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Protein

Protein kinase C alpha type

Gene

PRKCA

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in positive and negative regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration and adhesion, tumorigenesis, cardiac hypertrophy, angiogenesis, platelet function and inflammation, by directly phosphorylating targets such as RAF1, BCL2, CSPG4, TNNT2/CTNT, or activating signaling cascade involving MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) and RAP1GAP. Involved in cell proliferation and cell growth arrest by positive and negative regulation of the cell cycle. Can promote cell growth by phosphorylating and activating RAF1, which mediates the activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade, and/or by up-regulating CDKN1A, which facilitates active cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complex formation in glioma cells. In intestinal cells stimulated by the phorbol ester PMA, can trigger a cell cycle arrest program which is associated with the accumulation of the hyper-phosphorylated growth-suppressive form of RB1 and induction of the CDK inhibitors CDKN1A and CDKN1B. Exhibits anti-apoptotic function in glioma cells and protects them from apoptosis by suppressing the p53/TP53-mediated activation of IGFBP3, and in leukemia cells mediates anti-apoptotic action by phosphorylating BCL2. During macrophage differentiation induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1), is translocated to the nucleus and is associated with macrophage development. After wounding, translocates from focal contacts to lamellipodia and participates in the modulation of desmosomal adhesion. Plays a role in cell motility by phosphorylating CSPG4, which induces association of CSPG4 with extensive lamellipodia at the cell periphery and polarization of the cell accompanied by increases in cell motility. During chemokine-induced CD4+ T cell migration, phosphorylates CDC42-guanine exchange factor DOCK8 resulting in its dissociation from LRCH1 and the activation of GTPase CDC42 (PubMed:28028151). Is highly expressed in a number of cancer cells where it can act as a tumor promoter and is implicated in malignant phenotypes of several tumors such as gliomas and breast cancers. Negatively regulates myocardial contractility and positively regulates angiogenesis, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in arteries. Mediates hypertrophic growth of neonatal cardiomyocytes, in part through a MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2)-dependent signaling pathway, and upon PMA treatment, is required to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy up to heart failure and death, by increasing protein synthesis, protein-DNA ratio and cell surface area. Regulates cardiomyocyte function by phosphorylating cardiac troponin T (TNNT2/CTNT), which induces significant reduction in actomyosin ATPase activity, myofilament calcium sensitivity and myocardial contractility. In angiogenesis, is required for full endothelial cell migration, adhesion to vitronectin (VTN), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-dependent regulation of kinase activation and vascular tube formation. Involved in the stabilization of VEGFA mRNA at post-transcriptional level and mediates VEGFA-induced cell proliferation. In the regulation of calcium-induced platelet aggregation, mediates signals from the CD36/GP4 receptor for granule release, and activates the integrin heterodimer ITGA2B-ITGB3 through the RAP1GAP pathway for adhesion. During response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), may regulate selective LPS-induced macrophage functions involved in host defense and inflammation. But in some inflammatory responses, may negatively regulate NF-kappa-B-induced genes, through IL1A-dependent induction of NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (NFKBIA/IKBA). Upon stimulation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), phosphorylates EIF4G1, which modulates EIF4G1 binding to MKNK1 and may be involved in the regulation of EIF4E phosphorylation. Phosphorylates KIT, leading to inhibition of KIT activity. Phosphorylates ATF2 which promotes cooperation between ATF2 and JUN, activating transcription.16 Publications

Catalytic activityi

ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.

Cofactori

Ca2+By similarityNote: Binds 3 Ca2+ ions per subunit. The ions are bound to the C2 domain.By similarity

Enzyme regulationi

Classical (or conventional) PKCs (PRKCA, PRKCB and PRKCG) are activated by calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG) in the presence of phosphatidylserine. Three specific sites; Thr-497 (activation loop of the kinase domain), Thr-638 (turn motif) and Ser-657 (hydrophobic region), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Metal bindingi186Calcium 1; via carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi187Calcium 1By similarity1
Metal bindingi187Calcium 2By similarity1
Metal bindingi193Calcium 2By similarity1
Binding sitei195Inositol phosphate groupBy similarity1
Binding sitei245Inositol phosphate groupBy similarity1
Metal bindingi246Calcium 1By similarity1
Metal bindingi246Calcium 2By similarity1
Metal bindingi247Calcium 2; via carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi248Calcium 1By similarity1
Metal bindingi248Calcium 2By similarity1
Metal bindingi248Calcium 3By similarity1
Metal bindingi252Calcium 3; via carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi254Calcium 1By similarity1
Metal bindingi254Calcium 3By similarity1
Binding sitei368ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Active sitei463Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Zinc fingeri36 – 86Phorbol-ester/DAG-type 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST51
Zinc fingeri101 – 151Phorbol-ester/DAG-type 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST51
Nucleotide bindingi345 – 353ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation9

