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Entry version 165 (25 May 2022)
Sequence version 1 (01 Feb 1994)
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Protein

L-lactate dehydrogenase

Gene

lldD

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate. Seems to be a primary dehydrogenase in the respiratory chain. To a lesser extent, can also oxidize DL-alpha-hydroxybutyrate, but not D-lactate.

2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

FMNUniRule annotation1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Is activated by 2-fold in the presence of high concentrations of sodium and potassium ions. Is almost completely inhibited by a high concentration of pyruvate (10 mM).

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=120 µM for L-lactate1 Publication
  2. KM=770 µM for DL-alpha-hydroxybutyrate1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 8-9.1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei24SubstrateUniRule annotation1
Binding sitei106FMNUniRule annotation1
Binding sitei127FMNUniRule annotation1
Binding sitei129SubstrateUniRule annotation1
Binding sitei155FMNUniRule annotation1
Binding sitei164SubstrateUniRule annotation1
Binding sitei251FMNUniRule annotation1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei275Proton acceptorUniRule annotation1
Binding sitei278SubstrateUniRule annotation1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi306 – 330FMNUniRule annotationAdd BLAST25

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

  • FMN binding Source: EcoCyc
  • L-lactate dehydrogenase activity Source: EcoCyc

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionOxidoreductase
LigandFlavoprotein, FMN

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

More...
BioCyci
EcoCyc:L-LACTDEHYDROGFMN-MONOMER

SABIO-RK: Biochemical Reaction Kinetics Database

More...
SABIO-RKi
P33232

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
L-lactate dehydrogenaseUniRule annotation (EC:1.1.-.-UniRule annotation)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:lldDUniRule annotation
Synonyms:lctD
Ordered Locus Names:b3605, JW3580
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacteralesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000000318 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome
  • UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell inner membrane, Cell membrane, Membrane

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the in vivo effects caused by ablation of the gene (or one or more transcripts) coding for the protein described in the entry. This includes gene knockout and knockdown, provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell level.<p><a href='/help/disruption_phenotype' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disruption phenotypei

Cells lacking this gene lose the ability to grow on L-lactate as the sole source of carbon and energy, but can still utilize D-lactate.1 Publication

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00002063351 – 396L-lactate dehydrogenaseAdd BLAST396

Proteomic databases

jPOST - Japan Proteome Standard Repository/Database

More...
jPOSTi
P33232

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P33232

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P33232

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

Is induced by aerobic growth on L-lactate, but not by aerobic growth on D-lactate or glycerol or by anaerobic growth on glucose.2 Publications

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Forms homooligomers.

1 Publication

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

More...
BioGRIDi
4262561, 51 interactors

Database of interacting proteins

More...
DIPi
DIP-10108N

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
P33232, 16 interactors

Molecular INTeraction database

More...
MINTi
P33232

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
511145.b3605

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

AlphaFold Protein Structure Database

More...
AlphaFoldDBi
P33232

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P33232

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/family%5Fand%5Fdomains%5Fsection">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini1 – 380FMN hydroxy acid dehydrogenaseUniRule annotationAdd BLAST380

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the FMN-dependent alpha-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase family.UniRule annotation

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
COG1304, Bacteria

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_020639_0_0_6

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P33232

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
FTRLMQT

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
P33232

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

More...
CDDi
cd02809, alpha_hydroxyacid_oxid_FMN, 1 hit

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
3.20.20.70, 1 hit

HAMAP database of protein families

More...
HAMAPi
MF_01559, L_lact_dehydr, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR013785, Aldolase_TIM
IPR012133, Alpha-hydoxy_acid_DH_FMN
IPR000262, FMN-dep_DH
IPR037396, FMN_HAD
IPR008259, FMN_hydac_DH_AS
IPR020920, LldD

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF01070, FMN_dh, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

