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Entry version 134 (13 Nov 2019)
Sequence version 3 (11 Oct 2004)
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Protein

Guanosine-5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate pyrophosphatase

Gene

gppA

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the conversion of pppGpp to ppGpp. Guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) is a cytoplasmic signaling molecule which together with ppGpp controls the 'stringent response', an adaptive process that allows bacteria to respond to amino acid starvation, resulting in the coordinated regulation of numerous cellular activities (PubMed:6130093, PubMed:8394006). In vitro, can hydrolyze pppGp (PubMed:6130093). Also has exopolyphosphatase activity, catalyzing the release of orthophosphate by processive hydrolysis of the phosphoanyhydride bonds of polyphosphate chains (1000 residues) (PubMed:8394006).2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Requires Mg2+ and a monovalent cation, with NH4 preferred over K+ (PubMed:6130093). KCl, NaCl and NaF salts inhibit the exopolyphosphatase activity (PubMed:8394006).2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

kcat is 0.023 sec(-1) for pppGpp hydrolase activity. kcat is 1.1 s(-1) for the exopolyphosphatase activity.1 Publication
  1. KM=0.11 mM for pppGpp1 Publication
  2. KM=0.13 mM for pppGpp1 Publication
  3. KM=0.13 mM for pppGp1 Publication
  4. KM=0.5 nM for long-chain poly(P)1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 9.1 Publication

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: ppGpp biosynthesis

    This protein is involved in step 2 of the subpathway that synthesizes ppGpp from GTP.UniRule annotation1 Publication
    Proteins known to be involved in the 2 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
    1. GTP pyrophosphokinase (relA), Bifunctional (p)ppGpp synthase/hydrolase SpoT (spoT)
    2. Guanosine-5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate pyrophosphatase (gppA), Guanosine-5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate pyrophosphatase (gppA), Guanosine-5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate pyrophosphatase (gppA), Guanosine-5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate pyrophosphatase (gppA), Guanosine-5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate pyrophosphatase (gppA)
    This subpathway is part of the pathway ppGpp biosynthesis, which is itself part of Purine metabolism.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes ppGpp from GTP, the pathway ppGpp biosynthesis and in Purine metabolism.

    <p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    <p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

    Molecular functionHydrolase

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

    More...
    BioCyci
    EcoCyc:PPPGPPHYDRO-MONOMER
    ECOL316407:JW5603-MONOMER
    MetaCyc:PPPGPPHYDRO-MONOMER

    UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

    More...
    UniPathwayi
    UPA00908;UER00885

    <p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Guanosine-5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate pyrophosphataseUniRule annotationCurated (EC:3.6.1.40UniRule annotation2 Publications)
    Alternative name(s):
    Guanosine pentaphosphate phosphohydrolase1 PublicationUniRule annotation
    pppGpp-5'-phosphohydrolaseUniRule annotation
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
    Name:gppAUniRule annotation
    Synonyms:gpp1 Publication
    Ordered Locus Names:b3779, JW5603
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacteralesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
    • UP000000318 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome
    • UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

    <p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001942801 – 494Guanosine-5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate pyrophosphataseAdd BLAST494

    Proteomic databases

    jPOST - Japan Proteome Standard Repository/Database

    More...
    jPOSTi
    P25552

    PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

    More...
    PaxDbi
    P25552

    PRoteomics IDEntifications database

    More...
    PRIDEi
    P25552

    <p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

    More...
    BioGridi
    4263319, 6 interactors

    STRING: functional protein association networks

    More...
    STRINGi
    511145.b3779

    <p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

    3D structure databases

    SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

    More...
    SMRi
    P25552

    Database of comparative protein structure models

    More...
    ModBasei
    Search...

    <p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the GppA/Ppx family. GppA subfamily.UniRule annotationCurated

    Phylogenomic databases

    evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

    More...
    eggNOGi
    ENOG4105C9X Bacteria
    COG0248 LUCA

    The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

    More...
    HOGENOMi
    HOG000258672

    InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

    More...
    InParanoidi
    P25552

    KEGG Orthology (KO)

    More...
    KOi
    K01524

    Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

    More...
    PhylomeDBi
    P25552

    Family and domain databases

    HAMAP database of protein families

    More...
    HAMAPi
    MF_01550 GppA, 1 hit

    Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

    More...
    InterProi
    View protein in InterPro
    IPR023709 Guo-5TP_3DP_PyrP
    IPR003695 Ppx_GppA
    IPR030673 PyroPPase_GppA_Ppx