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • angiogenesis Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • apoptotic signaling pathway Source: ProtInc
  • axon guidance Source: Reactome
  • cell adhesion Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • desmosome assembly Source: BHF-UCL
  • ERBB2 signaling pathway Source: Reactome
  • histone H3-T6 phosphorylation Source: UniProtKB
  • intracellular signal transduction Source: GO_Central
  • mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly Source: Reactome
  • negative regulation of glial cell apoptotic process Source: UniProtKB
  • peptidyl-serine phosphorylation Source: GO_Central
  • peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation Source: ARUK-UCL
  • platelet activation Source: Reactome
  • positive regulation of adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: BHF-UCL
  • positive regulation of angiogenesis Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration Source: DFLAT
  • positive regulation of bone resorption Source: BHF-UCL
  • positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of cell adhesion Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of cell migration Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of dense core granule biogenesis Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of endothelial cell migration Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of macrophage differentiation Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of mitotic cell cycle Source: UniProtKB
  • protein phosphorylation Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of insulin secretion Source: Reactome
  • regulation of mRNA stability Source: Reactome
  • regulation of platelet aggregation Source: UniProtKB
  • response to interleukin-1 Source: BHF-UCL

Keywordsi

Molecular functionKinase, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Transferase
Biological processAngiogenesis, Apoptosis, Cell adhesion
LigandATP-binding, Calcium, Metal-binding, Nucleotide-binding, Zinc

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi2.7.11.13 2681
ReactomeiR-HSA-111933 Calmodulin induced events
R-HSA-114516 Disinhibition of SNARE formation
R-HSA-1250196 SHC1 events in ERBB2 signaling
R-HSA-1433557 Signaling by SCF-KIT
R-HSA-1433559 Regulation of KIT signaling
R-HSA-2179392 EGFR Transactivation by Gastrin
R-HSA-2514859 Inactivation, recovery and regulation of the phototransduction cascade
R-HSA-3000170 Syndecan interactions
R-HSA-399997 Acetylcholine regulates insulin secretion
R-HSA-4086398 Ca2+ pathway
R-HSA-416993 Trafficking of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors
R-HSA-418597 G alpha (z) signalling events
R-HSA-4419969 Depolymerisation of the Nuclear Lamina
R-HSA-450520 HuR (ELAVL1) binds and stabilizes mRNA
R-HSA-5099900 WNT5A-dependent internalization of FZD4
R-HSA-5218921 VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation
R-HSA-76005 Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+
R-HSA-8853659 RET signaling
R-HSA-9010642 ROBO receptors bind AKAP5
SABIO-RKiP17252
SignaLinkiP17252
SIGNORiP17252

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein kinase C alpha type (EC:2.7.11.13)
Short name:
PKC-A
Short name:
PKC-alpha
Gene namesi
Name:PRKCA
Synonyms:PKCA, PRKACA
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 17

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000154229.11
HGNCiHGNC:9393 PRKCA
MIMi176960 gene
neXtProtiNX_P17252

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Cytoplasm, Membrane, Mitochondrion, Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Keywords - Diseasei

Proto-oncogene

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi5578
OpenTargetsiENSG00000154229
PharmGKBiPA33759

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL299
DrugBankiDB08846 Ellagic Acid
DB05013 Ingenol Mebutate
DB00144 Phosphatidyl serine
DB00675 Tamoxifen
DB00163 Vitamin E
GuidetoPHARMACOLOGYi1482

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiPRKCA
DMDMi317373571

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Initiator methionineiRemovedCombined sources1 Publication
ChainiPRO_00000556792 – 672Protein kinase C alpha typeAdd BLAST671

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei2N-acetylalanineCombined sources1
Modified residuei10PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei226PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei319PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei494PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei495PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei497Phosphothreonine; by PDPK1By similarityCurated1
Modified residuei501PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei628N6-acetyllysineCombined sources1
Modified residuei631Phosphothreonine; by autocatalysisSequence analysisBy similarity1
Modified residuei638Phosphothreonine; by autocatalysisCombined sources1
Modified residuei651PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei657PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei658Phosphotyrosine; by SYKBy similarity1

