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Entry version 114 (02 Jun 2021)
Sequence version 1 (21 Jul 1986)
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Protein

Fumarate reductase subunit D

Gene

frdD

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Two distinct, membrane-bound, FAD-containing enzymes are responsible for the catalysis of fumarate and succinate interconversion; fumarate reductase is used in anaerobic growth, and succinate dehydrogenase is used in aerobic growth. Anchors the catalytic components of the fumarate reductase complex to the cell inner membrane, binds quinones (PubMed:10373108).

The QFR enzyme complex binds 2 quinones in or near the membrane; 1 near the [3Fe-4S] cluster (QP is proximal to the [3Fe-4S] cluster, on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane) while QD (the distal cluster) is on the other side of the membrane. It is not clear if both of the quinol-binding sites are functionally relevant (PubMed:10373108, PubMed:11850430).

2 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei15MenaquinoneCombined sources1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

  • fumarate reductase (menaquinone) Source: EcoCyc
  • succinate dehydrogenase activity Source: UniProtKB-UniRule

GO - Biological processi

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

More...
BioCyci
EcoCyc:FUM-MEMB2
MetaCyc:FUM-MEMB2

BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

More...
BRENDAi
1.3.5.4, 2026

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Fumarate reductase subunit DUniRule annotation
Alternative name(s):
Fumarate reductase 13 kDa hydrophobic proteinUniRule annotation
Quinol-fumarate reductase subunit D1 PublicationUniRule annotation
Short name:
QFR subunit D1 PublicationUniRule annotation
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:frdDUniRule annotation
Ordered Locus Names:b4151, JW4112
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacteralesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000000318 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome
  • UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular%5Flocation%5Fsection">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the subcellular compartment where each non-membrane region of a membrane-spanning protein is found.<p><a href='/help/topo_dom' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Topological domaini1 – 8Cytoplasmic1 Publication8
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular%5Flocation%5Fsection">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the extent of a membrane-spanning region of the protein. It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel transmembrane proteins.<p><a href='/help/transmem' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Transmembranei9 – 35Helical1 PublicationAdd BLAST27
Topological domaini36 – 60Periplasmic1 PublicationAdd BLAST25
Transmembranei61 – 89Helical1 PublicationAdd BLAST29
Topological domaini90 – 96Cytoplasmic1 Publication7
Transmembranei97 – 115Helical1 PublicationAdd BLAST19
Topological domaini116 – 119Periplasmic2 Publications4

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell inner membrane, Cell membrane, Membrane

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Chemistry databases

Drug and drug target database

More...
DrugBanki
DB07490, 2-[1-(4-CHLORO-PHENYL)-ETHYL]-4,6-DINITRO-PHENOL
DB07918, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001965421 – 119Fumarate reductase subunit DAdd BLAST119

Proteomic databases

jPOST - Japan Proteome Standard Repository/Database

More...
jPOSTi
P0A8Q3

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P0A8Q3

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P0A8Q3

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

Regulated at the transcriptional level in response to the cellular availability of the alternate electron acceptors oxygen, nitrate, and fumarate.1 Publication

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Part of an enzyme complex containing four subunits: a flavoprotein (FrdA), an iron-sulfur protein (FrdB), and two hydrophobic anchor proteins (FrdC and FrdD).

UniRule annotation2 Publications

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

More...
BioGRIDi
4262699, 457 interactors

ComplexPortal: manually curated resource of macromolecular complexes

More...
ComplexPortali
CPX-1967, Plasma membrane fumarate reductase complex

Database of interacting proteins

More...
DIPi
DIP-9684N

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
P0A8Q3, 1 interactor

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
511145.b4151

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1119
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P0A8Q3

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

Protein Data Bank in Europe - Knowledge Base

More...
PDBe-KBi
Search...

