTSKETIGDY TWTNGSQPCV HLQAQIQIRV MYTTQGGGEA WGISVLNPNK
210 220 230 240 250
TKVQGSCEGA HPHLLLSFPY GHLSFGFMQD LQQKVVYLSY MAVEYNVSFP
260 270 280 290 300
HAAQWTFSAQ NASLRDLQAP LGQSFSCSNS SIILSPAVHL DLLSLRLQAA
310 320 330 340 350
QLPHTGVFGQ SFSCPSDRSI LLPLIIGLIL LGLLALVLIA FCIIRRRPSA

YQAL
Length:354
Mass (Da):37,408
Last modified:May 15, 2007 - v2
Checksum:i69E68D69EDE8EFB0
GO
Isoform Short (identifier: P34810-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: CD68.2

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     17-43: Missing.
     83-112: Missing.

Show »
Length:297
Mass (Da):31,738
Checksum:iB0A78BF5F01BC0B0
GO
Isoform 3 (identifier: P34810-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     17-43: Missing.

Show »
Length:327
Mass (Da):34,654
Checksum:i8AD19346F7827330
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti95S → G in BAD96234 (Ref. 4) Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_016144254Q → K1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs9901673Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_049725329I → T. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs35452170Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_016145340A → T. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs17607Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_049726350A → T. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs9901675Ensembl.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_00304117 – 43Missing in isoform Short and isoform 3. 2 PublicationsAdd BLAST27
Alternative sequenceiVSP_00304283 – 112Missing in isoform Short. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST30

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
S57235 mRNA Translation: AAB25811.1
BT009923 mRNA Translation: AAP88925.1
AK290238 mRNA Translation: BAF82927.1
AK222492 mRNA Translation: BAD96212.1
AK222514 mRNA Translation: BAD96234.1
AK301223 mRNA Translation: BAG62796.1
AC016876 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471108 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW90165.1
BC015557 mRNA Translation: AAH15557.1
AF060540 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC70006.1
CCDSiCCDS11114.1 [P34810-1]
CCDS58512.1 [P34810-3]
PIRiA48931
RefSeqiNP_001035148.1, NM_001040059.1 [P34810-3]
NP_001242.2, NM_001251.2 [P34810-1]
UniGeneiHs.647419

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000250092; ENSP00000250092; ENSG00000129226 [P34810-1]
ENST00000380498; ENSP00000369867; ENSG00000129226 [P34810-3]
GeneIDi968
KEGGihsa:968
UCSCiuc002ghu.4 human [P34810-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCD68_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P34810
Secondary accession number(s): B4DVT4
, Q53HR6, Q53XI3, Q96BI7
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1994
Last sequence update: May 15, 2007
Last modified: July 18, 2018
This is version 158 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human cell differentiation molecules
    CD nomenclature of surface proteins of human leucocytes and list of entries
  2. Human chromosome 17
    Human chromosome 17: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  3. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  4. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  5. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

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