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

EPDiP17252
MaxQBiP17252
PaxDbiP17252
PeptideAtlasiP17252
PRIDEiP17252
ProteomicsDBi53464

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP17252
PhosphoSitePlusiP17252
SwissPalmiP17252

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBiP17252

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000154229
CleanExiHS_PRKACA
HS_PRKCA
ExpressionAtlasiP17252 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP17252 HS

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB003844
CAB016290
HPA006563
HPA006564

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Recruited in a circadian manner into a nuclear complex which also includes BMAL1 and RACK1 (By similarity). Interacts with ADAP1/CENTA1 (PubMed:12893243). Interacts with CSPG4 (PubMed:15504744). Binds to CAVIN2 in the presence of phosphatidylserine (By similarity). Interacts with PRKCABP/PICK1 (via PDZ domain) (PubMed:15247289). Interacts with TRIM41 (PubMed:17893151). Interacts with PARD3 (PubMed:27925688).By similarity5 Publications

Binary interactionsi

Show more details

GO - Molecular functioni

  • enzyme binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • integrin binding Source: BHF-UCL

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi111564, 160 interactors
CORUMiP17252
DIPiDIP-531N
IntActiP17252, 35 interactors
MINTiP17252
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000408695

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP17252

Structurei

Secondary structure

1672
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Turni98 – 100Combined sources3
Beta strandi105 – 107Combined sources3
Beta strandi116 – 118Combined sources3
Beta strandi125 – 127Combined sources3
Beta strandi129 – 131Combined sources3
Beta strandi133 – 135Combined sources3
Beta strandi138 – 140Combined sources3
Turni141 – 146Combined sources6
Beta strandi161 – 169Combined sources9
Beta strandi172 – 182Combined sources11
Beta strandi194 – 202Combined sources9
Beta strandi222 – 230Combined sources9
Helixi233 – 237Combined sources5
Beta strandi239 – 246Combined sources8
Beta strandi249 – 251Combined sources3
Beta strandi254 – 262Combined sources9
Helixi263 – 268Combined sources6
Beta strandi271 – 276Combined sources6
Helixi282 – 284Combined sources3
Helixi336 – 338Combined sources3
Beta strandi339 – 350Combined sources12
Beta strandi352 – 361Combined sources10
Beta strandi364 – 371Combined sources8
Helixi372 – 377Combined sources6
Helixi381 – 392Combined sources12
Beta strandi403 – 408Combined sources6
Beta strandi410 – 417Combined sources8
Beta strandi422 – 424Combined sources3
Helixi425 – 432Combined sources8
Helixi437 – 456Combined sources20
Helixi466 – 468Combined sources3
Beta strandi469 – 471Combined sources3
Beta strandi477 – 479Combined sources3
Helixi502 – 504Combined sources3
Helixi507 – 510Combined sources4
Helixi518 – 533Combined sources16
Helixi543 – 552Combined sources10
Helixi563 – 572Combined sources10
Helixi577 – 579Combined sources3
Helixi587 – 593Combined sources7
Helixi595 – 597Combined sources3
Helixi602 – 606Combined sources5
Helixi642 – 646Combined sources5
Helixi650 – 653Combined sources4

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP17252
SMRiP17252
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP17252

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini172 – 260C2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST89
Domaini339 – 597Protein kinasePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST259
Domaini598 – 668AGC-kinase C-terminalAdd BLAST71

Sequence similaritiesi

Zinc finger

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Zinc fingeri36 – 86Phorbol-ester/DAG-type 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST51
Zinc fingeri101 – 151Phorbol-ester/DAG-type 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST51

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, Zinc-finger

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0694 Eukaryota
ENOG410XNPH LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00920000148938
HOGENOMiHOG000233022
HOVERGENiHBG108317
InParanoidiP17252
KOiK02677
OMAiSSLNPCW
OrthoDBiEOG091G0QRS
PhylomeDBiP17252
TreeFamiTF351133

