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Entry version 101 (11 Dec 2019)
Sequence version 1 (01 Apr 1990)
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Protein

Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein

Gene

tgfb1

Organism
Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:3 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein: Precursor of the Latency-associated peptide (LAP) and Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chains, which constitute the regulatory and active subunit of TGF-beta-1, respectively.By similarity
Required to maintain the Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chain in a latent state during storage in extracellular matrix. Associates non-covalently with TGF-beta-1 and regulates its activation via interaction with 'milieu molecules', such as LTBP1, LRRC32/GARP and LRRC33/NRROS, that control activation of TGF-beta-1. Interaction with integrins (ITGAV:ITGB6 or ITGAV:ITGB8) results in distortion of the Latency-associated peptide chain and subsequent release of the active TGF-beta-1.By similarity
Transforming growth factor beta-1: Multifunctional protein that regulates the growth and differentiation of various cell types and is involved in various processes, such as normal development, immune function, microglia function and responses to neurodegeneration (By similarity). Activation into mature form follows different steps: following cleavage of the proprotein in the Golgi apparatus, Latency-associated peptide (LAP) and Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chains remain non-covalently linked rendering TGF-beta-1 inactive during storage in extracellular matrix. At the same time, LAP chain interacts with 'milieu molecules', such as ltbp1, lrrc32/garp and lrrc33/nrros that control activation of TGF-beta-1 and maintain it in a latent state during storage in extracellular milieus. TGF-beta-1 is released from LAP by integrins (ITGAV:ITGB6 or ITGAV:ITGB8): integrin-binding to LAP stabilizes an alternative conformation of the LAP bowtie tail and results in distortion of the LAP chain and subsequent release of the active TGF-beta-1. Once activated following release of LAP, TGF-beta-1 acts by binding to TGF-beta receptors (tgfbr1 and tgfbr2), which transduce signal (By similarity). While expressed by many cells types, TGF-beta-1 only has a very localized range of action within cell environment thanks to fine regulation of its activation by Latency-associated peptide chain (LAP) and 'milieu molecules'. Plays an important role in bone remodeling: acts as a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation. Can promote either T-helper 17 cells (Th17) or regulatory T-cells (Treg) lineage differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner (By similarity). Can induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration in various cell types (By similarity).By similarity

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionGrowth factor, Mitogen

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein
Alternative name(s):
TGF-beta-51 Publication
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:tgfb1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiXenopus laevis (African clawed frog)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri8355 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiAmphibiaBatrachiaAnuraPipoideaPipidaeXenopodinaeXenopusXenopus

Organism-specific databases

Xenopus laevis and tropicalis biology and genomics resource

More...
Xenbasei
XB-GENE-865765 tgfb1

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Extracellular matrix, Secreted

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 21Sequence analysisAdd BLAST21
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_000044554922 – 270Latency-associated peptideBy similarityAdd BLAST249
ChainiPRO_0000033777271 – 382Transforming growth factor beta-1By similarityAdd BLAST112

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi25Interchain (with C-? in LTBP1 TB3 domain); in inactive formBy similarity
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section specifies the position and type of each covalently attached glycan group (mono-, di-, or polysaccharide).<p><a href='/help/carbohyd' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Glycosylationi73N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Glycosylationi123N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Glycosylationi166N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Disulfide bondi215Interchain (with C-217)By similarity
Disulfide bondi217Interchain (with C-215)By similarity
Disulfide bondi277 ↔ 286By similarity
Disulfide bondi285 ↔ 348By similarity
Disulfide bondi314 ↔ 379By similarity
Disulfide bondi318 ↔ 381By similarity
Disulfide bondi347InterchainBy similarity

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein: The precursor proprotein is cleaved in the Golgi apparatus to form Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) and Latency-associated peptide (LAP) chains, which remain non-covalently linked, rendering TGF-beta-1 inactive.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P16176

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Latency-associated peptide: Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Latency-associated peptide:

Interacts with Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chain; interaction is non-covalent and maintains (TGF-beta-1) in a latent state; each Latency-associated peptide (LAP) monomer interacts with TGF-beta-1 in the other monomer. Transforming growth factor beta-1: Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Transforming growth factor beta-1:

Interacts with TGF-beta receptors (tgfbr1 and tgfbr2), leading to signal transduction.

