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Entry version 16 (17 Jun 2020)
Sequence version 2 (22 Apr 2020)
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Delta(6)-protoilludene synthase



Armillaria gallica (Bulbous honey fungus) (Armillaria bulbosa)
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Delta6-protoilludene synthase, part of the gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of melleolides, a range of antifungal and phytotoxic polyketide derivatives composed of an orsellinic acid (OA) moiety esterified to various sesquiterpene alcohols (PubMed:21148562). The first step in melleolides biosynthesis is performed by the delta6-protoilludene synthase PRO1 which catalyzes the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to protoilludene (PubMed:21148562). The orsellinic acid synthase armB produces OA by condensing acetyl-CoA with 3 malonyl-CoA units in a three-round chain elongation reaction folowed by a C2-C7 ring closure (By similarity). ArmB further catalyzes the trans-esterification of OA to the various sesquiterpene alcohols resulting from the hydroxylation of protoilludene (By similarity). The melleolides cluster also includes 5 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, 4 NAD+-dependent oxidoreductases, one flavin-dependent oxidoreductase, and one O-methyltransferase (By similarity). The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases may be involved in protoilludene hydroxylation to elaborate melleolides with multiple alcohol groups, such as melleolide D, which carries alcohol functionalities at C-4, C-5, C-10, and C-13 (By similarity). The role of the NAD+-dependent enzymes remains unknown (By similarity). Numerous melleolides, including arnamial, show 5'-O-methylation of the aromatic moiety which may be catalyzed by the methyltransferase encoded in the cluster (By similarity). The flavin-dependent oxidoreductase might represent the dehydrogenase yielding the aldehyde in position 1 of arnamial and other melleolides (By similarity). Finally, several halogenases, localized outside of the cluster, are able to catalyze the transfer of a single chlorine atom to the melleolide backbone, resulting in a 6'-chloromelleolide product (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication


Armillaria species are both devastating forest pathogens and some of the largest and oldest terrestrial organisms on Earth (PubMed:31746694) (Probable). They forage for hosts and achieve immense colony sizes via rhizomorphs, root-like multicellular structures of clonal dispersal (Probable). One genetic Armillaria gallica individual localized in Michigan's Upper Peninsula stands out as exceptionally large, covering hundreds of tree root systems over approximately 75 hectares of the forest floor (PubMed:30963893). Based on observed growth rates of the fungus, the minimum age of this large individual can be estimated as 2500 years (PubMed:30963893).1 Publication2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

Mg2+1 PublicationNote: Binds 3 Mg2+ ions per subunit.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=0.53 µM for farnesyl diphosphate1 Publication

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: Secondary metabolite biosynthesis

    This protein is involved in Secondary metabolite biosynthesis.1 Publication
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in Secondary metabolite biosynthesis.


    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the 'Description' field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi84Magnesium 1By similarity1
    Metal bindingi84Magnesium 2By similarity1
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei176SubstrateBy similarity1
    Metal bindingi220Magnesium 3By similarity1
    Metal bindingi224Magnesium 3By similarity1
    Metal bindingi228Magnesium 3By similarity1

    <p>The <a href="">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    <p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

    Molecular functionLyase
    Biological processVirulence
    LigandMagnesium, Metal-binding

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases


    <p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Delta(6)-protoilludene synthase1 Publication (EC: Publication)
    Alternative name(s):
    Melleolides biosynthesis cluster protein PRO11 Publication
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
    Name:PRO11 Publication
    ORF Names:ARMGADRAFT_1000221
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiArmillaria gallica (Bulbous honey fungus) (Armillaria bulbosa)
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri47427 [NCBI]
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaFungiDikaryaBasidiomycotaAgaricomycotinaAgaricomycetesAgaricomycetidaeAgaricalesPhysalacriaceaeArmillaria
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
    • UP000217790 <p>A UniProt <a href="">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unassembled WGS sequence

    <p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

    <p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the use of a specific protein in the biotechnological industry.<p><a href='/help/biotechnological_use' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Biotechnological usei

