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Entry version 85 (02 Jun 2021)
Sequence version 2 (13 Feb 2019)
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Protein

Progranulin

Gene

GRN

Organism
Cavia porcellus (Guinea pig)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Secreted protein that acts as a key regulator of lysosomal function and as a growth factor involved in inflammation, wound healing and cell proliferation (By similarity).

Regulates protein trafficking to lysosomes and, also the activity of lysosomal enzymes (By similarity).

Facilitates also the acidification of lysosomes, causing degradation of mature CTSD by CTSB (By similarity).

In addition, functions as wound-related growth factor that acts directly on dermal fibroblasts and endothelial cells to promote division, migration and the formation of capillary-like tubule structures (By similarity).

Also promotes epithelial cell proliferation by blocking TNF-mediated neutrophil activation preventing release of oxidants and proteases (By similarity).

Moreover, modulates inflammation in neurons by preserving neurons survival, axonal outgrowth and neuronal integrity (By similarity).

By similarity

Inhibits epithelial cell proliferation and induces epithelial cells to secrete IL-8.

By similarity

Stabilizes CTSD through interaction with CTSD leading to maintain its aspartic-type peptidase activity.

By similarity

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionCytokine

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
ProgranulinBy similarity
Short name:
PGRNBy similarity
Alternative name(s):
Acrogranin1 Publication
ProepithelinBy similarity
Short name:
PEPIBy similarity
Cleaved into the following 8 chains:
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:GRN
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiCavia porcellus (Guinea pig)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri10141 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaHystricomorphaCaviidaeCavia
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000005447 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unassembled WGS sequence

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Lysosome, Secreted

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 171 PublicationAdd BLAST17
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_000001268518 – 605ProgranulinAdd BLAST588
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the position and length of an active peptide in the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/peptide' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PeptideiPRO_000044633018 – 47ParagranulinBy similarityAdd BLAST30
PeptideiPRO_0000012686?67 – ?112Granulin-1Add BLAST46
PeptideiPRO_0000012687?125 – ?178Granulin-2Add BLAST54
PeptideiPRO_0000012688220 – 275Granulin-3Add BLAST56
PeptideiPRO_0000012689295 – 349Granulin-4Add BLAST55
PeptideiPRO_0000012690?390 – ?429Granulin-5Add BLAST40
PeptideiPRO_0000012691453 – ?508Granulin-6Add BLAST56
PeptideiPRO_0000012692?532 – ?583Granulin-7Add BLAST52

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi126 ↔ 139By similarity
Disulfide bondi133 ↔ 149By similarity
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM / Processing</a> section specifies the position and type of each covalently attached glycan group (mono-, di-, or polysaccharide).<p><a href='/help/carbohyd' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Glycosylationi197N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Disulfide bondi297 ↔ 309By similarity
Disulfide bondi303 ↔ 319By similarity
Disulfide bondi310 ↔ 327By similarity
Disulfide bondi320 ↔ 334By similarity
Disulfide bondi328 ↔ 341By similarity
Disulfide bondi335 ↔ 348By similarity
Disulfide bondi392 ↔ 404By similarity
Disulfide bondi398 ↔ 414By similarity

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

Cleaved by ELANE; proteolysis is blocked by SLPI and is concentration- and time-dependent and induces CXCL8/IL-8 production; granulin-3 and granulin-4 are resistant to ELANE. Cleaved by CTSL in lysosome thus regulating the maturation and turnover of progranulin within the lysosome.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSCPOG00000008789, Expressed in testis and 14 other tissues

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Progranulin is secreted as a homodimer.

Interacts with SLPI; interaction protects progranulin from proteolysis.

Interacts (via region corresponding to granulin-7 peptide) with CTSD; stabilizes CTSD and increases its proteolytic activity.

Interacts (via region corresponding to granulin-7 peptide) with SORT1; this interaction mediates endocytosis and lysosome delivery of progranulin; interaction occurs at the neuronal cell surface in a stressed nervous system.

Interacts with PSAP; facilitates lysosomal delivery of progranulin from the extracellular space and the biosynthetic pathway.

Forms a complex with PSAP and M6PR; PSAP bridges the binding between progranulin and M6PR.

Forms a complex with PSAP and SORT1; progranulin bridges the interaction between PSAP and SORT1; facilitates lysosomal targeting of PSAP via SORT1; interaction enhances PSAP uptake in primary cortical neurons.

Interacts (via regions corresponding to granulin-2 and granulin-7 peptides) with GBA; this interaction prevents aggregation of GBA-SCARB2 complex via interaction with HSPA1A upon stress.

