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Protein

Exendin-4

Gene
N/A
Organism
Heloderma suspectum (Gila monster)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Venom protein that mimics the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). It stimulates insulin synthesis and secretion, protects against beta-cell apoptosis in response to different insults, and promotes beta-cell proliferation. It also promotes satiety, reduces food intake, reduces fat deposition, reduces body weight and inhibits gastric emptying. Interacts with GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R). Induces hypotension that is mediated by relaxation of cardiac smooth muscle.2 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionG-protein coupled receptor impairing toxin, Hypotensive agent, Toxin

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Exendin-4
Alternative name(s):
INN: Exenatide
OrganismiHeloderma suspectum (Gila monster)
Taxonomic identifieri8554 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiLepidosauriaSquamataBifurcataUnidentataEpisquamataToxicoferaAnguimorphaNeoanguimorphaHelodermatidaeHeloderma

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Pharmaceutical usei

Available under the name Byetta and Bydureon (extended-release exenatide) (Amylin Pharmaceuticals). Used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Enhances insulin secretion in response to elevated plasma glucose levels.

Protein family/group databases

Allergomei11965 Hel su Exenatide

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 23Sequence analysisAdd BLAST23
PropeptideiPRO_000001142124 – 45Add BLAST22
PeptideiPRO_000001142248 – 86Exendin-4Add BLAST39

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei86Serine amide1 Publication1

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed by the venom gland.

Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

Structurei

Secondary structure

187
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Helixi57 – 74Combined sources18
Helixi77 – 79Combined sources3
Beta strandi80 – 82Combined sources3

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1JRJNMR-A48-86[»]
2MJ9NMR-A48-86[»]
2NAVNMR-A48-56[»]
2NAWNMR-A48-77[»]
3C59X-ray2.30B56-86[»]
3C5TX-ray2.10B56-86[»]
5NIQNMR-A48-86[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP26349
SMRiP26349
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP26349

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glucagon family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

HOVERGENiHBG081487

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000532 Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00123 Hormone_2, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00070 GLUCA, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00260 GLUCAGON, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P26349-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKIILWLCVF GLFLATLFPI SWQMPVESGL SSEDSASSES FASKIKRHGE
60 70 80
GTFTSDLSKQ MEEEAVRLFI EWLKNGGPSS GAPPPSG
Length:87
Mass (Da):9,479
Last modified:July 15, 1998 - v2
Checksum:i656BA6E3D87454A2
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti13F → G no nucleotide entry (PubMed:9545315).Curated1

Mass spectrometryi

Molecular mass is 4186.02 Da from positions 48 - 86. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U77613 mRNA Translation: AAB51130.1
PIRiA42486 HWGH4G

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiEXE4_HELSU
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P26349
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 1, 1992
Last sequence update: July 15, 1998
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 90 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
Annotation programAnimal Toxin Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Direct protein sequencing, Pharmaceutical

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

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