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Protein

Interleukin-1 beta

Gene

Il1b

Organism
Mus musculus (Mouse)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Potent proinflammatory cytokine. Initially discovered as the major endogenous pyrogen, induces prostaglandin synthesis, neutrophil influx and activation, T-cell activation and cytokine production, B-cell activation and antibody production, and fibroblast proliferation and collagen production. Promotes Th17 differentiation of T-cells. Synergizes with IL12/interleukin-12 to induce IFNG synthesis from T-helper 1 (Th1) cells.By similarity

Miscellaneous

IL1B production occurs in 2 steps, each being controlled by different stimuli. First, inflammatory signals, such as LPS, stimulate the synthesis and promote the accumulation of cytosolic stores of pro-IL1B (priming). Then additional signals are required for inflammasome assembly, leading to CASP1 activation, pro-IL1B processing and eventually secretion of the active cytokine. IL1B processing and secretion are temporarily associated.2 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence that are not defined in any other subsection. This subsection can be displayed in different sections (‘Function’, ‘PTM / Processing’, ‘Pathology and Biotech’) according to its content.<p><a href='/help/site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sitei172Important for interaction with integrinBy similarity1
Sitei180Important for interaction with integrinBy similarity1
Sitei182Important for interaction with integrinBy similarity1
Sitei191Important for interaction with integrinBy similarity1
Sitei205Important for interaction with integrinBy similarity1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

  • cytokine activity Source: MGI
  • integrin binding Source: UniProtKB
  • interleukin-1 receptor binding Source: GO_Central
  • protein domain specific binding Source: MGI

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionCytokine, Mitogen, Pyrogen
Biological processInflammatory response

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-MMU-448706 Interleukin-1 processing
R-MMU-5660668 CLEC7A/inflammasome pathway
R-MMU-9020702 Interleukin-1 signaling

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Interleukin-1 beta
Short name:
IL-1 beta
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:Il1b
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000000589 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 2

Organism-specific databases

Mouse genome database (MGD) from Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

More...
MGIi
MGI:96543 Il1b

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Cytoplasmic vesicle, Lysosome, Secreted

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section describes a propeptide, which is a part of a protein that is cleaved during maturation or activation. Once cleaved, a propeptide generally has no independent biological function.<p><a href='/help/propep' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PropeptideiPRO_00000153111 – 1171 PublicationAdd BLAST117
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_0000015312118 – 269Interleukin-1 betaAdd BLAST152

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P10749

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P10749

Consortium for Top Down Proteomics

More...
TopDownProteomicsi
P10749

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

More...
iPTMneti
P10749

Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

More...
PhosphoSitePlusi
P10749

Miscellaneous databases

CutDB - Proteolytic event database

More...
PMAP-CutDBi
P10749

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Expressed in activated macrophages (at protein level).3 Publications

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

By LPS.3 Publications

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSMUSG00000027398 Expressed in 85 organ(s), highest expression level in blood

CleanEx database of gene expression profiles

More...
CleanExi
MM_IL1B

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

More...
Genevisiblei
P10749 MM

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Monomer. Interacts with MEFV. Interacts with integrins ITGAV:ITGBV and ITGA5:ITGB1; integrin-binding is required for IL1B signaling.By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

More...
BioGridi
200624, 6 interactors

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
P10749, 1 interactor

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
10090.ENSMUSP00000028881

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1269
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2MIBX-ray2.84A118-269[»]
8I1BX-ray2.40A118-269[»]

Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

More...
ProteinModelPortali
P10749

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P10749

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

Miscellaneous databases

Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

More...
EvolutionaryTracei
P10749

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the IL-1 family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
ENOG410IGSZ Eukaryota
ENOG410XU2E LUCA

Ensembl GeneTree

More...
GeneTreei
ENSGT00900000141028

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000246399

The HOVERGEN Database of Homologous Vertebrate Genes

More...
HOVERGENi
HBG007328

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P10749

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K04519

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
PELTSEM

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
1243742at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
P10749

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

More...
TreeFami
TF300203

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR003296 IL-1_beta
IPR020877 IL-1_CS
IPR000975 IL-1_fam
IPR003502 IL-1_propep
IPR008996 IL1/FGF

