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Entry version 216 (02 Jun 2021)
Sequence version 2 (23 Jan 2007)
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Protein

Histone H2AX

Gene

H2AX

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Variant histone H2A which replaces conventional H2A in a subset of nucleosomes. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. Required for checkpoint-mediated arrest of cell cycle progression in response to low doses of ionizing radiation and for efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) specifically when modified by C-terminal phosphorylation.

4 Publications

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionDNA-binding
Biological processCell cycle, DNA damage, DNA recombination, DNA repair, Host-virus interaction, Meiosis

Enzyme and pathway databases

Pathway Commons web resource for biological pathway data

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PathwayCommonsi
P16104

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

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Reactomei
R-HSA-110328, Recognition and association of DNA glycosylase with site containing an affected pyrimidine
R-HSA-110329, Cleavage of the damaged pyrimidine
R-HSA-110330, Recognition and association of DNA glycosylase with site containing an affected purine
R-HSA-110331, Cleavage of the damaged purine
R-HSA-1221632, Meiotic synapsis
R-HSA-171306, Packaging Of Telomere Ends
R-HSA-1912408, Pre-NOTCH Transcription and Translation
R-HSA-201722, Formation of the beta-catenin:TCF transactivating complex
R-HSA-212300, PRC2 methylates histones and DNA
R-HSA-2299718, Condensation of Prophase Chromosomes
R-HSA-2559580, Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence
R-HSA-2559582, Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP)
R-HSA-2559586, DNA Damage/Telomere Stress Induced Senescence
R-HSA-3214858, RMTs methylate histone arginines
R-HSA-427359, SIRT1 negatively regulates rRNA expression
R-HSA-427389, ERCC6 (CSB) and EHMT2 (G9a) positively regulate rRNA expression
R-HSA-427413, NoRC negatively regulates rRNA expression
R-HSA-5250924, B-WICH complex positively regulates rRNA expression
R-HSA-5334118, DNA methylation
R-HSA-5578749, Transcriptional regulation by small RNAs
R-HSA-5617472, Activation of anterior HOX genes in hindbrain development during early embryogenesis
R-HSA-5625886, Activated PKN1 stimulates transcription of AR (androgen receptor) regulated genes KLK2 and KLK3
R-HSA-5693565, Recruitment and ATM-mediated phosphorylation of repair and signaling proteins at DNA double strand breaks
R-HSA-5693571, Nonhomologous End-Joining (NHEJ)
R-HSA-5693607, Processing of DNA double-strand break ends
R-HSA-606279, Deposition of new CENPA-containing nucleosomes at the centromere
R-HSA-69473, G2/M DNA damage checkpoint
R-HSA-73728, RNA Polymerase I Promoter Opening
R-HSA-73772, RNA Polymerase I Promoter Escape
R-HSA-8936459, RUNX1 regulates genes involved in megakaryocyte differentiation and platelet function
R-HSA-8939236, RUNX1 regulates transcription of genes involved in differentiation of HSCs
R-HSA-9018519, Estrogen-dependent gene expression
R-HSA-912446, Meiotic recombination
R-HSA-9616222, Transcriptional regulation of granulopoiesis
R-HSA-9670095, Inhibition of DNA recombination at telomere
R-HSA-977225, Amyloid fiber formation

SIGNOR Signaling Network Open Resource

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SIGNORi
P16104

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Histone H2AX
Short name:
H2a/x
Alternative name(s):
Histone H2A.X
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:H2AXImported
Synonyms:H2AFXImported
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 11

Organism-specific databases

Human Gene Nomenclature Database

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HGNCi
HGNC:4739, H2AX

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

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MIMi
601772, gene

neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

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neXtProti
NX_P16104

Eukaryotic Pathogen, Vector and Host Database Resources

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VEuPathDBi
HostDB:ENSG00000188486.3

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chromosome, Nucleosome core, Nucleus

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology%5Fand%5Fbiotech%5Fsection">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi141Q → N: Reduced phosphorylation of S-140 in response to DNA damage. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi143Y → F: Displays a reduced apoptotic response. S-140 phosphorylation is reduced. 2 Publications1

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNET

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DisGeNETi
3014

Open Targets

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OpenTargetsi
ENSG00000188486

The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base

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PharmGKBi
PA29116

Miscellaneous databases

Pharos NIH Druggable Genome Knowledgebase

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Pharosi
P16104, Tbio

Genetic variation databases

BioMuta curated single-nucleotide variation and disease association database

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BioMutai
H2AFX

Domain mapping of disease mutations (DMDM)

