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Protein

Chromogranin-A

Gene

CHGA

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Pancreastatin: Strongly inhibits glucose induced insulin release from the pancreas.
Catestatin: Inhibits catecholamine release from chromaffin cells and noradrenergic neurons by acting as a non-competitive nicotinic cholinergic antagonist (PubMed:15326220). Displays antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria S.aureus and M.luteus, and Gram-negative bacteria E.coli and P.aeruginosa (PubMed:15723172 and PubMed:24723458). Can induce mast cell migration, degranulation and production of cytokines and chemokines (PubMed:21214543). Acts as a potent scavenger of free radicals in vitro (PubMed:24723458). May play a role in the regulation of cardiac function and blood pressure (PubMed:18541522).1 Publication4 Publications
Serpinin: Regulates granule biogenesis in endocrine cells by up-regulating the transcription of protease nexin 1 (SERPINE2) via a cAMP-PKA-SP1 pathway. This leads to inhibition of granule protein degradation in the Golgi complex which in turn promotes granule formation.By similarity

Miscellaneous

Binds calcium with a low-affinity.

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionAntibiotic, Antimicrobial, Fungicide
LigandCalcium

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-6803157 Antimicrobial peptides
SIGNORiP10645

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Chromogranin-A
Short name:
CgA
Alternative name(s):
Pituitary secretory protein I
Short name:
SP-I
Cleaved into the following 18 chains:
Alternative name(s):
Vasostatin I
Alternative name(s):
Vasostatin II
Catestatin2 Publications
Alternative name(s):
SL211 Publication
GE-251 Publication
Gene namesi
Name:CHGA
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 14

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000100604.12
HGNCiHGNC:1929 CHGA
MIMi118910 gene
neXtProtiNX_P10645

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasmic vesicle, Membrane, Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi1113
OpenTargetsiENSG00000100604
PharmGKBiPA26461

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiCHGA
DMDMi215274270

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 182 PublicationsAdd BLAST18
ChainiPRO_000000540819 – 457Chromogranin-AAdd BLAST439
PeptideiPRO_000000540919 – 131Vasostatin-21 PublicationAdd BLAST113
PeptideiPRO_000000541019 – 94Vasostatin-11 PublicationAdd BLAST76
PeptideiPRO_0000005411134 – 225EA-921 PublicationAdd BLAST92
PeptideiPRO_0000005412228 – 260ES-431 PublicationAdd BLAST33
PeptideiPRO_0000005413272 – 319Pancreastatin1 PublicationAdd BLAST48
PeptideiPRO_0000005414322 – 339SS-181 PublicationAdd BLAST18
PeptideiPRO_0000005415342 – 355WE-141 PublicationAdd BLAST14
PeptideiPRO_0000005416342 – 349WA-81 Publication8
PeptideiPRO_0000005417358 – 376LF-191 PublicationAdd BLAST19
PeptideiPRO_0000432682370 – 390Catestatin1 PublicationAdd BLAST21
PeptideiPRO_0000005418380 – 390AL-111 PublicationAdd BLAST11
PeptideiPRO_0000432683393 – 417GE-251 PublicationAdd BLAST25
PeptideiPRO_0000005419393 – 411GV-191 PublicationAdd BLAST19
PeptideiPRO_0000005420413 – 456GR-441 PublicationAdd BLAST44
PeptideiPRO_0000005421420 – 456ER-371 PublicationAdd BLAST37
PeptideiPRO_0000432684429 – 457Serpinin-RRGBy similarityAdd BLAST29
PeptideiPRO_0000432685429 – 454SerpininBy similarityAdd BLAST26
PeptideiPRO_0000432686432 – 454p-Glu serpinin precursorBy similarityAdd BLAST23

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Disulfide bondi35 ↔ 561 Publication
Modified residuei142PhosphoserineBy similarity1
GlycosylationiCAR_000116181O-linked (GalNAc...) threonine1 Publication1
GlycosylationiCAR_000117183O-linked (GalNAc...) threonine1 Publication1
Modified residuei194PhosphotyrosineBy similarity1
Modified residuei203PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei218Phosphoserine1 Publication1
GlycosylationiCAR_000118251O-linked (GalNAc...) threonine1 Publication1
Modified residuei270Phosphoserine1 Publication1
Modified residuei300PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei319Glycine amide2 Publications1
Modified residuei322PhosphoserineCombined sources1 Publication1
Modified residuei333Phosphoserine1 Publication1
Modified residuei371PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei372Methionine sulfoxide1 Publication1
Modified residuei398PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei402PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei424PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei438PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei456Arginine amide1 Publication1

Post-translational modificationi

Sulfated on tyrosine residues and/or contains sulfated glycans.
O-glycosylated with core 1 or possibly core 8 glycans.3 Publications
Proteolytic processing gives rise to an additional longer form of catestatin (residues 358-390) which displays a less potent catecholamine release-inhibitory activity (PubMed:10781584). Plasmin-mediated proteolytic processing can give rise to additional shorter and longer forms of catestatin peptides (PubMed:17991725).2 Publications

