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Entry version 165 (02 Dec 2020)
Sequence version 2 (01 Nov 1997)
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Protein

Alanine racemase, catabolic

Gene

dadX

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:3 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Isomerizes L-alanine to D-alanine which is then oxidized to pyruvate by DadA.By similarity

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

pyridoxal 5'-phosphateBy similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei35Proton acceptor; specific for D-alanineBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei130SubstrateBy similarity1
Active sitei253Proton acceptor; specific for L-alanineBy similarity1
Binding sitei301Substrate; via amide nitrogenBy similarity1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionIsomerase
LigandPyridoxal phosphate

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

More...
BioCyci
EcoCyc:ALARACECAT-MONOMER
MetaCyc:ALARACECAT-MONOMER

SABIO-RK: Biochemical Reaction Kinetics Database

More...
SABIO-RKi
P29012

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Alanine racemase, catabolic (EC:5.1.1.1)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:dadX
Synonyms:alnB, dadB
Ordered Locus Names:b1190, JW1179
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacteralesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000000318 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome
  • UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001145171 – 356Alanine racemase, catabolicAdd BLAST356

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei35N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysineBy similarity1

Proteomic databases

jPOST - Japan Proteome Standard Repository/Database

More...
jPOSTi
P29012

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P29012

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P29012

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

By alanine.1 Publication

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

More...
BioGRIDi
4260105, 648 interactors

Database of interacting proteins

More...
DIPi
DIP-9395N

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
P29012, 2 interactors

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
511145.b1190

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P29012

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the alanine racemase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
COG0787, Bacteria

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_028393_1_0_6

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P29012

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
P29012

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
2.40.37.10, 1 hit
3.20.20.10, 1 hit

HAMAP database of protein families

More...
HAMAPi
MF_01201, Ala_racemase, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR000821, Ala_racemase
IPR009006, Ala_racemase/Decarboxylase_C
IPR011079, Ala_racemase_C
IPR001608, Ala_racemase_N
IPR020622, Ala_racemase_pyridoxalP-BS
IPR029066, PLP-binding_barrel

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00842, Ala_racemase_C, 1 hit
PF01168, Ala_racemase_N, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00992, ALARACEMASE

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM01005, Ala_racemase_C, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF50621, SSF50621, 1 hit
SSF51419, SSF51419, 1 hit

TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

More...
TIGRFAMsi
TIGR00492, alr, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00395, ALANINE_RACEMASE, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

P29012-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MTRPIQASLD LQALKQNLSI VRQAATHARV WSVVKANAYG HGIERIWSAI
60 70 80 90 100
GATDGFALLN LEEAITLRER GWKGPILMLE GFFHAQDLEI YDQHRLTTCV
110 120 130 140 150
HSNWQLKALQ NARLKAPLDI YLKVNSGMNR LGFQPDRVLT VWQQLRAMAN
160 170 180 190 200
VGEMTLMSHF AEAEHPDGIS GAMARIEQAA EGLECRRSLS NSAATLWHPE
210 220 230 240 250
AHFDWVRPGI ILYGASPSGQ WRDIANTGLR PVMTLSSEII GVQTLKAGER
260 270 280 290 300
VGYGGRYTAR DEQRIGIVAA GYADGYPRHA PTGTPVLVDG VRTMTVGTVS
310 320 330 340 350
MDMLAVDLTP CPQAGIGTPV ELWGKEIKID DVAAAAGTVG YELMCALALR

VPVVTV
Length:356
Mass (Da):38,845
Last modified:November 1, 1997 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iFFF3226B47E5AAB3
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti172A → R in AAC36881 (PubMed:7906689).Curated1
Sequence conflicti215A → R in AAC36881 (PubMed:7906689).Curated1
Sequence conflicti281P → L in AAC36881 (PubMed:7906689).Curated1
Sequence conflicti349L → V in AAC36881 (PubMed:7906689).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
L02948 Unassigned DNA Translation: AAC36881.1
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC74274.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA36045.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
C64865, C53383

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_415708.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000197881.1, NZ_SSZK01000010.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblBacteriai
AAC74274; AAC74274; b1190
BAA36045; BAA36045; BAA36045

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
945754

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ecj:JW1179
eco:b1190

Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC)

More...
PATRICi
fig|1411691.4.peg.1097

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L02948 Unassigned DNA Translation: AAC36881.1
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC74274.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA36045.1
PIRiC64865, C53383
RefSeqiNP_415708.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000197881.1, NZ_SSZK01000010.1

3D structure databases

SMRiP29012
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGRIDi4260105, 648 interactors
DIPiDIP-9395N
IntActiP29012, 2 interactors
STRINGi511145.b1190

Proteomic databases

jPOSTiP29012
PaxDbiP29012
PRIDEiP29012

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaiAAC74274; AAC74274; b1190
BAA36045; BAA36045; BAA36045
GeneIDi945754
KEGGiecj:JW1179
eco:b1190
PATRICifig|1411691.4.peg.1097

Organism-specific databases

EchoBASE - an integrated post-genomic database for E. coli

More...
EchoBASEi
EB1380

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG0787, Bacteria
HOGENOMiCLU_028393_1_0_6
InParanoidiP29012
PhylomeDBiP29012

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciEcoCyc:ALARACECAT-MONOMER
MetaCyc:ALARACECAT-MONOMER
SABIO-RKiP29012

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:P29012

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.40.37.10, 1 hit
3.20.20.10, 1 hit
HAMAPiMF_01201, Ala_racemase, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000821, Ala_racemase
IPR009006, Ala_racemase/Decarboxylase_C
IPR011079, Ala_racemase_C
IPR001608, Ala_racemase_N
IPR020622, Ala_racemase_pyridoxalP-BS
IPR029066, PLP-binding_barrel
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00842, Ala_racemase_C, 1 hit
PF01168, Ala_racemase_N, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00992, ALARACEMASE
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM01005, Ala_racemase_C, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF50621, SSF50621, 1 hit
SSF51419, SSF51419, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR00492, alr, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00395, ALANINE_RACEMASE, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiALR2_ECOLI
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P29012
Secondary accession number(s): O87498, P78246
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 1, 1992
Last sequence update: November 1, 1997
Last modified: December 2, 2020
This is version 165 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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