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00029 C1, 2 hits
cd05615 STKc_cPKC_alpha, 1 hit
Gene3Di2.60.40.150, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000961 AGC-kinase_C
IPR000008 C2_dom
IPR035892 C2_domain_sf
IPR034663 cPKC_alpha
IPR020454 DAG/PE-bd
IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf
IPR002219 PE/DAG-bd
IPR017892 Pkinase_C
IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom
IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
IPR014375 Protein_kinase_C_a/b/g
IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00130 C1_1, 2 hits
PF00168 C2, 1 hit
PF00069 Pkinase, 1 hit
PF00433 Pkinase_C, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF000550 PKC_alpha, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00360 C2DOMAIN
PR00008 DAGPEDOMAIN
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00109 C1, 2 hits
SM00239 C2, 1 hit
SM00133 S_TK_X, 1 hit
SM00220 S_TKc, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF56112 SSF56112, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51285 AGC_KINASE_CTER, 1 hit
PS50004 C2, 1 hit
PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit
PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit
PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 hit
PS00479 ZF_DAG_PE_1, 2 hits
PS50081 ZF_DAG_PE_2, 2 hits

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P17252-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MADVFPGNDS TASQDVANRF ARKGALRQKN VHEVKDHKFI ARFFKQPTFC
60 70 80 90 100
SHCTDFIWGF GKQGFQCQVC CFVVHKRCHE FVTFSCPGAD KGPDTDDPRS
110 120 130 140 150
KHKFKIHTYG SPTFCDHCGS LLYGLIHQGM KCDTCDMNVH KQCVINVPSL
160 170 180 190 200
CGMDHTEKRG RIYLKAEVAD EKLHVTVRDA KNLIPMDPNG LSDPYVKLKL
210 220 230 240 250
IPDPKNESKQ KTKTIRSTLN PQWNESFTFK LKPSDKDRRL SVEIWDWDRT
260 270 280 290 300
TRNDFMGSLS FGVSELMKMP ASGWYKLLNQ EEGEYYNVPI PEGDEEGNME
310 320 330 340 350
LRQKFEKAKL GPAGNKVISP SEDRKQPSNN LDRVKLTDFN FLMVLGKGSF
360 370 380 390 400
GKVMLADRKG TEELYAIKIL KKDVVIQDDD VECTMVEKRV LALLDKPPFL
410 420 430 440 450
TQLHSCFQTV DRLYFVMEYV NGGDLMYHIQ QVGKFKEPQA VFYAAEISIG
460 470 480 490 500
LFFLHKRGII YRDLKLDNVM LDSEGHIKIA DFGMCKEHMM DGVTTRTFCG
510 520 530 540 550
TPDYIAPEII AYQPYGKSVD WWAYGVLLYE MLAGQPPFDG EDEDELFQSI
560 570 580 590 600
MEHNVSYPKS LSKEAVSVCK GLMTKHPAKR LGCGPEGERD VREHAFFRRI
610 620 630 640 650
DWEKLENREI QPPFKPKVCG KGAENFDKFF TRGQPVLTPP DQLVIANIDQ
660 670
SDFEGFSYVN PQFVHPILQS AV
Length:672
Mass (Da):76,750
Last modified:January 11, 2011 - v4
Checksum:i9EB157789A062349
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti50C → S in AAA60098 (PubMed:1714454).Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_04230198P → S in a colorectal adenocarcinoma sample; somatic mutation. 1 Publication1
Natural variantiVAR_042302467D → N in a glioblastoma multiforme sample; somatic mutation. 1 Publication1
Natural variantiVAR_042303489M → V1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs34406842Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_050558568V → I4 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs6504459Ensembl.1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X52479 mRNA Translation: CAA36718.1
AB451258 mRNA Translation: BAG70072.1
AB451383 mRNA Translation: BAG70197.1
AC005918 Genomic DNA No translation available.
AC005988 Genomic DNA No translation available.
AC006263 Genomic DNA No translation available.
AC006947 Genomic DNA No translation available.
AC009452 Genomic DNA No translation available.
AC060796 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471099 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW89014.1
BC109273 mRNA Translation: AAI09274.1
BC109274 mRNA Translation: AAI09275.1
M22199 mRNA Translation: AAA60098.1
AF395829 Genomic DNA Translation: AAK84184.1
CCDSiCCDS11664.1
PIRiS09496 KIHUCA
RefSeqiNP_002728.1, NM_002737.2
UniGeneiHs.531704
Hs.708867

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000413366; ENSP00000408695; ENSG00000154229
GeneIDi5578
KEGGihsa:5578
UCSCiuc002jfp.2 human

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiKPCA_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P17252
Secondary accession number(s): B5BU22
, Q15137, Q32M72, Q96RE4
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1990
Last sequence update: January 11, 2011
Last modified: July 18, 2018
This is version 215 of the entry and version 4 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 17
    Human chromosome 17: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  6. Human and mouse protein kinases
    Human and mouse protein kinases: classification and index
  7. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

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