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Entry version 121 (16 Jan 2019)
Sequence version 1 (01 Apr 1990)
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Protein

Aldose reductase

Gene

AKR1B1

Organism
Bos taurus (Bovine)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei48Proton donorBy similarity1
<p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence that are not defined in any other subsection. This subsection can be displayed in different sections (‘Function’, ‘PTM / Processing’, ‘Pathology and Biotech’) according to its content.<p><a href='/help/site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sitei77Lowers pKa of active site TyrBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei110SubstrateBy similarity1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi9 – 18NADPSequence analysis10
Nucleotide bindingi210 – 272NADPBy similarityAdd BLAST63

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionOxidoreductase
LigandNADP

Enzyme and pathway databases

SABIO-RK: Biochemical Reaction Kinetics Database

More...
SABIO-RKi
P16116

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Aldose reductase (EC:1.1.1.21)
Short name:
AR
Alternative name(s):
20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC:1.1.1.149)
Short name:
20-alpha-HSD
Aldehyde reductase
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:AKR1B1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiBos taurus (Bovine)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9913 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaRuminantiaPecoraBovidaeBovinaeBos
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000009136 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unplaced

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Chemistry databases

ChEMBL database of bioactive drug-like small molecules

More...
ChEMBLi
CHEMBL3081

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001246221 – 315Aldose reductaseAdd BLAST315

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei1N-acetylalanine1 Publication1
Modified residuei94N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei221N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei262N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P16116

PeptideAtlas

More...
PeptideAtlasi
P16116

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P16116

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

More...
iPTMneti
P16116

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Monomer.

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
9913.ENSBTAP00000013082

Chemistry databases

BindingDB database of measured binding affinities

More...
BindingDBi
P16116

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2GO6model-A1-315[»]

Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

More...
ProteinModelPortali
P16116

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P16116

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the aldo/keto reductase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG1577 Eukaryota
COG0656 LUCA

The HOVERGEN Database of Homologous Vertebrate Genes

More...
HOVERGENi
HBG000020

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P16116

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
1016440at2759

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

More...
CDDi
cd06660 Aldo_ket_red, 1 hit

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
3.20.20.100, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR018170 Aldo/ket_reductase_CS
IPR020471 Aldo/keto_reductase
IPR023210 NADP_OxRdtase_dom
IPR036812 NADP_OxRdtase_dom_sf

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR11732 PTHR11732, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00248 Aldo_ket_red, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

More...
PIRSFi
PIRSF000097 AKR, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00069 ALDKETRDTASE

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF51430 SSF51430, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00798 ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_1, 1 hit
PS00062 ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_2, 1 hit
PS00063 ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_3, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

P16116-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
AHNIVLYTGA KMPILGLGTW KSPPGKVTEA VKVAIDLGYR HIDCAHVYQN
60 70 80 90 100
ENEVGLALQA KLQEQVVKRE DLFIVSKLWC TYHDKDLVKG ACQKTLSDLK
110 120 130 140 150
LDYLDLYLIH WPTGFKPGKD FFPLDEDGNV IPSEKDFVDT WTAMEELVDE
160 170 180 190 200
GLVKAIGVSN FNHLQVEKIL NKPGLKYKPA VNQIECHPYL TQEKLIQYCN
210 220 230 240 250
SKGIVVTAYS PLGSPDRPWA KPEDPSILED PRIKAIADKY NKTTAQVLIR
260 270 280 290 300
FPIQRNLIVI PKSVTPERIA ENFQVFDFEL DKEDMNTLLS YNRDWRACAL
310
VSCASHRDYP FHEEF
Length:315
Mass (Da):35,919
Last modified:April 1, 1990 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i18597E7332A3F9C2
GO

<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAA30370 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti65Q → K in AAA30370 (PubMed:8431420).Curated1
Sequence conflicti65Q → K in AAB25333 (PubMed:8431420).Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural varianti4I → L. 1
Natural varianti6L → I. 1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
M31463 mRNA Translation: AAA30370.1 Different initiation.
S54973 mRNA Translation: AAB25333.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
A35452

UniGene gene-oriented nucleotide sequence clusters

More...
UniGenei
Bt.63116

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M31463 mRNA Translation: AAA30370.1 Different initiation.
S54973 mRNA Translation: AAB25333.1
PIRiA35452
UniGeneiBt.63116

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2GO6model-A1-315[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP16116
SMRiP16116
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000013082

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP16116
ChEMBLiCHEMBL3081

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP16116

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP16116
PeptideAtlasiP16116
PRIDEiP16116

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1577 Eukaryota
COG0656 LUCA
HOVERGENiHBG000020
InParanoidiP16116
OrthoDBi1016440at2759

Enzyme and pathway databases

SABIO-RKiP16116

Family and domain databases

CDDicd06660 Aldo_ket_red, 1 hit
Gene3Di3.20.20.100, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR018170 Aldo/ket_reductase_CS
IPR020471 Aldo/keto_reductase
IPR023210 NADP_OxRdtase_dom
IPR036812 NADP_OxRdtase_dom_sf
PANTHERiPTHR11732 PTHR11732, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00248 Aldo_ket_red, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF000097 AKR, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00069 ALDKETRDTASE
SUPFAMiSSF51430 SSF51430, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00798 ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_1, 1 hit
PS00062 ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_2, 1 hit
PS00063 ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_3, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiALDR_BOVIN
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P16116
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 1, 1990
Last sequence update: April 1, 1990
Last modified: January 16, 2019
This is version 121 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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