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Protein

Gamma-enolase

Gene

ENO2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties on a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to cultured neocortical neurons and promotes cell survival (By similarity).By similarity

Catalytic activityi

2-phospho-D-glycerate = phosphoenolpyruvate + H2O.

Cofactori

Mg2+Note: Mg2+ is required for catalysis and for stabilizing the dimer.

Pathwayi: glycolysis

This protein is involved in step 4 of the subpathway that synthesizes pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.
Proteins known to be involved in the 5 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, testis-specific (GAPDHS), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (HEL-S-278), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (epd), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (HEL-S-162eP), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
  2. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), Phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2), Phosphoglycerate kinase, Phosphoglycerate kinase, Phosphoglycerate kinase, Phosphoglycerate kinase (HEL-S-68p), Phosphoglycerate kinase (HEL-S-272), Phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk), Phosphoglycerate kinase, Phosphoglycerate kinase
  3. no protein annotated in this organism
  4. Beta-enolase (ENO3), Enolase 4 (ENO4), Alpha-enolase (ENO1), Gamma-enolase (ENO2)
  5. Pyruvate kinase PKM (PKM), Pyruvate kinase PKLR (PKLR), Pyruvate kinase (PKM), Pyruvate kinase (PKM2), Pyruvate kinase (HEL-S-30), Pyruvate kinase (PKM), Pyruvate kinase (PKM), Pyruvate kinase (PKM2), Pyruvate kinase, Pyruvate kinase (pyk), Pyruvate kinase (PKM2), Pyruvate kinase, Pyruvate kinase (PKM2), Pyruvate kinase, Pyruvate kinase (PKM), Pyruvate kinase
This subpathway is part of the pathway glycolysis, which is itself part of Carbohydrate degradation.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, the pathway glycolysis and in Carbohydrate degradation.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Binding sitei158SubstrateBy similarity1
Binding sitei167SubstrateBy similarity1
Active sitei210Proton donorBy similarity1
Metal bindingi245Magnesium1
Metal bindingi293Magnesium1
Binding sitei293SubstrateBy similarity1
Metal bindingi318Magnesium1
Binding sitei318SubstrateBy similarity1
Active sitei343Proton acceptorBy similarity1
Binding sitei394SubstrateBy similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

  • magnesium ion binding Source: InterPro
  • phosphopyruvate hydratase activity Source: CAFA

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionLyase
Biological processGlycolysis
LigandMagnesium, Metal-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:HS10646-MONOMER
BRENDAi4.2.1.11 2681
ReactomeiR-HSA-70171 Glycolysis
R-HSA-70263 Gluconeogenesis
SABIO-RKiP09104
UniPathwayi
UPA00109;UER00187

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Gamma-enolase (EC:4.2.1.11)
Alternative name(s):
2-phospho-D-glycerate hydro-lyase
Enolase 2
Neural enolase
Neuron-specific enolase
Short name:
NSE
Gene namesi
Name:ENO2
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 12

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000111674.8
HGNCiHGNC:3353 ENO2
MIMi131360 gene
neXtProtiNX_P09104

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Cytoplasm, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi2026
OpenTargetsiENSG00000111674
PharmGKBiPA27788

Chemistry databases

DrugBankiDB02726 2-Phosphoglycolic Acid

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiENO2
DMDMi20981682

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Initiator methionineiRemovedBy similarity
ChainiPRO_00001341122 – 434Gamma-enolaseAdd BLAST433

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei2N-acetylserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei5N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei26PhosphothreonineCombined sources1
Modified residuei44PhosphotyrosineCombined sources1
Modified residuei60N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei60N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei64N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei89N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei89N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei193N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei197N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei199N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei202N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Cross-linki202Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in SUMO2); alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei228N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei228N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei233N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei256N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei263PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei287PhosphotyrosineBy similarity1
Modified residuei291PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei335N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei343N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei406N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Isopeptide bond, Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

EPDiP09104
PaxDbiP09104
PeptideAtlasiP09104
PRIDEiP09104
ProteomicsDBi52198

2D gel databases

OGPiP09104
UCD-2DPAGEiP09104

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP09104
PhosphoSitePlusiP09104
SwissPalmiP09104

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBiP09104

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

The alpha/alpha homodimer is expressed in embryo and in most adult tissues. The alpha/beta heterodimer and the beta/beta homodimer are found in striated muscle, and the alpha/gamma heterodimer and the gamma/gamma homodimer in neurons.