By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P16176

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni22 – 65Straightjacket domainBy similarityAdd BLAST44
Regioni66 – 263Arm domainBy similarityAdd BLAST198
Regioni218 – 242Bowtie tailBy similarityAdd BLAST25

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a short (usually not more than 20 amino acids) conserved sequence motif of biological significance.<p><a href='/help/motif' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Motifi234 – 236Cell attachment siteSequence analysis3

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides general information on the biological role of a domain. The term ‘domain’ is intended here in its wide acceptation, it may be a structural domain, a transmembrane region or a functional domain. Several domains are described in this subsection.<p><a href='/help/domain_cc' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini

The 'straitjacket' and 'arm' domains encircle the Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) monomers and are fastened together by strong bonding between Lys-53 and Tyr-99/Tyr-100.By similarity
The cell attachment site motif mediates binding to integrins (ITGAV:ITGB6 or ITGAV:ITGB8). The motif locates to a long loop in the arm domain called the bowtie tail. Integrin-binding stabilizes an alternative conformation of the bowtie tail. Activation by integrin requires force application by the actin cytoskeleton, which is resisted by the 'milieu molecules' (such as ltbp1, lrrc32/garp and/or lrrc33/nrros), resulting in distortion of the prodomain and release of the active TGF-beta-1.By similarity

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the TGF-beta family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K13375

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
643840at2759

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
2.10.90.10, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR029034 Cystine-knot_cytokine
IPR001839 TGF-b_C
IPR001111 TGF-b_propeptide
IPR016319 TGF-beta
IPR015615 TGF-beta-rel
IPR003939 TGFb1
IPR017948 TGFb_CS

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR11848 PTHR11848, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00019 TGF_beta, 1 hit
PF00688 TGFb_propeptide, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

More...
PIRSFi
PIRSF001787 TGF-beta, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR01423 TGFBETA
PR01424 TGFBETA1

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00204 TGFB, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF57501 SSF57501, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00250 TGF_BETA_1, 1 hit
PS51362 TGF_BETA_2, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P16176-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MEVLWMLLVL LVLHLSSLAM SLSTCKAVDM EEVRKRRIEA IRGQILSKLK
60 70 80 90 100
LDKTPDVDSE KMTVPSEAIF LYNSTLEVIR EKATREEEHV GHDQNIQDYY
110 120 130 140 150
AKQVYRFESI TELEDHEFKF KFNASHVREN VGMNSLLHHA ELRMYKKQTD
160 170 180 190 200
KNMDQRMELF WKYQENGTTH SRYLESKYIT PVTDDEWMSF DVTKTVNEWL
210 220 230 240 250
KRAEENEQFG LQPACKCPTP QAKDIDIEGF PALRGDLASL SSKENTKPYL
260 270 280 290 300
MITSMPAERI DTVTSSRKKR GVGQEYCFGN NGPNCCVKPL YINFRKDLGW
310 320 330 340 350
KWIHEPKGYE ANYCLGNCPY IWSMDTQYSK VLSLYNQNNP GASISPCCVP
360 370 380
DVLEPLPIIY YVGRTAKVEQ LSNMVVRSCN CS
Length:382
Mass (Da):44,201
Last modified:April 1, 1990 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i1034621C917AAE15
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
J05180 mRNA Translation: AAA49968.1
AF009335 AF009334 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB64441.1
BC129720 mRNA Translation: AAI29721.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
A34929 B61036

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_001081330.1, NM_001087861.1

Genome annotation databases

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
397778

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
xla:397778

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
J05180 mRNA Translation: AAA49968.1
AF009335 AF009334 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB64441.1
BC129720 mRNA Translation: AAI29721.1
PIRiA34929 B61036
RefSeqiNP_001081330.1, NM_001087861.1

3D structure databases

SMRiP16176
ModBaseiSearch...

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP16176

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi397778
KEGGixla:397778

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
397778
XenbaseiXB-GENE-865765 tgfb1

Phylogenomic databases

KOiK13375
OrthoDBi643840at2759

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.10.90.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR029034 Cystine-knot_cytokine
IPR001839 TGF-b_C
IPR001111 TGF-b_propeptide
IPR016319 TGF-beta
IPR015615 TGF-beta-rel
IPR003939 TGFb1
IPR017948 TGFb_CS
PANTHERiPTHR11848 PTHR11848, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00019 TGF_beta, 1 hit
PF00688 TGFb_propeptide, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF001787 TGF-beta, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR01423 TGFBETA
PR01424 TGFBETA1
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00204 TGFB, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF57501 SSF57501, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00250 TGF_BETA_1, 1 hit
PS51362 TGF_BETA_2, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

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ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiTGFB1_XENLA
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P16176
Secondary accession number(s): A1L2V0
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 1, 1990
Last sequence update: April 1, 1990
Last modified: December 11, 2019
This is version 101 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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