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Entry version 114 (08 May 2019)
Sequence version 1 (01 Aug 1990)
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Protein

Glutamine synthetase

Gene

GLUL

Organism
Gallus gallus (Chicken)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Glutamine synthetase that catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of glutamate and ammonia to glutamine (PubMed:19895308). When expressed in liver, it may be involved in detoxifying intramitochondrially generated ammonia (PubMed:4401992). Also acts as glutamate decarboxylase by catalyzing the production of 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA) in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (PubMed:19895308).2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

Protein has several cofactor binding sites:

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Glutamate to glutamine ratio influences catalytic activity (PubMed:19895308). At glutamate to glutamine ratios greater than 4, decarboxylase activity ceases (PubMed:19895308). In the presence of manganese, synthetase activity is limited to concentrations between 10 mM and 20 mM, whereas decarboxylase activity is not affected (PubMed:19895308). Both catalytic activities are inhibited by avidin (PubMed:19895308).1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the ‘Description’ field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi134Manganese 1By similarity1
<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei134ATPBy similarity1
Metal bindingi136Manganese 2By similarity1
Metal bindingi196Manganese 2By similarity1
Metal bindingi203Manganese 2By similarity1
Metal bindingi253Manganese 1; via pros nitrogenBy similarity1
Binding sitei319ATPBy similarity1
Binding sitei319L-glutamateBy similarity1
Binding sitei324ATPBy similarity1
Metal bindingi338Manganese 1By similarity1
Binding sitei340L-glutamateBy similarity1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi203 – 208ATPBy similarity6
Nucleotide bindingi255 – 257ATPBy similarity3
Nucleotide bindingi336 – 338ADPBy similarity3

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionLigase, Lyase
LigandATP-binding, Magnesium, Manganese, Metal-binding, Nucleotide-binding

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glutamine synthetase1 Publication (EC:6.3.1.21 Publication)
Short name:
GS1 Publication
Alternative name(s):
Glutamate decarboxylase1 Publication (EC:4.1.1.151 Publication)
Glutamate--ammonia ligaseCurated
p42
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:GLULBy similarity
Synonyms:GLNS
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiGallus gallus (Chicken)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9031 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiArchelosauriaArchosauriaDinosauriaSaurischiaTheropodaCoelurosauriaAvesNeognathaeGalloanseraeGalliformesPhasianidaePhasianinaeGallus
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000000539 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unplaced

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Mitochondrion

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001531441 – 373Glutamine synthetaseAdd BLAST373

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P16580

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Expressed in retina, brain and liver (PubMed:1356223). Little or no detectable expression in breast muscle, pancreas and spleen (PubMed:1356223).1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of the gene product at various stages of a cell, tissue or organism development. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at the protein level’.<p><a href='/help/developmental_stage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Developmental stagei

Weakly expressed in retina on embryonic day 18, with levels increasing until day 6 after hatching and then remaining high until day 21 (at protein level).1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

In the retina, down-regulated upon application of glutamate concentrations of 15 µmol/eye or higher.1 Publication

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homooctamer and homotetramer.1 Publication

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

More...
BioGridi
676736, 1 interactor

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
P16580, 1 interactor

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
9031.ENSGALP00000005819

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
P16580

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni246 – 247L-glutamate bindingBy similarity2

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glutamine synthetase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG0683 Eukaryota
COG0174 LUCA

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000061500

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P16580

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K01915

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
784869at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
P16580

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

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Gene3Di
3.10.20.70, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR008147 Gln_synt_b-grasp
IPR036651 Gln_synt_N
IPR014746 Gln_synth/guanido_kin_cat_dom
IPR008146 Gln_synth_cat_dom
IPR027303 Gln_synth_gly_rich_site
IPR027302 Gln_synth_N_conserv_site

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00120 Gln-synt_C, 1 hit
PF03951 Gln-synt_N, 1 hit

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM01230 Gln-synt_C, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF54368 SSF54368, 1 hit
SSF55931 SSF55931, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00180 GLNA_1, 1 hit
PS00181 GLNA_ATP, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

P16580-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MATSASSHLS KAIKHMYMKL PQGEKVQAMY IWIDGTGEHL RCKTRTLDHE
60 70 80 90 100
PKSLEDLPEW NFDGSSTFQA EGSNSDMYLR PAAMFRDPFR KDPNKLVLCE
110 120 130 140 150
VFKYNRQSAD TNLRHTCRRI MDMVSNQHPW FGMEQEYTLL GTDGHPFGWP
160 170 180 190 200
SNCFPGPQGP YYCGVGADKA YGRDIVEAHY RACLYAGVKI GGTNAEVMPA
210 220 230 240 250
QWEFQVGPCE GIEMGDHLWI ARFILHRVCE DFGVIVSFDP KPIPGNWNGA
260 270 280 290 300
GCHTNFSTKN MREDGGLKHI EEAIEKLSKR HQYHIRAYDP KGGLDNARRL
310 320 330 340 350
TGFHETSSIH EFSAGVANRG ASIRIPRNVG HEKKGYFEDR GPSANCDPYA
360 370
VTEALVRTCL LNETGDEPFE YKN
Length:373
Mass (Da):42,146
Last modified:August 1, 1990 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i505254A25E8733DB
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
M29076 mRNA Translation: AAA48783.1
S45408 mRNA Translation: AAC69361.1
EU369427 Genomic DNA Translation: ABY71840.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
JQ0025 AJCHQ

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_990824.1, NM_205493.1

Genome annotation databases

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
396489

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
gga:396489

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M29076 mRNA Translation: AAA48783.1
S45408 mRNA Translation: AAC69361.1
EU369427 Genomic DNA Translation: ABY71840.1
PIRiJQ0025 AJCHQ
RefSeqiNP_990824.1, NM_205493.1

3D structure databases

SMRiP16580
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi676736, 1 interactor
IntActiP16580, 1 interactor
STRINGi9031.ENSGALP00000005819

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP16580

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi396489
KEGGigga:396489

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
2752

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0683 Eukaryota
COG0174 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000061500
InParanoidiP16580
KOiK01915
OrthoDBi784869at2759
PhylomeDBiP16580

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:P16580

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.10.20.70, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR008147 Gln_synt_b-grasp
IPR036651 Gln_synt_N
IPR014746 Gln_synth/guanido_kin_cat_dom
IPR008146 Gln_synth_cat_dom
IPR027303 Gln_synth_gly_rich_site
IPR027302 Gln_synth_N_conserv_site
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00120 Gln-synt_C, 1 hit
PF03951 Gln-synt_N, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM01230 Gln-synt_C, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF54368 SSF54368, 1 hit
SSF55931 SSF55931, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00180 GLNA_1, 1 hit
PS00181 GLNA_ATP, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiGLNA_CHICK
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P16580
Secondary accession number(s): B0FZC2
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1990
Last sequence update: August 1, 1990
Last modified: May 8, 2019
This is version 114 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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