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DMDMi
121992

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM / Processing</a> section indicates that the initiator methionine is cleaved from the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/init_met' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Initiator methionineiRemovedBy similarity
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00000552422 – 143Histone H2AXAdd BLAST142

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei2N-acetylserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei2PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei6N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei10N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei10N6-lactoyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM / Processing</a> section describes <strong>covalent linkages</strong> of various types formed <strong>between two proteins (interchain cross-links)</strong> or <strong>between two parts of the same protein (intrachain cross-links)</strong>, except the disulfide bonds that are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/disulfid">'Disulfide bond'</a> subsection.<p><a href='/help/crosslnk' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-linki14Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ubiquitin)1 Publication
Cross-linki16Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ubiquitin)1 Publication
Modified residuei37N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Cross-linki120Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ubiquitin)By similarity
Modified residuei122PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Cross-linki128Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in SUMO2)Combined sources
Cross-linki135Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in SUMO2)Combined sources
Modified residuei140Phosphoserine; by ATM, ATR and PRKDCCombined sources14 Publications1
Modified residuei143Phosphotyrosine; by WSTF2 Publications1

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated on Ser-140 (to form gamma-H2AX or H2AX139ph) in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) generated by exogenous genotoxic agents and by stalled replication forks, and may also occur during meiotic recombination events and immunoglobulin class switching in lymphocytes. Phosphorylation can extend up to several thousand nucleosomes from the actual site of the DSB and may mark the surrounding chromatin for recruitment of proteins required for DNA damage signaling and repair. Widespread phosphorylation may also serve to amplify the damage signal or aid repair of persistent lesions. Phosphorylation of Ser-140 (H2AX139ph) in response to ionizing radiation is mediated by both ATM and PRKDC while defects in DNA replication induce Ser-140 phosphorylation (H2AX139ph) subsequent to activation of ATR and PRKDC. Dephosphorylation of Ser-140 by PP2A is required for DNA DSB repair. In meiosis, Ser-140 phosphorylation (H2AX139ph) may occur at synaptonemal complexes during leptotene as an ATM-dependent response to the formation of programmed DSBs by SPO11. Ser-140 phosphorylation (H2AX139ph) may subsequently occurs at unsynapsed regions of both autosomes and the XY bivalent during zygotene, downstream of ATR and BRCA1 activation. Ser-140 phosphorylation (H2AX139ph) may also be required for transcriptional repression of unsynapsed chromatin and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), whereby the X and Y chromosomes condense in pachytene to form the heterochromatic XY-body. During immunoglobulin class switch recombination in lymphocytes, Ser-140 phosphorylation (H2AX139ph) may occur at sites of DNA-recombination subsequent to activation of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase AICDA. Phosphorylation at Tyr-143 (H2AXY142ph) by BAZ1B/WSTF determines the relative recruitment of either DNA repair or pro-apoptotic factors. Phosphorylation at Tyr-143 (H2AXY142ph) favors the recruitment of APBB1/FE65 and pro-apoptosis factors such as MAPK8/JNK1, triggering apoptosis. In contrast, dephosphorylation of Tyr-143 by EYA proteins (EYA1, EYA2, EYA3 or EYA4) favors the recruitment of MDC1-containing DNA repair complexes to the tail of phosphorylated Ser-140 (H2AX139ph).16 Publications
Monoubiquitination of Lys-120 (H2AXK119ub) by RING1 and RNF2/RING2 complex gives a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression (By similarity). Following DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), it is ubiquitinated through 'Lys-63' linkage of ubiquitin moieties by the E2 ligase UBE2N and the E3 ligases RNF8 and RNF168, leading to the recruitment of repair proteins to sites of DNA damage. Ubiquitination at Lys-14 and Lys-16 (H2AK13Ub and H2AK15Ub, respectively) in response to DNA damage is initiated by RNF168 that mediates monoubiquitination at these 2 sites, and 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitin are then conjugated to monoubiquitin; RNF8 is able to extend 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitin chains in vitro. H2AK119Ub and ionizing radiation-induced 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitination (H2AK13Ub and H2AK15Ub) are distinct events.By similarity5 Publications
Acetylation at Lys-37 increases in S and G2 phases. This modification has been proposed to play a role in DNA double-strand break repair (By similarity).By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Isopeptide bond, Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics

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EPDi
P16104

jPOST - Japan Proteome Standard Repository/Database

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jPOSTi
P16104

MassIVE - Mass Spectrometry Interactive Virtual Environment

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MassIVEi
P16104

MaxQB - The MaxQuant DataBase

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MaxQBi
P16104

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

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PaxDbi
P16104

PeptideAtlas

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PeptideAtlasi
P16104

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

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PRIDEi
P16104

ProteomicsDB: a multi-organism proteome resource

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ProteomicsDBi
53286

Consortium for Top Down Proteomics

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TopDownProteomicsi
P16104

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

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iPTMneti
P16104

Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

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PhosphoSitePlusi
P16104

SwissPalm database of S-palmitoylation events

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SwissPalmi
P16104

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section provides information on the expression of the gene product at various stages of a cell, tissue or organism development. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified 'at the protein level'.<p><a href='/help/developmental_stage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Developmental stagei

Synthesized in G1 as well as in S-phase.

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

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Bgeei
ENSG00000188486, Expressed in ventricular zone and 239 other tissues

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

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Genevisiblei
P16104, HS

Organism-specific databases

Human Protein Atlas

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HPAi
ENSG00000188486, Tissue enriched (lymphoid)

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers. The octamer wraps approximately 147 bp of DNA (Probable).

Interacts with numerous proteins required for DNA damage signaling and repair when phosphorylated on Ser-140 (PubMed:12419185, PubMed:12607005, PubMed:15201865). These include MDC1, TP53BP1, BRCA1 and the MRN complex, composed of MRE11, RAD50, and NBN (PubMed:12419185, PubMed:12607005, PubMed:15201865). Interaction with the MRN complex is mediated at least in part by NBN (PubMed:12419185).

Also interacts with DHX9/NDHII when phosphorylated on Ser-140 and MCPH1 when phosphorylated at Ser-140 or Tyr-143 (PubMed:15613478).

Interacts with ARRB2; the interaction is detected in the nucleus upon OR1D2 stimulation (PubMed:16820410).

Interacts with WRAP53/TCAB1 (PubMed:26734725, PubMed:27715493).

Curated7 Publications

(Microbial infection) Interacts with Epstein-Barr virus protein EBNA6.

1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the '<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">Interaction</a>' section provides information about binary protein-protein interactions. The data presented in this section are a quality-filtered subset of binary interactions automatically derived from the <a href="https://www.ebi.ac.uk/intact/">IntAct database</a>. It is updated at every <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/synchronization">UniProt release</a>.<p><a href='/help/binary_interactions' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binary interactionsi

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GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

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BioGRIDi
109268, 451 interactors

CORUM comprehensive resource of mammalian protein complexes

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CORUMi
P16104

Database of interacting proteins

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DIPi
DIP-33604N

The Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource for Functional Sites in Proteins

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ELMi
P16104

Protein interaction database and analysis system

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IntActi
P16104, 291 interactors

Molecular INTeraction database

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MINTi
P16104

STRING: functional protein association networks

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STRINGi
9606.ENSP00000434024

Miscellaneous databases

RNAct, Protein-RNA interaction predictions for model organisms.

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RNActi
P16104, protein

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1143
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
P16104

Database of comparative protein structure models

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ModBasei
Search...

Protein Data Bank in Europe - Knowledge Base

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PDBe-KBi
Search...

Miscellaneous databases

Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

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EvolutionaryTracei
P16104

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni1 – 22DisorderedSequence analysisAdd BLAST22
Regioni121 – 143DisorderedSequence analysisAdd BLAST23

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a short (usually not more than 20 amino acids) conserved sequence motif of biological significance.<p><a href='/help/motif' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Motifi140 – 141[ST]-Q motif2

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides general information on the biological role of a domain. The term 'domain' is intended here in its wide acceptation, it may be a structural domain, a transmembrane region or a functional domain. Several domains are described in this subsection.<p><a href='/help/domain_cc' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini

The [ST]-Q motif constitutes a recognition sequence for kinases from the PI3/PI4-kinase family.