    Pfam protein domain database

    More...
    Pfami
    View protein in Pfam
    PF02541 Ppx-GppA, 1 hit

    PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

    More...
    PIRSFi
    PIRSF001267 Pyrophosphatase_GppA_Ppx, 1 hit

    <p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

    P25552-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    « Hide
            10         20         30         40         50
    MGSTSSLYAA IDLGSNSFHM LVVREVAGSI QTLTRIKRKV RLAAGLNSEN
    60 70 80 90 100
    ALSNEAMERG WQCLRLFAER LQDIPPSQIR VVATATLRLA VNAGDFIAKA
    110 120 130 140 150
    QEILGCPVQV ISGEEEARLI YQGVAHTTGG ADQRLVVDIG GASTELVTGT
    160 170 180 190 200
    GAQTTSLFSL SMGCVTWLER YFADRNLGQE NFDAAEKAAR EVLRPVADEL
    210 220 230 240 250
    RYHGWKVCVG ASGTVQALQE IMMAQGMDER ITLEKLQQLK QRAIHCGRLE
    260 270 280 290 300
    ELEIDGLTLE RALVFPSGLA ILIAIFTELN IQCMTLAGGA LREGLVYGML
    310 320 330 340 350
    HLAVEQDIRS RTLRNIQRRF MIDIDQAQRV AKVAANFFDQ VENEWHLEAI
    360 370 380 390 400
    SRDLLISACQ LHEIGLSVDF KQAPQHAAYL VRNLDLPGFT PAQKKLLATL
    410 420 430 440 450
    LLNQTNPVDL SSLHQQNAVP PRVAEQLCRL LRLAIIFASR RRDDLVPEMT
    460 470 480 490
    LQANHELLTL TLPQGWLTQH PLGKEIIAQE SQWQSYVHWP LEVH
    Length:494
    Mass (Da):54,871
    Last modified:October 11, 2004 - v3
    <p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iC4DD8DC59432A5F9
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti86T → R in AAA67580 (PubMed:1379743).Curated1
    Sequence conflicti423V → L in AAA67580 (PubMed:1379743).Curated1
    Sequence conflicti437 – 494FASRR…PLEVH → VGQPSP in AAB59049 (PubMed:1931833).CuratedAdd BLAST58

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:

    EMBL nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    EMBLi

    GenBank nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    GenBanki

    DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    M83316 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB59049.1
    M87049 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA67580.1
    U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAT48210.1
    AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAE77519.1

    Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

    More...
    PIRi
    A48285

    NCBI Reference Sequences

    More...
    RefSeqi
    WP_001295254.1, NZ_SSZK01000025.1
    YP_026252.1, NC_000913.3

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project

    More...
    EnsemblBacteriai
    AAT48210; AAT48210; b3779
    BAE77519; BAE77519; BAE77519

    Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

    More...
    GeneIDi
    948291

    KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

    More...
    KEGGi
    ecj:JW5603
    eco:b3779

    Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC)

    More...
    PATRICi
    fig|511145.12.peg.3894

    <p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

    <p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    M83316 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB59049.1
    M87049 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA67580.1
    U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAT48210.1
    AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAE77519.1
    PIRiA48285
    RefSeqiWP_001295254.1, NZ_SSZK01000025.1
    YP_026252.1, NC_000913.3

    3D structure databases

    SMRiP25552
    ModBaseiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi4263319, 6 interactors
    STRINGi511145.b3779

    Proteomic databases

    jPOSTiP25552
    PaxDbiP25552
    PRIDEiP25552

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriaiAAT48210; AAT48210; b3779
    BAE77519; BAE77519; BAE77519
    GeneIDi948291
    KEGGiecj:JW5603
    eco:b3779
    PATRICifig|511145.12.peg.3894

    Organism-specific databases

    EchoBASE - an integrated post-genomic database for E. coli

    More...
    EchoBASEi
    EB0408

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiENOG4105C9X Bacteria
    COG0248 LUCA
    HOGENOMiHOG000258672
    InParanoidiP25552
    KOiK01524
    PhylomeDBiP25552

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayiUPA00908;UER00885
    BioCyciEcoCyc:PPPGPPHYDRO-MONOMER
    ECOL316407:JW5603-MONOMER
    MetaCyc:PPPGPPHYDRO-MONOMER

    Miscellaneous databases

    Protein Ontology

    More...
    PROi
    PR:P25552

    Family and domain databases

    HAMAPiMF_01550 GppA, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR023709 Guo-5TP_3DP_PyrP
    IPR003695 Ppx_GppA
    IPR030673 PyroPPase_GppA_Ppx
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF02541 Ppx-GppA, 1 hit
    PIRSFiPIRSF001267 Pyrophosphatase_GppA_Ppx, 1 hit

    ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

    More...
    ProtoNeti
    Search...

    MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

    More...
    MobiDBi
    Search...

    <p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiGPPA_ECOLI
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P25552
    Secondary accession number(s): Q2M887, Q6BF04
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 1, 1992
    Last sequence update: October 11, 2004
    Last modified: November 13, 2019
    This is version 134 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

    <p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families
    2. Escherichia coli
      Escherichia coli (strain K12): entries and cross-references to EcoGene
    3. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
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