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Protein

Aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

Gene

glpD

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Conversion of glycerol 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone. Uses molecular oxygen or nitrate as electron acceptor.

Miscellaneous

There are two sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isozymes in E.coli: one is aerobic, the other anaerobic.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: glycerol degradation via glycerol kinase pathway

This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes glycerone phosphate from sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (aerobic route).
Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (glpD)
This subpathway is part of the pathway glycerol degradation via glycerol kinase pathway, which is itself part of Polyol metabolism.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes glycerone phosphate from sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (aerobic route), the pathway glycerol degradation via glycerol kinase pathway and in Polyol metabolism.

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi5 – 33FADSequence analysisAdd BLAST29

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • glycerol-3-phosphate catabolic process Source: EcoCyc
  • glycerol catabolic process Source: UniProtKB-UniPathway

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionOxidoreductase
Biological processGlycerol metabolism
LigandFAD, Flavoprotein

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

More...
BioCyci
EcoCyc:AERGLYC3PDEHYDROG-MONOMER
MetaCyc:AERGLYC3PDEHYDROG-MONOMER

BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

More...
BRENDAi
1.1.1.94 2026

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

More...
UniPathwayi
UPA00618;UER00674

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC:1.1.5.3)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:glpD
Synonyms:glyD
Ordered Locus Names:b3426, JW3389
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacteralesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000000318 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome
  • UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

Organism-specific databases

Escherichia coli strain K12 genome database

More...
EcoGenei
EG10394 glpD

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001260981 – 501Aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenaseAdd BLAST501

Proteomic databases

Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics

More...
EPDi
P13035

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P13035

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P13035

2D gel databases

Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis database from the Geneva University Hospital

More...
SWISS-2DPAGEi
P13035

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the '<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section%27">Interaction</a> section provides information about binary protein-protein interactions. The data presented in this section are a quality-filtered subset of binary interactions automatically derived from the <a href="http://www.ebi.ac.uk/intact/">IntAct database</a>. It is updated on a monthly basis. Each binary interaction is displayed on a separate line.<p><a href='/help/binary_interactions' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
damP0AEE83EBI-548509,EBI-548491

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

More...
BioGridi
4261265, 432 interactors

Database of interacting proteins

More...
DIPi
DIP-9793N

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
P13035, 91 interactors

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
316385.ECDH10B_3600

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1501
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

More...
ProteinModelPortali
P13035

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P13035

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

Miscellaneous databases

Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

More...
EvolutionaryTracei
P13035

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
ENOG4105C6V Bacteria
COG0578 LUCA

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000004811

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P13035

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K00111

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
P13035

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
1.10.8.870, 1 hit
3.50.50.60, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR031656 DAO_C
IPR038299 DAO_C_sf
IPR006076 FAD-dep_OxRdtase
IPR036188 FAD/NAD-bd_sf
IPR000447 G3P_DH_FAD-dep

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR11985 PTHR11985, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF01266 DAO, 1 hit
PF16901 DAO_C, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR01001 FADG3PDH

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF51905 SSF51905, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00977 FAD_G3PDH_1, 1 hit
PS00978 FAD_G3PDH_2, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

P13035-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
METKDLIVIG GGINGAGIAA DAAGRGLSVL MLEAQDLACA TSSASSKLIH
60 70 80 90 100
GGLRYLEHYE FRLVSEALAE REVLLKMAPH IAFPMRFRLP HRPHLRPAWM
110 120 130 140 150
IRIGLFMYDH LGKRTSLPGS TGLRFGANSV LKPEIKRGFE YSDCWVDDAR
160 170 180 190 200
LVLANAQMVV RKGGEVLTRT RATSARRENG LWIVEAEDID TGKKYSWQAR
210 220 230 240 250
GLVNATGPWV KQFFDDGMHL PSPYGIRLIK GSHIVVPRVH TQKQAYILQN
260 270 280 290 300
EDKRIVFVIP WMDEFSIIGT TDVEYKGDPK AVKIEESEIN YLLNVYNTHF
310 320 330 340 350
KKQLSRDDIV WTYSGVRPLC DDESDSPQAI TRDYTLDIHD ENGKAPLLSV
360 370 380 390 400
FGGKLTTYRK LAEHALEKLT PYYQGIGPAW TKESVLPGGA IEGDRDDYAA
410 420 430 440 450
RLRRRYPFLT ESLARHYART YGSNSELLLG NAGTVSDLGE DFGHEFYEAE
460 470 480 490 500
LKYLVDHEWV RRADDALWRR TKQGMWLNAD QQSRVSQWLV EYTQQRLSLA