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the histone H2A family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

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eggNOGi
KOG1756, Eukaryota

Ensembl GeneTree

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GeneTreei
ENSGT01020000230360

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

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HOGENOMi
CLU_062828_3_1_1

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

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InParanoidi
P16104

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

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OMAi
KANSGRD

Database of Orthologous Groups

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OrthoDBi
1504122at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

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PhylomeDBi
P16104

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

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TreeFami
TF300137

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

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CDDi
cd00074, H2A, 1 hit

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

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Gene3Di
1.10.20.10, 1 hit

Intrinsically Disordered proteins with Extensive Annotations and Literature

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IDEALi
IID00027

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

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InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR009072, Histone-fold
IPR002119, Histone_H2A
IPR007125, Histone_H2A/H2B/H3
IPR032454, Histone_H2A_C
IPR032458, Histone_H2A_CS

Pfam protein domain database

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Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00125, Histone, 1 hit
PF16211, Histone_H2A_C, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

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PRINTSi
PR00620, HISTONEH2A

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

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SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00414, H2A, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

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SUPFAMi
SSF47113, SSF47113, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

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PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00046, HISTONE_H2A, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P16104-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MSGRGKTGGK ARAKAKSRSS RAGLQFPVGR VHRLLRKGHY AERVGAGAPV
60 70 80 90 100
YLAAVLEYLT AEILELAGNA ARDNKKTRII PRHLQLAIRN DEELNKLLGG
110 120 130 140
VTIAQGGVLP NIQAVLLPKK TSATVGPKAP SGGKKATQAS QEY
Length:143
Mass (Da):15,145
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iD4683775C2E6C3A9
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti78R → L in CAG33360 (Ref. 2) Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

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EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

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DDBJi
Links Updated
X14850 mRNA Translation: CAA32968.1
CR457079 mRNA Translation: CAG33360.1
DQ015918 Genomic DNA Translation: AAY22178.1
BC004915 mRNA Translation: AAH04915.1
BC011694 mRNA Translation: AAH11694.1
BC013416 mRNA Translation: AAH13416.1

The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

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CCDSi
CCDS8410.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

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PIRi
S07631

NCBI Reference Sequences

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RefSeqi
NP_002096.1, NM_002105.2

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

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Ensembli
ENST00000375167; ENSP00000364310; ENSG00000188486
ENST00000530167; ENSP00000434024; ENSG00000188486

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

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GeneIDi
3014

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

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KEGGi
hsa:3014

UCSC genome browser

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UCSCi
uc001pvg.4, human

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/cross%5Freferences%5Fsection">Cross-references</a> section provides links to various web resources that are relevant for a specific protein.<p><a href='/help/web_resource' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Web resourcesi

NIEHS-SNPs
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X14850 mRNA Translation: CAA32968.1
CR457079 mRNA Translation: CAG33360.1
DQ015918 Genomic DNA Translation: AAY22178.1
BC004915 mRNA Translation: AAH04915.1
BC011694 mRNA Translation: AAH11694.1
BC013416 mRNA Translation: AAH13416.1
CCDSiCCDS8410.1
PIRiS07631
RefSeqiNP_002096.1, NM_002105.2

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

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PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

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RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

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PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1YDPX-ray1.90P78-86[»]
2AZMX-ray2.41C/D134-143[»]
2D31X-ray3.20C/F78-86[»]
2DYPX-ray2.50C78-86[»]
3SHVX-ray2.10C/D134-143[»]
3SQDX-ray2.15C/D134-143[»]
3SZMX-ray2.63I/J/K/L/M/N/O/P134-143[»]
3U3ZX-ray1.50B140-143[»]
6K1IX-ray2.75C/G1-143[»]
6K1JX-ray2.85C/G1-143[»]
6K1KX-ray2.20C/G1-143[»]
SMRiP16104
ModBaseiSearch...
PDBe-KBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGRIDi109268, 451 interactors
CORUMiP16104
DIPiDIP-33604N
ELMiP16104
IntActiP16104, 291 interactors
MINTiP16104
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000434024

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP16104
PhosphoSitePlusiP16104
SwissPalmiP16104

Genetic variation databases

BioMutaiH2AFX
DMDMi121992

Proteomic databases

EPDiP16104
jPOSTiP16104
MassIVEiP16104
MaxQBiP16104
PaxDbiP16104
PeptideAtlasiP16104
PRIDEiP16104
ProteomicsDBi53286
TopDownProteomicsiP16104

Protocols and materials databases

Antibodypedia a portal for validated antibodies

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Antibodypediai
3220, 1521 antibodies

The DNASU plasmid repository

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DNASUi
3014

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000375167; ENSP00000364310; ENSG00000188486
ENST00000530167; ENSP00000434024; ENSG00000188486
GeneIDi3014
KEGGihsa:3014
UCSCiuc001pvg.4, human

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

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CTDi
3014
DisGeNETi3014

GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases

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GeneCardsi
H2AX
HGNCiHGNC:4739, H2AX
HPAiENSG00000188486, Tissue enriched (lymphoid)
MIMi601772, gene
neXtProtiNX_P16104
OpenTargetsiENSG00000188486
PharmGKBiPA29116
VEuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000188486.3