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, Oxidation, Phosphoprotein, Sulfation

Proteomic databases

EPDiP10645
PaxDbiP10645
PeptideAtlasiP10645
PRIDEiP10645
ProteomicsDBi52635
TopDownProteomicsiP10645

PTM databases

GlyConnecti93
iPTMnetiP10645
PhosphoSitePlusiP10645
UniCarbKBiP10645

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBiQ6NR84

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

GE-25 is found in the brain.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000100604 Expressed in 151 organ(s), highest expression level in type B pancreatic cell
CleanExiHS_CHGA
ExpressionAtlasiP10645 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP10645 HS

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB000023
CAB040544
CAB055506
CAB058688
HPA017369

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with SCG3.By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi107538, 12 interactors
IntActiP10645, 3 interactors
MINTiP10645
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000216492

Structurei

Secondary structure

1457
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP10645
SMRiP10645
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP10645

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni41 – 59O-glycosylated at one site only in cerebrospinal fluidAdd BLAST19
Regioni181 – 191O-glycosylated at one site only in cerebrospinal fluidAdd BLAST11

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410II3Z Eukaryota
ENOG410YGBX LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00730000111266
HOVERGENiHBG001272
InParanoidiP10645
KOiK19990
OMAiVNSPMNK
OrthoDBiEOG091G0I4D
PhylomeDBiP10645
TreeFamiTF336596

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR001819 Chromogranin_AB
IPR018054 Chromogranin_CS
IPR001990 Granin
PANTHERiPTHR10583 PTHR10583, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF01271 Granin, 2 hits
PRINTSiPR00659 CHROMOGRANIN
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00422 GRANINS_1, 1 hit
PS00423 GRANINS_2, 1 hit

Sequence (1+)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry has 1 described isoform and 2 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.iShow all

P10645-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MRSAAVLALL LCAGQVTALP VNSPMNKGDT EVMKCIVEVI SDTLSKPSPM
60 70 80 90 100
PVSQECFETL RGDERILSIL RHQNLLKELQ DLALQGAKER AHQQKKHSGF
110 120 130 140 150
EDELSEVLEN QSSQAELKEA VEEPSSKDVM EKREDSKEAE KSGEATDGAR
160 170 180 190 200
PQALPEPMQE SKAEGNNQAP GEEEEEEEEA TNTHPPASLP SQKYPGPQAE
210 220 230 240 250
GDSEGLSQGL VDREKGLSAE PGWQAKREEE EEEEEEAEAG EEAVPEEEGP
260 270 280 290 300
TVVLNPHPSL GYKEIRKGES RSEALAVDGA GKPGAEEAQD PEGKGEQEHS
310 320 330 340 350
QQKEEEEEMA VVPQGLFRGG KSGELEQEEE RLSKEWEDSK RWSKMDQLAK
360 370 380 390 400
ELTAEKRLEG QEEEEDNRDS SMKLSFRARA YGFRGPGPQL RRGWRPSSRE
410 420 430 440 450
DSLEAGLPLQ VRGYPEEKKE EEGSANRRPE DQELESLSAI EAELEKVAHQ

LQALRRG
Length:457
Mass (Da):50,688
Last modified:November 25, 2008 - v7
Checksum:i2F634E1A83FF0BB1
GO

Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 2 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
G5E968G5E968_HUMAN
Chromogranin A (Parathyroid secreto...
CHGA hCG_21274
306Annotation score:
G3V2Q7G3V2Q7_HUMAN
Chromogranin-A
CHGA
38Annotation score:

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti41S → Y in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti54Q → K in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti87A → R in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti119E → Q in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti167N → K in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti200E → K in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti219A → V in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti339 – 340SK → TN in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated2
Sequence conflicti370S → R in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti373K → R in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti380A → G in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti394W → S in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti397S → N in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti416E → Q in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1