More...
PIRSFi
PIRSF000138, Al-hdrx_acd_dh, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00557, FMN_HYDROXY_ACID_DH_1, 1 hit
PS51349, FMN_HYDROXY_ACID_DH_2, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

P33232-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MIISAASDYR AAAQRILPPF LFHYMDGGAY SEYTLRRNVE DLSEVALRQR
60 70 80 90 100
ILKNMSDLSL ETTLFNEKLS MPVALAPVGL CGMYARRGEV QAAKAADAHG
110 120 130 140 150
IPFTLSTVSV CPIEEVAPAI KRPMWFQLYV LRDRGFMRNA LERAKAAGCS
160 170 180 190 200
TLVFTVDMPT PGARYRDAHS GMSGPNAAMR RYLQAVTHPQ WAWDVGLNGR
210 220 230 240 250
PHDLGNISAY LGKPTGLEDY IGWLGNNFDP SISWKDLEWI RDFWDGPMVI
260 270 280 290 300
KGILDPEDAR DAVRFGADGI VVSNHGGRQL DGVLSSARAL PAIADAVKGD
310 320 330 340 350
IAILADSGIR NGLDVVRMIA LGADTVLLGR AFLYALATAG QAGVANLLNL
360 370 380 390
IEKEMKVAMT LTGAKSISEI TQDSLVQGLG KELPAALAPM AKGNAA
Length:396
Mass (Da):42,728
Last modified:February 1, 1994 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iCA0D8E308713BF83
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
L13970 Unassigned DNA Translation: AAA03585.1
U00039 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB18582.1
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC76629.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAE77687.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
C49904

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_418062.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000586962.1, NZ_SSZK01000022.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblBacteriai
AAC76629; AAC76629; b3605
BAE77687; BAE77687; BAE77687

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
67417608
948121

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ecj:JW3580
eco:b3605

Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC)

More...
PATRICi
fig|1411691.4.peg.3101

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L13970 Unassigned DNA Translation: AAA03585.1
U00039 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB18582.1
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC76629.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAE77687.1
PIRiC49904
RefSeqiNP_418062.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000586962.1, NZ_SSZK01000022.1

3D structure databases

AlphaFoldDBiP33232
SMRiP33232
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGRIDi4262561, 51 interactors
DIPiDIP-10108N
IntActiP33232, 16 interactors
MINTiP33232
STRINGi511145.b3605

Proteomic databases

jPOSTiP33232
PaxDbiP33232
PRIDEiP33232

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaiAAC76629; AAC76629; b3605
BAE77687; BAE77687; BAE77687
GeneIDi67417608
948121
KEGGiecj:JW3580
eco:b3605
PATRICifig|1411691.4.peg.3101

Organism-specific databases

EchoBASE - an integrated post-genomic database for E. coli

More...
EchoBASEi
EB1906

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG1304, Bacteria
HOGENOMiCLU_020639_0_0_6
InParanoidiP33232
OMAiFTRLMQT
PhylomeDBiP33232

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciEcoCyc:L-LACTDEHYDROGFMN-MONOMER
SABIO-RKiP33232

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:P33232

Family and domain databases

CDDicd02809, alpha_hydroxyacid_oxid_FMN, 1 hit
Gene3Di3.20.20.70, 1 hit
HAMAPiMF_01559, L_lact_dehydr, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR013785, Aldolase_TIM
IPR012133, Alpha-hydoxy_acid_DH_FMN
IPR000262, FMN-dep_DH
IPR037396, FMN_HAD
IPR008259, FMN_hydac_DH_AS
IPR020920, LldD
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF01070, FMN_dh, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF000138, Al-hdrx_acd_dh, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00557, FMN_HYDROXY_ACID_DH_1, 1 hit
PS51349, FMN_HYDROXY_ACID_DH_2, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiLLDD_ECOLI
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P33232
Secondary accession number(s): Q2M7R9
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1994
Last sequence update: February 1, 1994
Last modified: May 25, 2022
This is version 165 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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