S
Length:501
Mass (Da):56,751
Last modified:May 1, 1992 - v3
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i1C4D341E9E4536AB
GO

<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAA23888 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti23A → G in BAA00327 (Ref. 2) Curated1
Sequence conflicti328 – 353QAITR…SVFGG → HVLPVITPLIFMMKMAKHRC CRYSAA in BAA00327 (Ref. 2) CuratedAdd BLAST26
Sequence conflicti464 – 501DDALW…LSLAS → ARRPVASHKTRHVAKCGSTI SCESVAGGVYAAEVIAGVVN in BAA00327 (Ref. 2) CuratedAdd BLAST38

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
M55989 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA24636.1
M96795 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC28164.1
D00425 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA00327.1
U18997 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA58224.1
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC76451.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAE77866.1
M21277 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA23885.1
M54940 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA23888.1 Different initiation.

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
A39186 DEECGD

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_417884.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000448136.1, NZ_LN832404.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblBacteriai
AAC76451; AAC76451; b3426
BAE77866; BAE77866; BAE77866

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
947934

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ecj:JW3389
eco:b3426

Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC)

More...
PATRICi
fig|511145.12.peg.3521

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M55989 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA24636.1
M96795 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC28164.1
D00425 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA00327.1
U18997 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA58224.1
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC76451.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAE77866.1
M21277 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA23885.1
M54940 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA23888.1 Different initiation.
PIRiA39186 DEECGD
RefSeqiNP_417884.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000448136.1, NZ_LN832404.1

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2QCUX-ray1.75A/B1-501[»]
2R45X-ray2.30A/B1-501[»]
2R46X-ray2.10A/B1-501[»]
2R4EX-ray2.10A/B1-501[»]
2R4JX-ray1.96A/B1-501[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP13035
SMRiP13035
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi4261265, 432 interactors
DIPiDIP-9793N
IntActiP13035, 91 interactors
STRINGi316385.ECDH10B_3600

2D gel databases

SWISS-2DPAGEiP13035

Proteomic databases

EPDiP13035
PaxDbiP13035
PRIDEiP13035

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaiAAC76451; AAC76451; b3426
BAE77866; BAE77866; BAE77866
GeneIDi947934
KEGGiecj:JW3389
eco:b3426
PATRICifig|511145.12.peg.3521

Organism-specific databases

EchoBASE - an integrated post-genomic database for E. coli

More...
EchoBASEi
EB0389
EcoGeneiEG10394 glpD

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG4105C6V Bacteria
COG0578 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000004811
InParanoidiP13035
KOiK00111
PhylomeDBiP13035

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayi
UPA00618;UER00674

BioCyciEcoCyc:AERGLYC3PDEHYDROG-MONOMER
MetaCyc:AERGLYC3PDEHYDROG-MONOMER
BRENDAi1.1.1.94 2026

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP13035

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:P13035

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.8.870, 1 hit
3.50.50.60, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR031656 DAO_C
IPR038299 DAO_C_sf
IPR006076 FAD-dep_OxRdtase
IPR036188 FAD/NAD-bd_sf
IPR000447 G3P_DH_FAD-dep
PANTHERiPTHR11985 PTHR11985, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF01266 DAO, 1 hit
PF16901 DAO_C, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR01001 FADG3PDH
SUPFAMiSSF51905 SSF51905, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00977 FAD_G3PDH_1, 1 hit
PS00978 FAD_G3PDH_2, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiGLPD_ECOLI
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P13035
Secondary accession number(s): P78115, Q2M790, Q47234
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 1, 1990
Last sequence update: May 1, 1992
Last modified: December 5, 2018
This is version 166 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  3. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  4. Escherichia coli
    Escherichia coli (strain K12): entries and cross-references to EcoGene
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