Mass spectrometryi

Molecular mass is 2051.89 Da from positions 357 - 373. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 3770 Da from positions 358 - 390. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 3787 Da from positions 358 - 390. Determined by MALDI. With methionine sulfoxide at Met-372.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 1070.54 Da from positions 369 - 377. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 840.45 Da from positions 378 - 384. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 1389.74 Da from positions 378 - 390. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 1419.8 Da from positions 378 - 390. Determined by MALDI. With variant Ser-382.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 1545.84 Da from positions 378 - 391. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 1575.9 Da from positions 378 - 391. Determined by MALDI. With variant Ser-382.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 1701.96 Da from positions 378 - 392. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 1318.71 Da from positions 380 - 391. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_04741761R → Q. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs3742712Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025636176E → K. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs9658654Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025637264E → D1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs9658655Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025638271R → W. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs9658662Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025639274A → G. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs9658663Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025640315G → S. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs9658664Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025641332L → P. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs9658665Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025642369D → N. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs2228575Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025643382G → S Polymorphism; may be associated with a reduced risk for hypertension especially in men; reduces activity 4.7 fold; no effect on plasmin-mediated proteolytic processing; increase in ability to inhibit nicotine-evoked catecholamine secretion in vitro; displays alterations in baroreceptor function. 4 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs9658667Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025644388P → L Polymorphism; increases activity 2.3 fold; decrease in plasmin-mediated proteolytic processing; decrease in ability to inhibit nicotine-evoked catecholamine secretion in vitro. 3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs9658668Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_072687392R → Q Polymorphism; no effect on plasmin-mediated proteolytic processing; decrease in ability to inhibit nicotine-evoked catecholamine secretion in vitro. 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs9658669Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025645399R → W3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs729940Ensembl.1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
J03483 mRNA Translation: AAA52017.1
J03915 mRNA Translation: AAA52018.1
U03749
, U03742, U03743, U03744, U03748, U03745, U03746, U03747 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB53685.1
BT006869 mRNA Translation: AAP35515.1
AK223381 mRNA Translation: BAD97101.1
AL117192 Genomic DNA No translation available.
AK313757 mRNA Translation: BAG36496.1
CH471061 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW81505.1
BC001059 mRNA Translation: AAH01059.1
BC006459 mRNA Translation: AAH06459.1
BC009384 mRNA Translation: AAH09384.2
BC012755 mRNA Translation: AAH12755.2
CCDSiCCDS9906.1
PIRiA54376 A28468
RefSeqiNP_001266.1, NM_001275.3
NP_001288619.1, NM_001301690.1
XP_011534672.1, XM_011536370.1
UniGeneiHs.150793

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000216492; ENSP00000216492; ENSG00000100604
ENST00000613166; ENSP00000478198; ENSG00000276781
GeneIDi1113
KEGGihsa:1113
UCSCiuc001ybc.6 human

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Similar proteinsi

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
J03483 mRNA Translation: AAA52017.1
J03915 mRNA Translation: AAA52018.1
U03749
, U03742, U03743, U03744, U03748, U03745, U03746, U03747 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB53685.1
BT006869 mRNA Translation: AAP35515.1
AK223381 mRNA Translation: BAD97101.1
AL117192 Genomic DNA No translation available.
AK313757 mRNA Translation: BAG36496.1
CH471061 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW81505.1
BC001059 mRNA Translation: AAH01059.1
BC006459 mRNA Translation: AAH06459.1
BC009384 mRNA Translation: AAH09384.2
BC012755 mRNA Translation: AAH12755.2
CCDSiCCDS9906.1
PIRiA54376 A28468
RefSeqiNP_001266.1, NM_001275.3
NP_001288619.1, NM_001301690.1
XP_011534672.1, XM_011536370.1
UniGeneiHs.150793

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1LV4NMR-A370-390[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP10645
SMRiP10645
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi107538, 12 interactors
IntActiP10645, 3 interactors
MINTiP10645
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000216492

PTM databases

GlyConnecti93
iPTMnetiP10645
PhosphoSitePlusiP10645
UniCarbKBiP10645

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiCHGA
DMDMi215274270

Proteomic databases

EPDiP10645
PaxDbiP10645
PeptideAtlasiP10645
PRIDEiP10645
ProteomicsDBi52635
TopDownProteomicsiP10645

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi1113
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000216492; ENSP00000216492; ENSG00000100604
ENST00000613166; ENSP00000478198; ENSG00000276781
GeneIDi1113
KEGGihsa:1113
UCSCiuc001ybc.6 human

Organism-specific databases

CTDi1113
DisGeNETi1113
EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000100604.12
GeneCardsiCHGA
HGNCiHGNC:1929 CHGA
HPAiCAB000023
CAB040544
CAB055506
CAB058688
HPA017369
MIMi118910 gene
neXtProtiNX_P10645
OpenTargetsiENSG00000100604
PharmGKBiPA26461
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410II3Z Eukaryota
ENOG410YGBX LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00730000111266
HOVERGENiHBG001272
InParanoidiP10645
KOiK19990
OMAiVNSPMNK
OrthoDBiEOG091G0I4D
PhylomeDBiP10645
TreeFamiTF336596

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-6803157 Antimicrobial peptides
SIGNORiP10645

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiCHGA human
EvolutionaryTraceiP10645
GeneWikiiChromogranin_A
GenomeRNAii1113
PMAP-CutDBiQ6NR84
PROiPR:P10645
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000100604 Expressed in 151 organ(s), highest expression level in type B pancreatic cell
CleanExiHS_CHGA
ExpressionAtlasiP10645 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP10645 HS

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR001819 Chromogranin_AB
IPR018054 Chromogranin_CS
IPR001990 Granin
PANTHERiPTHR10583 PTHR10583, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF01271 Granin, 2 hits
PRINTSiPR00659 CHROMOGRANIN
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00422 GRANINS_1, 1 hit
PS00423 GRANINS_2, 1 hit
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCMGA_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P10645
Secondary accession number(s): B2R9E9
, Q53FA8, Q6NR84, Q96E84, Q96GL7, Q9BQB5
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 1, 1989
Last sequence update: November 25, 2008
Last modified: September 12, 2018
This is version 195 of the entry and version 7 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome
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Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

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