GenAtlas: human gene database

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GenAtlasi
Search...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1756, Eukaryota
GeneTreeiENSGT01020000230360
HOGENOMiCLU_062828_3_1_1
InParanoidiP16104
OMAiKANSGRD
OrthoDBi1504122at2759
PhylomeDBiP16104
TreeFamiTF300137

Enzyme and pathway databases

PathwayCommonsiP16104
ReactomeiR-HSA-110328, Recognition and association of DNA glycosylase with site containing an affected pyrimidine
R-HSA-110329, Cleavage of the damaged pyrimidine
R-HSA-110330, Recognition and association of DNA glycosylase with site containing an affected purine
R-HSA-110331, Cleavage of the damaged purine
R-HSA-1221632, Meiotic synapsis
R-HSA-171306, Packaging Of Telomere Ends
R-HSA-1912408, Pre-NOTCH Transcription and Translation
R-HSA-201722, Formation of the beta-catenin:TCF transactivating complex
R-HSA-212300, PRC2 methylates histones and DNA
R-HSA-2299718, Condensation of Prophase Chromosomes
R-HSA-2559580, Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence
R-HSA-2559582, Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP)
R-HSA-2559586, DNA Damage/Telomere Stress Induced Senescence
R-HSA-3214858, RMTs methylate histone arginines
R-HSA-427359, SIRT1 negatively regulates rRNA expression
R-HSA-427389, ERCC6 (CSB) and EHMT2 (G9a) positively regulate rRNA expression
R-HSA-427413, NoRC negatively regulates rRNA expression
R-HSA-5250924, B-WICH complex positively regulates rRNA expression
R-HSA-5334118, DNA methylation
R-HSA-5578749, Transcriptional regulation by small RNAs
R-HSA-5617472, Activation of anterior HOX genes in hindbrain development during early embryogenesis
R-HSA-5625886, Activated PKN1 stimulates transcription of AR (androgen receptor) regulated genes KLK2 and KLK3
R-HSA-5693565, Recruitment and ATM-mediated phosphorylation of repair and signaling proteins at DNA double strand breaks
R-HSA-5693571, Nonhomologous End-Joining (NHEJ)
R-HSA-5693607, Processing of DNA double-strand break ends
R-HSA-606279, Deposition of new CENPA-containing nucleosomes at the centromere
R-HSA-69473, G2/M DNA damage checkpoint
R-HSA-73728, RNA Polymerase I Promoter Opening
R-HSA-73772, RNA Polymerase I Promoter Escape
R-HSA-8936459, RUNX1 regulates genes involved in megakaryocyte differentiation and platelet function
R-HSA-8939236, RUNX1 regulates transcription of genes involved in differentiation of HSCs
R-HSA-9018519, Estrogen-dependent gene expression
R-HSA-912446, Meiotic recombination
R-HSA-9616222, Transcriptional regulation of granulopoiesis
R-HSA-9670095, Inhibition of DNA recombination at telomere
R-HSA-977225, Amyloid fiber formation
SIGNORiP16104

Miscellaneous databases

BioGRID ORCS database of CRISPR phenotype screens

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BioGRID-ORCSi
3014, 297 hits in 997 CRISPR screens

ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data

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ChiTaRSi
H2AFX, human
EvolutionaryTraceiP16104

The Gene Wiki collection of pages on human genes and proteins

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GeneWikii
H2AFX

Database of phenotypes from RNA interference screens in Drosophila and Homo sapiens

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GenomeRNAii
3014
PharosiP16104, Tbio

Protein Ontology

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PROi
PR:P16104
RNActiP16104, protein

The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

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SOURCEi
Search...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000188486, Expressed in ventricular zone and 239 other tissues
GenevisibleiP16104, HS

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00074, H2A, 1 hit
Gene3Di1.10.20.10, 1 hit
IDEALiIID00027
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR009072, Histone-fold
IPR002119, Histone_H2A
IPR007125, Histone_H2A/H2B/H3
IPR032454, Histone_H2A_C
IPR032458, Histone_H2A_CS
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00125, Histone, 1 hit
PF16211, Histone_H2A_C, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00620, HISTONEH2A
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00414, H2A, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF47113, SSF47113, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00046, HISTONE_H2A, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

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MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiH2AX_HUMAN
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P16104
Secondary accession number(s): Q4ZGJ7, Q6IAS5
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 1, 1990
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: June 2, 2021
This is version 216 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 11
    Human chromosome 11: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  4. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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