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Protein

High mobility group protein B2

Gene

HMGB2

Organism
Sus scrofa (Pig)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Multifunctional protein with various roles in different cellular compartments. May act in a redox sensitive manner. In the nucleus is an abundant chromatin-associated non-histone protein involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling and V(D)J recombination and probably other processes (By similarity). Binds DNA with a preference to non-canonical DNA structures such as single-stranded DNA. Can bent DNA and enhance DNA flexibility by looping thus providing a mechanism to promote activities on various gene promoters by enhancing transcription factor binding and/or bringing distant regulatory sequences into close proximity (PubMed:11275566). Involved in V(D)J recombination by acting as a cofactor of the RAG complex: acts by stimulating cleavage and RAG protein binding at the 23 bp spacer of conserved recombination signal sequences (RSS). Proposed to be involved in the innate immune response to nucleic acids by acting as a cytoplasmic promiscuous immunogenic DNA/RNA sensor which cooperates with subsequent discriminative sensing by specific pattern recognition receptors. In the extracellular compartment acts as a chemokine. Promotes proliferation and migration of endothelial cells implicating AGER/RAGE. Has antimicrobial activity in gastrointestinal epithelial tissues. Involved in inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus coupled with proinflammatory activity. May play a role in germ cell differentiation. Involved in modulation of neurogenesis probably by regulation of neural stem proliferation. Involved in articular cartilage surface maintenance implicating LEF1 and the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
DNA bindingi9 – 79HMG box 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST71
DNA bindingi95 – 163HMG box 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST69

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDNA-binding
Biological processChemotaxis, DNA recombination, Immunity, Inflammatory response, Innate immunity, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
High mobility group protein B2
Alternative name(s):
High mobility group protein 2
Short name:
HMG-2
Gene namesi
Name:HMGB2
Synonyms:HMG2
OrganismiSus scrofa (Pig)
Taxonomic identifieri9823 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaSuinaSuidaeSus
Proteomesi
  • UP000008227 Componenti: Unplaced

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chromosome, Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000485361 – 210High mobility group protein B2Add BLAST210

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei3N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Disulfide bondi23 ↔ 45In disulfide HMGB2; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei23Cysteine sulfonic acid (-SO3H); alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei30N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei35PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei43N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei45Cysteine sulfonic acid (-SO3H); alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei90N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei100PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei106Cysteine sulfonic acid (-SO3H)By similarity1
Modified residuei114N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei141N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

Reduction/oxidation of cysteine residues Cys-23, Cys-45 and Cys-106 and a possible intramolecular disulfide bond involving Cys-23 and Cys-45 give rise to different redox forms with specific functional activities in various cellular compartments: 1- fully reduced HMGB2 (HMGB2C23hC45hC106h), 2- disulfide HMGB2 (HMGB2C23-C45C106h) and 3- sulfonyl HMGB2 (HMGB2C23soC45soC106so).By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Disulfide bond, Oxidation, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP17741
PeptideAtlasiP17741
PRIDEiP17741

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with POU2F2, POU2F1 and POU3F1. Component of the RAG complex composed of core components RAG1 and RAG2, and associated component HMGB1 or HMGB2. Component of the SET complex, composed of at least ANP32A, APEX1, HMGB2, NME1, SET and TREX1. Directly interacts with SET. Interacts with LEF1.By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9823.ENSSSCP00000010363

Structurei

Secondary structure

1210
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP17741
SMRiP17741
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP17741

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni165 – 180Required for chemotactic activityBy similarityAdd BLAST16

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi186 – 210Asp/Glu-rich (acidic)Add BLAST25

Domaini

Both, HMG box 1 and HMG box 2, show antimicrobial activity.By similarity

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the HMGB family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0381 Eukaryota
COG5648 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000197861
HOVERGENiHBG009000
InParanoidiP17741
KOiK11295

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.30.10, 2 hits
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR009071 HMG_box_dom
IPR036910 HMG_box_dom_sf
IPR017967 HMG_boxA_CS
IPR031075 HMGB2
PANTHERiPTHR13711:SF181 PTHR13711:SF181, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00505 HMG_box, 1 hit
PF09011 HMG_box_2, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00398 HMG, 2 hits
SUPFAMiSSF47095 SSF47095, 2 hits
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00353 HMG_BOX_1, 1 hit
PS50118 HMG_BOX_2, 2 hits

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P17741-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MGKGDPNKPR GKMSSYAFFV QTCREEHKKK HPDSSVNFAE FSKKCSERWK
60 70 80 90 100
TMSAKEKSKF EDMAKSDKAR YDREMKNYVP PKGDKKGKKK DPNAPKRPPS
110 120 130 140 150
AFFLFCSEHR PKIKSEHPGL SIGDTAKKLG EMWSEQSAKD KQPYEQKAAK
160 170 180 190 200
LKEKYEKDIA AYRAKGKGEA GKKGPGRPTG SKKKNEPEDE EEEEEEEEDE
210
DEEEEDEDEE
Length:210
Mass (Da):24,133
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v2
Checksum:i28FF308D9B341D83
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
J02895 mRNA Translation: AAA31051.1
PIRiA34719
RefSeqiNP_999228.1, NM_214063.1
UniGeneiSsc.226

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi397130
KEGGissc:397130

Similar proteinsi

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
J02895 mRNA Translation: AAA31051.1
PIRiA34719
RefSeqiNP_999228.1, NM_214063.1
UniGeneiSsc.226

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1J3CNMR-A88-165[»]
1J3DNMR-A89-165[»]
1J3XNMR-A1-77[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP17741
SMRiP17741
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9823.ENSSSCP00000010363

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP17741
PeptideAtlasiP17741
PRIDEiP17741

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi397130
KEGGissc:397130

Organism-specific databases

CTDi3148

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0381 Eukaryota
COG5648 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000197861
HOVERGENiHBG009000
InParanoidiP17741
KOiK11295

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP17741

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.30.10, 2 hits
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR009071 HMG_box_dom
IPR036910 HMG_box_dom_sf
IPR017967 HMG_boxA_CS
IPR031075 HMGB2
PANTHERiPTHR13711:SF181 PTHR13711:SF181, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00505 HMG_box, 1 hit
PF09011 HMG_box_2, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00398 HMG, 2 hits
SUPFAMiSSF47095 SSF47095, 2 hits
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00353 HMG_BOX_1, 1 hit
PS50118 HMG_BOX_2, 2 hits
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiHMGB2_PIG
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P17741
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1990
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: June 20, 2018
This is version 130 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

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