Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.
Entry version 67 (07 Apr 2021)
Sequence version 2 (23 Jan 2002)
Previous versions | rss
Add a publicationFeedback
Protein

Delta-ctenitoxin-Pn2a

Gene
N/A
Organism
Phoneutria nigriventer (Brazilian armed spider) (Ctenus nigriventer)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:4 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Toxin that is known to potentiate erectile function (PubMed:18397797). It binds voltage-dependently to sodium channels (Nav), inhibits the inactivation of the activated channels and decreases the peak inward current (PubMed:19231838, PubMed:26119670). The toxin delays inactivation of Nav1.2/SCN2A, Nav1.3/SCN3A, Nav1.4/SCN4A and Nav1.8/SCN10A, slows the inactivation process and decreases the sodium peak amplitude of Nav1.5/SCN5A and Nav1.6/SCN8A (PubMed:26119670). In vivo, it enhances erectile function by inducing the release of nictric oxide (NO): it slows the sodium current, leading to depolarization, which leads to an increase in calcium influx (probably via activation of N-type calcium channels) which in turn activates neuronal NO synthase (nNOS/NOS1), inducing nitric oxide (NO) production (PubMed:20722794, PubMed:21975567). In a final step, NO activates soluble guanylate cyclase (GUCY1A1/GUCY1B1) which in turn increases cGMP formation, resulting in penile erection (PubMed:23583324). It is noteworthy that the toxin does not provoke erection by inhibiting phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5A), an enzyme that hydrolysis cGMP (PubMed:23583324). In vivo, it also causes scratching, lacrimation, hypersalivation, sweating and agitation followed by spastic paralysis of the anterior and posterior extremities and death at dose levels of 0.79 mg/mouse (PubMed:1397265, PubMed:16278100). It is insecticidal to the larval and adult forms of the house fly (PubMed:1397265). The toxin also improves cavernosal relaxation in different models where erectile dysfonction is observed, such as deoxycorticosterone-acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats, mice models for type-1 diabetes, as well as elderly rats (PubMed:18397797, PubMed:21975567, PubMed:22925420).1 Publication8 Publications

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionIon channel impairing toxin, Neurotoxin, Toxin, Voltage-gated sodium channel impairing toxin

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Delta-ctenitoxin-Pn2aCurated
Short name:
Delta-CNTX-Pn2aCurated
Alternative name(s):
Delta-CNTX-Pn1c1 Publication
Neurotoxin Tx2-63 Publications
Short name:
PnTx2-61 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiPhoneutria nigriventer (Brazilian armed spider) (Ctenus nigriventer)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri6918 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaChelicerataArachnidaAraneaeAraneomorphaeEntelegynaeLycosoideaCtenidaePhoneutria

Organism-specific databases

ArachnoServer: Spider toxin database

More...
ArachnoServeri
AS000243, delta-ctenitoxin-Pn2a

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the use of a protein as a pharmaceutical drug. It indicates the name of the drug, the name of the firm that commercializes it and explains in a few words in which context the drug is used. In some cases, drugs that are under development are also described.<p><a href='/help/pharmaceutical_use' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pharmaceutical usei

PnPP-19, a 19 AA-peptide that is N-terminally acetylated and C-terminally amidated, has been suggested to be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (PubMed:26119670). The peptide potentiates erection through an increase in nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP production (PubMed:26119670). It has no apparent toxicity (when tested on brain, heart, lung, liver and kidney) and low immunogenicity in mice (PubMed:26119670). It acts by a different mechanism than the native toxin, since it does not affect sodium channels, has no effect on the rat heart, and is independent of extracellular calcium influx through N-type calcium channels (PubMed:26119670). In addition, it has a long half-life since its potentiating effect is observed 15 minutes after injection and lasts about one hour (PubMed:26119670).1 Publication
PnPP-19, a 19 AA-peptide that is N-terminally acetylated and C-terminally amidated, has been suggested to be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of pain (PubMed:29342943). The peptide induces both peripheral and central antinociception (PubMed:28031732, PubMed:28087360). This antinociceptive effect involves the activation of opioid and cannabinoid receptors along with the activation of the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway (PubMed:28031732, PubMed:28087360, PubMed:29342943).3 Publications

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology%5Fand%5Fbiotech%5Fsection">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi1 – 63Missing in PnPP-19 (acetylated and amidated); loss of activity on sodium channels. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST63
Mutagenesisi64 – 68ICRQG → GERRQ in PnPP-19 (acetylated and amidated); loss of activity on sodium channels. 1 Publication5
Mutagenesisi80C → S in PnPP-19 (acetylated and amidated); loss of activity on sodium channels. 1 Publication1

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 17Sequence analysisAdd BLAST17
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM / Processing</a> section describes a propeptide, which is a part of a protein that is cleaved during maturation or activation. Once cleaved, a propeptide generally has no independent biological function.<p><a href='/help/propep' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PropeptideiPRO_000003549818 – 343 PublicationsAdd BLAST17
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_000003549935 – 82Delta-ctenitoxin-Pn2a1 PublicationAdd BLAST48

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi37 ↔ 51Curated
Disulfide bondi44 ↔ 57Curated
Disulfide bondi48 ↔ 80Curated
Disulfide bondi50 ↔ 65Curated
Disulfide bondi59 ↔ 63Curated

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified 'at protein level'.<br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Expressed by the venom gland.1 Publication

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P29425

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides general information on the biological role of a domain. The term 'domain' is intended here in its wide acceptation, it may be a structural domain, a transmembrane region or a functional domain. Several domains are described in this subsection.<p><a href='/help/domain_cc' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini

The presence of a 'disulfide through disulfide knot' structurally defines this protein as a knottin.Curated

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Knottin, Signal

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR035285, CNTX

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF17492, D_CNTX, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P29425-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MKVAILFLSI LVLAVASESI EESRDDFAVE ELGRATCAGQ DQPCKETCDC
60 70 80
CGERGECVCG GPCICRQGYF WIAWYKLANC KK
Length:82
Mass (Da):9,031
Last modified:January 23, 2002 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iF4CEA5E7B8D53E59
GO

<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports information derived from mass spectrometry experiments done on the entire protein or on biologically active derived peptide(s).<p><a href='/help/mass_spectrometry' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mass spectrometryi

Molecular mass is 5291.3 Da. Determined by PD. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 5289.0 Da. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 5289.31±0.03 Da. Determined by ESI. 1 Publication

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AY054746 mRNA Translation: AAL14349.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
S29216

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AY054746 mRNA Translation: AAL14349.1
PIRiS29216

3D structure databases

SMRiP29425
ModBaseiSearch...

Organism-specific databases

ArachnoServeriAS000243, delta-ctenitoxin-Pn2a

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR035285, CNTX
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF17492, D_CNTX, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiTX36A_PHONI
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P29425
Secondary accession number(s): Q95UF2
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 1, 1993
Last sequence update: January 23, 2002
Last modified: April 7, 2021
This is version 67 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programAnimal Toxin Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Direct protein sequencing, Pharmaceutical

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

We'd like to inform you that we have updated our Privacy Notice to comply with Europe’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that applies since 25 May 2018.

Do not show this banner again