Miscellaneous databases

Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

More...
EvolutionaryTracei
P0A8Q3

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the FrdD family.UniRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
COG3080, Bacteria

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_168367_0_0_6

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

More...
CDDi
cd00547, QFR_TypeD_subunitD, 1 hit

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
1.20.1300.10, 1 hit

HAMAP database of protein families

More...
HAMAPi
MF_00709, Fumarate_red_D, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR003418, Fumarate_red_D
IPR034804, SQR/QFR_C/D

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF02313, Fumarate_red_D, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

More...
PIRSFi
PIRSF000179, FrdD, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF81343, SSF81343, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

P0A8Q3-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MINPNPKRSD EPVFWGLFGA GGMWSAIIAP VMILLVGILL PLGLFPGDAL
60 70 80 90 100
SYERVLAFAQ SFIGRVFLFL MIVLPLWCGL HRMHHAMHDL KIHVPAGKWV
110
FYGLAAILTV VTLIGVVTI
Length:119
Mass (Da):13,107
Last modified:July 21, 1986 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iE9D119342B1D5357
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
J01611 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA23440.1
V00277 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA23536.1
U14003 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA97050.1
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC77111.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAE78155.1
M11979 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA23434.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
A04431, WMEC13

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_418575.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000609663.1, NZ_STEB01000014.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblBacteriai
AAC77111; AAC77111; b4151
BAE78155; BAE78155; BAE78155

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
61734463
948668

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
ecj:JW4112
eco:b4151

Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC)

More...
PATRICi
fig|1411691.4.peg.2547

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
J01611 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA23440.1
V00277 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA23536.1
U14003 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA97050.1
U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC77111.1
AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAE78155.1
M11979 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA23434.1
PIRiA04431, WMEC13
RefSeqiNP_418575.1, NC_000913.3
WP_000609663.1, NZ_STEB01000014.1

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1KF6X-ray2.70D/P1-119[»]
1KFYX-ray3.60D/P1-119[»]
1L0VX-ray3.30D/P1-119[»]
2B76X-ray3.30D/P1-119[»]
3CIRX-ray3.65D/P1-119[»]
3P4PX-ray2.80D/P1-119[»]
3P4QX-ray3.35D/P1-119[»]
3P4RX-ray3.05D/P1-119[»]
3P4SX-ray3.10D/P1-119[»]
4KX6X-ray2.95D/P1-119[»]
5VPNX-ray4.22D/H1-119[»]
SMRiP0A8Q3
ModBaseiSearch...
PDBe-KBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGRIDi4262699, 457 interactors
ComplexPortaliCPX-1967, Plasma membrane fumarate reductase complex
DIPiDIP-9684N
IntActiP0A8Q3, 1 interactor
STRINGi511145.b4151

Chemistry databases

DrugBankiDB07490, 2-[1-(4-CHLORO-PHENYL)-ETHYL]-4,6-DINITRO-PHENOL
DB07918, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide

Proteomic databases

jPOSTiP0A8Q3
PaxDbiP0A8Q3
PRIDEiP0A8Q3

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaiAAC77111; AAC77111; b4151
BAE78155; BAE78155; BAE78155
GeneIDi61734463
948668
KEGGiecj:JW4112
eco:b4151
PATRICifig|1411691.4.peg.2547

Organism-specific databases

EchoBASE - an integrated post-genomic database for E. coli

More...
EchoBASEi
EB0329

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG3080, Bacteria
HOGENOMiCLU_168367_0_0_6

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciEcoCyc:FUM-MEMB2
MetaCyc:FUM-MEMB2
BRENDAi1.3.5.4, 2026

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP0A8Q3

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:P0A8Q3

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00547, QFR_TypeD_subunitD, 1 hit
Gene3Di1.20.1300.10, 1 hit
HAMAPiMF_00709, Fumarate_red_D, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR003418, Fumarate_red_D
IPR034804, SQR/QFR_C/D
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF02313, Fumarate_red_D, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF000179, FrdD, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF81343, SSF81343, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiFRDD_ECOLI
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P0A8Q3
Secondary accession number(s): P03806, Q2M6F1, Q47048
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: July 21, 1986
Last modified: June 2, 2021
This is version 114 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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