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR44849 PTHR44849, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00340 IL1, 1 hit
PF02394 IL1_propep, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00264 INTERLEUKIN1

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF50353 SSF50353, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00253 INTERLEUKIN_1, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P10749-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MATVPELNCE MPPFDSDEND LFFEVDGPQK MKGCFQTFDL GCPDESIQLQ
60 70 80 90 100
ISQQHINKSF RQAVSLIVAV EKLWQLPVSF PWTFQDEDMS TFFSFIFEEE
110 120 130 140 150
PILCDSWDDD DNLLVCDVPI RQLHYRLRDE QQKSLVLSDP YELKALHLNG
160 170 180 190 200
QNINQQVIFS MSFVQGEPSN DKIPVALGLK GKNLYLSCVM KDGTPTLQLE
210 220 230 240 250
SVDPKQYPKK KMEKRFVFNK IEVKSKVEFE SAEFPNWYIS TSQAEHKPVF
260
LGNNSGQDII DFTMESVSS
Length:269
Mass (Da):30,931
Last modified:July 1, 1989 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i734FA17B02ED87EE
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
M15131 mRNA Translation: AAA39276.1
X04964 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA28637.1
AY902319 Genomic DNA Translation: AAX90604.1
CH466519 Genomic DNA Translation: EDL28238.1
BC011437 mRNA Translation: AAH11437.1

The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

More...
CCDSi
CCDS16726.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
I55969

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_032387.1, NM_008361.4

UniGene gene-oriented nucleotide sequence clusters

More...
UniGenei
Mm.222830

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENSMUST00000028881; ENSMUSP00000028881; ENSMUSG00000027398

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
16176

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
mmu:16176

UCSC genome browser

More...
UCSCi
uc008mht.1 mouse

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M15131 mRNA Translation: AAA39276.1
X04964 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA28637.1
AY902319 Genomic DNA Translation: AAX90604.1
CH466519 Genomic DNA Translation: EDL28238.1
BC011437 mRNA Translation: AAH11437.1
CCDSiCCDS16726.1
PIRiI55969
RefSeqiNP_032387.1, NM_008361.4
UniGeneiMm.222830

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2MIBX-ray2.84A118-269[»]
8I1BX-ray2.40A118-269[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP10749
SMRiP10749
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi200624, 6 interactors
IntActiP10749, 1 interactor
STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000028881

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP10749
PhosphoSitePlusiP10749

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP10749
PRIDEiP10749
TopDownProteomicsiP10749

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000028881; ENSMUSP00000028881; ENSMUSG00000027398
GeneIDi16176
KEGGimmu:16176
UCSCiuc008mht.1 mouse

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
3553
MGIiMGI:96543 Il1b

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IGSZ Eukaryota
ENOG410XU2E LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00900000141028
HOGENOMiHOG000246399
HOVERGENiHBG007328
InParanoidiP10749
KOiK04519
OMAiPELTSEM
OrthoDBi1243742at2759
PhylomeDBiP10749
TreeFamiTF300203

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-MMU-448706 Interleukin-1 processing
R-MMU-5660668 CLEC7A/inflammasome pathway
R-MMU-9020702 Interleukin-1 signaling

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP10749
PMAP-CutDBiP10749

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:P10749

The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

More...
SOURCEi
Search...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSMUSG00000027398 Expressed in 85 organ(s), highest expression level in blood
CleanExiMM_IL1B
GenevisibleiP10749 MM

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR003296 IL-1_beta
IPR020877 IL-1_CS
IPR000975 IL-1_fam
IPR003502 IL-1_propep
IPR008996 IL1/FGF
PANTHERiPTHR44849 PTHR44849, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00340 IL1, 1 hit
PF02394 IL1_propep, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00264 INTERLEUKIN1
SUPFAMiSSF50353 SSF50353, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00253 INTERLEUKIN_1, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiIL1B_MOUSE
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P10749
Secondary accession number(s): Q2M4J6
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 1, 1989
Last sequence update: July 1, 1989
Last modified: January 16, 2019
This is version 185 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. MGD cross-references
    Mouse Genome Database (MGD) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
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