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Entry version 155 (12 Aug 2020)
Sequence version 2 (10 Jan 2003)
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Protein

Tubulin beta-8 chain

Gene

TUBB8

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:4 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.

Miscellaneous

There are nine genes coding for beta-tubulin.

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi140 – 146GTPSequence analysis7

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

LigandGTP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Tubulin beta-8 chain
Alternative name(s):
Beta-8-tubulin
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:TUBB8
Synonyms:TUB8
Ordered Locus Names:At5g23860
ORF Names:MRO11.10
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliopsidaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 5

Organism-specific databases

Arabidopsis Information Portal

More...
Araporti
AT5G23860

The Arabidopsis Information Resource

More...
TAIRi
locus:505006632, AT5G23860

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cell wall Cytoskeleton Vacuole Chloroplast Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertion Graphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Microtubule

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00000483271 – 449Tubulin beta-8 chainAdd BLAST449

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P29516

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P29516

ProteomicsDB: a multi-organism proteome resource

More...
ProteomicsDBi
234183

PTM databases

MetOSite database of methionine sulfoxide sites

More...
MetOSitei
P29516

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

More...
ExpressionAtlasi
P29516, baseline and differential

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

More...
Genevisiblei
P29516, AT

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

More...
BioGRIDi
17726, 7 interactors

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
P29516, 2 interactors

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
3702.AT5G23860.1

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P29516

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the tubulin family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG1375, Eukaryota

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_015718_1_1_1

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P29516

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K07375

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
GRYKGES

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
962471at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
P29516

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
1.10.287.600, 1 hit
3.30.1330.20, 1 hit
3.40.50.1440, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR013838, Beta-tubulin_BS
IPR002453, Beta_tubulin
IPR008280, Tub_FtsZ_C
IPR000217, Tubulin
IPR018316, Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom
IPR037103, Tubulin/FtsZ_C_sf
IPR036525, Tubulin/FtsZ_GTPase_sf
IPR023123, Tubulin_C
IPR017975, Tubulin_CS
IPR003008, Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR11588, PTHR11588, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00091, Tubulin, 1 hit
PF03953, Tubulin_C, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR01163, BETATUBULIN
PR01161, TUBULIN

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00864, Tubulin, 1 hit
SM00865, Tubulin_C, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF52490, SSF52490, 1 hit
SSF55307, SSF55307, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00227, TUBULIN, 1 hit
PS00228, TUBULIN_B_AUTOREG, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

P29516-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MREILHIQGG QCGNQIGAKF WEVVCAEHGI DSTGRYQGEN DLQLERVNVY
60 70 80 90 100
YNEASCGRFV PRAVLMDLEP GTMDSVRSGP YGQIFRPDNF VFGQSGAGNN
110 120 130 140 150
WAKGHYTEGA ELIDSVLDVV RKEAENCDCL QGFQVCHSLG GGTGSGMGTL
160 170 180 190 200
LISKIREEYP DRMMLTFSVF PSPKVSDTVV EPYNATLSVH QLVENADECM
210 220 230 240 250
VLDNEALYDI CFRTLKLTTP SFGDLNHLIS ATMSGVTCCL RFPGQLNSDL
260 270 280 290 300
RKLAVNLIPF PRLHFFMVGF APLTSRGSQQ YRALTVPELT QQMWDAKNMM
310 320 330 340 350
CAADPRHGRY LTASAMFRGK MSTKEVDEQM INVQNKNSSY FVEWIPNNVK
360 370 380 390 400
STVCDIPPTG LKMASTFIGN STSIQEMFRR VSEQFTAMFR RKAFLHWYTG
410 420 430 440
EGMDEMEFTE AESNMNDLVS EYQQYQDATA DEEEGYEYEE DEVEVQEEQ
Length:449
Mass (Da):50,607
Last modified:January 10, 2003 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iC66EBE7C8FB18F05
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti40N → K in AAM10035 (PubMed:14593172).Curated1
Sequence conflicti40N → K in AAK96884 (PubMed:14593172).Curated1
Sequence conflicti124A → R in AAA32886 (PubMed:1498609).Curated1
Sequence conflicti164 – 165ML → IV in AAA32886 (PubMed:1498609).Curated2
Sequence conflicti170F → I in AAA32886 (PubMed:1498609).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
M84705 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA32886.1
AB005244 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB10059.1
CP002688 Genomic DNA Translation: AED93223.1
CP002688 Genomic DNA Translation: AED93224.1
AY054693 mRNA Translation: AAK96884.1
AY081473 mRNA Translation: AAM10035.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
JQ1592

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_001190373.1, NM_001203444.1
NP_568437.1, NM_122291.4

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl plant genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblPlantsi
AT5G23860.1; AT5G23860.1; AT5G23860
AT5G23860.2; AT5G23860.2; AT5G23860

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
832451

Gramene; a comparative resource for plants

More...
Gramenei
AT5G23860.1; AT5G23860.1; AT5G23860
AT5G23860.2; AT5G23860.2; AT5G23860

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ath:AT5G23860

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M84705 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA32886.1
AB005244 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB10059.1
CP002688 Genomic DNA Translation: AED93223.1
CP002688 Genomic DNA Translation: AED93224.1
AY054693 mRNA Translation: AAK96884.1
AY081473 mRNA Translation: AAM10035.1
PIRiJQ1592
RefSeqiNP_001190373.1, NM_001203444.1
NP_568437.1, NM_122291.4

3D structure databases

SMRiP29516
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGRIDi17726, 7 interactors
IntActiP29516, 2 interactors
STRINGi3702.AT5G23860.1

PTM databases

MetOSiteiP29516

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP29516
PRIDEiP29516
ProteomicsDBi234183

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G23860.1; AT5G23860.1; AT5G23860
AT5G23860.2; AT5G23860.2; AT5G23860
GeneIDi832451
GrameneiAT5G23860.1; AT5G23860.1; AT5G23860
AT5G23860.2; AT5G23860.2; AT5G23860
KEGGiath:AT5G23860

Organism-specific databases

AraportiAT5G23860
TAIRilocus:505006632, AT5G23860

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1375, Eukaryota
HOGENOMiCLU_015718_1_1_1
InParanoidiP29516
KOiK07375
OMAiGRYKGES
OrthoDBi962471at2759
PhylomeDBiP29516

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:P29516

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiP29516, baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP29516, AT

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.287.600, 1 hit
3.30.1330.20, 1 hit
3.40.50.1440, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR013838, Beta-tubulin_BS
IPR002453, Beta_tubulin
IPR008280, Tub_FtsZ_C
IPR000217, Tubulin
IPR018316, Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom
IPR037103, Tubulin/FtsZ_C_sf
IPR036525, Tubulin/FtsZ_GTPase_sf
IPR023123, Tubulin_C
IPR017975, Tubulin_CS
IPR003008, Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase
PANTHERiPTHR11588, PTHR11588, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00091, Tubulin, 1 hit
PF03953, Tubulin_C, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR01163, BETATUBULIN
PR01161, TUBULIN
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00864, Tubulin, 1 hit
SM00865, Tubulin_C, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF52490, SSF52490, 1 hit
SSF55307, SSF55307, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00227, TUBULIN, 1 hit
PS00228, TUBULIN_B_AUTOREG, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiTBB8_ARATH
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P29516
Secondary accession number(s): Q93Y15, Q9FF94
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 1, 1993
Last sequence update: January 10, 2003
Last modified: August 12, 2020
This is version 155 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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