Interacts (via region corresponding to granulin-7 peptide) with HSPA1A; mediates recruitment of HSPA1A to GBA and prevents GBA aggregation in response to stress.

By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
10141.ENSCPOP00000007890

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P28797

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni359 – 386DisorderedSequence analysisAdd BLAST28

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes the position of regions of compositional bias within the protein and the particular type of amino acids that are over-represented within those regions.<p><a href='/help/compbias' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Compositional biasi366 – 386Pro residuesSequence analysisAdd BLAST21

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the granulin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, Signal

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG4296, Eukaryota

Ensembl GeneTree

More...
GeneTreei
ENSGT00470000042293

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_026274_0_0_1

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P28797

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

More...
TreeFami
TF319678

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
3.10.20.500, 7 hits

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR000118, Granulin
IPR039036, Granulin_fam
IPR037277, Granulin_sf

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR12274, PTHR12274, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00396, Granulin, 6 hits

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00277, GRAN, 7 hits

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00799, GRANULINS, 6 hits

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P28797-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MWTLVGWTIL VAGLVAGIRC PDDQVCPVAC CPDSGGASYS CCDPGVDLRT
60 70 80 90 100
TALSGYLGRP CQSPANCPIG HSCVLTAAGT AACCPFSQAM ACGDGHHCCP
110 120 130 140 150
YGFHCSTDGG TCIQRPDIHL LGAVQCPGGE FECPDSSTCC HMLDGSWGCC
160 170 180 190 200
PMPQASCCED RVHCCPHGAS CDLVHIRCVT ALGSHPLTTK LPAQRTNYTG
210 220 230 240 250
AEGTPVVSPG LLPAALPTSV ICPDSRSQCP DDTTCCLLAS GEYGCCPMPN
260 270 280 290 300
AICCSDHLHC CPQDTVCDLR QSRCLSQNKA KTLLTKLPSW TVWDVECDQE
310 320 330 340 350
VSCPEGQTCC RLQSGKWGCC PFPKAVCCED HVHCCPEGFR CHTEKDTCEQ
360 370 380 390 400
GLLQVPWAQK TPAQPSRPSQ PSPPGPPGPP SPPGPLRSEI SCDEVVSCAP
410 420 430 440 450
GNICCRLASG EWGCCPSSEG YLCMAGERCQ VGDRLAPEKM AAHLMSLSQT
460 470 480 490 500
TDVGCDQHAS CPVGQTCCPK LGGGWACCQL PHAVCCEDGQ HCCPAGYTCN
510 520 530 540 550
VKARSCEKAA DGAHLAAPLA VGSTGGVMDV ACGDRHFCHD EQTCCRDSRG
560 570 580 590 600
GWACCPFHQG VCCKDQRHCC PAGFHCESQG TRCVHKKSLL HWDSLPRPAA

PRPRL
Length:605
Mass (Da):63,845
Last modified:February 13, 2019 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i22E11C38A96E5F87
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti338G → R in AAA37030 (PubMed:8471244).Curated1
Sequence conflicti399A → R in AAA37030 (PubMed:8471244).Curated1
Sequence conflicti464G → R in AAA37030 (PubMed:8471244).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AAKN02045624 Genomic DNA No translation available.
M86735 mRNA Translation: AAA37030.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
I48141

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENSCPOT00000008867; ENSCPOP00000007890; ENSCPOG00000008789

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AAKN02045624 Genomic DNA No translation available.
M86735 mRNA Translation: AAA37030.1
PIRiI48141

3D structure databases

SMRiP28797
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10141.ENSCPOP00000007890

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSCPOT00000008867; ENSCPOP00000007890; ENSCPOG00000008789

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG4296, Eukaryota
GeneTreeiENSGT00470000042293
HOGENOMiCLU_026274_0_0_1
InParanoidiP28797
TreeFamiTF319678

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSCPOG00000008789, Expressed in testis and 14 other tissues

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.10.20.500, 7 hits
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000118, Granulin
IPR039036, Granulin_fam
IPR037277, Granulin_sf
PANTHERiPTHR12274, PTHR12274, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00396, Granulin, 6 hits
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00277, GRAN, 7 hits
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00799, GRANULINS, 6 hits

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiGRN_CAVPO
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P28797
Secondary accession number(s): H0VD49
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 1, 1992
Last sequence update: February 13, 2019
Last modified: June 2, 2021
This is version 85 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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