    Melleolide sesquiterpene aryl esters are cytotoxic secondary products with anti-cancer potential (PubMed:21376582, PubMed:26952552). Armillaridin shows therapeutic and radiosensitizing effects on human esophageal cancer cells (PubMed:23864890). Armillaridin induces autophagy-associated cell death in human chronic myelogenous leukemia as well as of hepatocellular carcinoma cells (PubMed:27592257, PubMed:31488037). Armillaridin can also inhibit the differentiation and activation of human macrophages and thus might have potential to be developed as a biological response modifier for inflammatory diseases (PubMed:25746621).6 Publications

    <p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004222151 – 345Delta(6)-protoilludene synthaseAdd BLAST345

    <p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei


    1 Publication

    <p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi


    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni325 – 326Substrate-bindingBy similarity2


    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a short (usually not more than 20 amino acids) conserved sequence motif of biological significance.<p><a href='/help/motif' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Motifi84 – 88DDXXD motifCurated5

    <p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides general information on the biological role of a domain. The term 'domain' is intended here in its wide acceptation, it may be a structural domain, a transmembrane region or a functional domain. Several domains are described in this subsection.<p><a href='/help/domain_cc' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini

    The Asp-Asp-Xaa-Xaa-Asp/Glu (DDXXD/E) motif is important for the catalytic activity, presumably through binding to Mg2+.By similarity

    <p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the terpene synthase family.Curated

    Phylogenomic databases

    KEGG Orthology (KO)


    Database of Orthologous Groups


    Family and domain databases

    Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

    1.10.600.10, 1 hit

    Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

    View protein in InterPro
    IPR008949 Isoprenoid_synthase_dom_sf
    IPR034686 Terpene_cyclase-like_2
    IPR005630 Terpene_synthase_metal-bd

    Pfam protein domain database

    View protein in Pfam
    PF03936 Terpene_synth_C, 1 hit

    Structure-Function Linkage Database

    SFLDG01020 Terpene_Cyclase_Like_2, 1 hit

    Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

    SSF48576 SSF48576, 1 hit

    <p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="">length</a> and <a href="">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

    P0DL13-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    « Hide
            10         20         30         40         50
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    310 320 330 340
    Mass (Da):39,793
    Last modified:April 22, 2020 - v2
    <p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i4C707A66F7BE6A5A

    Natural variant

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural varianti90A → S in strain: FU02472. 1
    Natural varianti210N → K in strain: FU02472. 1
    Natural varianti343S → F in strain: FU02472. 1

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:

    EMBL nucleotide sequence database


    GenBank nucleotide sequence database


    DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

    Links Updated
    KC852198 mRNA Translation: AGR34199.1
    KZ293696 Genomic DNA Translation: PBK84744.1

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembl fungal genome annotation project

    PBK84744; PBK84744; ARMGADRAFT_1000221

    KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes


    <p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

    <p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    Links Updated
    KC852198 mRNA Translation: AGR34199.1
    KZ293696 Genomic DNA Translation: PBK84744.1

    3D structure databases

    Database of comparative protein structure models


    SWISS-MODEL Interactive Workspace

    Submit a new modelling project...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblFungiiPBK84744; PBK84744; ARMGADRAFT_1000221

    Phylogenomic databases


    Enzyme and pathway databases


    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di1.10.600.10, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR008949 Isoprenoid_synthase_dom_sf
    IPR034686 Terpene_cyclase-like_2
    IPR005630 Terpene_synthase_metal-bd
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF03936 Terpene_synth_C, 1 hit
    SFLDiSFLDG01020 Terpene_Cyclase_Like_2, 1 hit
    SUPFAMiSSF48576 SSF48576, 1 hit

    ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins


    MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations


    <p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiPRO1_ARMGA
    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P0DL13
    Secondary accession number(s): A0A2H3CTI0, S5LSQ7
    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 1, 2013
    Last sequence update: April 22, 2020
    Last modified: June 17, 2020
    This is version 16 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
    <p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

    <p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Reference proteome


    1. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    2. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families
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