Developmental stagei

During ontogenesis, there is a transition from the alpha/alpha homodimer to the alpha/beta heterodimer in striated muscle cells, and to the alpha/gamma heterodimer in nerve cells.

Inductioni

Levels of ENO2 increase dramatically in cardiovascular accidents, cerebral trauma, brain tumors and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000111674 Expressed in 195 organ(s), highest expression level in right hemisphere of cerebellum
CleanExiHS_ENO2
ExpressionAtlasiP09104 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP09104 HS

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB000063
CAB073539
CAB079023
HPA068284
HPA068721

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Mammalian enolase is composed of 3 isozyme subunits, alpha, beta and gamma, which can form homodimers or heterodimers which are cell-type and development-specific.1 Publication

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
TINF2Q9BSI42EBI-713154,EBI-717399

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi108340, 87 interactors
IntActiP09104, 29 interactors
MINTiP09104
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000229277

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP09104

Structurei

Secondary structure

1434
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP09104
SMRiP09104
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP09104

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni370 – 373Substrate bindingBy similarity4

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the enolase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG2670 Eukaryota
COG0148 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00910000144064
HOGENOMiHOG000072174
HOVERGENiHBG000067
InParanoidiP09104
KOiK01689
OMAiAEERACN
OrthoDBiEOG091G07NH
PhylomeDBiP09104
TreeFamiTF300391

Family and domain databases

CDDicd03313 enolase, 1 hit
Gene3Di3.20.20.120, 1 hit
3.30.390.10, 1 hit
HAMAPiMF_00318 Enolase, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000941 Enolase
IPR036849 Enolase-like_C_sf
IPR029017 Enolase-like_N
IPR034390 Enolase-like_superfamily
IPR020810 Enolase_C
IPR020809 Enolase_CS
IPR020811 Enolase_N
PANTHERiPTHR11902 PTHR11902, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00113 Enolase_C, 1 hit
PF03952 Enolase_N, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF001400 Enolase, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00148 ENOLASE
SFLDiSFLDG00178 enolase, 1 hit
SFLDS00001 Enolase, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM01192 Enolase_C, 1 hit
SM01193 Enolase_N, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF51604 SSF51604, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01060 eno, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00164 ENOLASE, 1 hit

Sequences (2+)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

This entry has 2 described isoforms and 4 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Isoform 1 (identifier: P09104-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MSIEKIWARE ILDSRGNPTV EVDLYTAKGL FRAAVPSGAS TGIYEALELR
60 70 80 90 100
DGDKQRYLGK GVLKAVDHIN STIAPALISS GLSVVEQEKL DNLMLELDGT
110 120 130 140 150
ENKSKFGANA ILGVSLAVCK AGAAERELPL YRHIAQLAGN SDLILPVPAF
160 170 180 190 200
NVINGGSHAG NKLAMQEFMI LPVGAESFRD AMRLGAEVYH TLKGVIKDKY
210 220 230 240 250
GKDATNVGDE GGFAPNILEN SEALELVKEA IDKAGYTEKI VIGMDVAASE
260 270 280 290 300
FYRDGKYDLD FKSPTDPSRY ITGDQLGALY QDFVRDYPVV SIEDPFDQDD
310 320 330 340 350
WAAWSKFTAN VGIQIVGDDL TVTNPKRIER AVEEKACNCL LLKVNQIGSV
360 370 380 390 400
TEAIQACKLA QENGWGVMVS HRSGETEDTF IADLVVGLCT GQIKTGAPCR
410 420 430
SERLAKYNQL MRIEEELGDE ARFAGHNFRN PSVL
Length:434
Mass (Da):47,269
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v3
Checksum:i6163DE81F5C67744
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: P09104-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     61-104: GVLKAVDHINSTIAPALISSGLSVVEQEKLDNLMLELDGTENKS → A

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:391
Mass (Da):42,707
Checksum:iB9133CC7C5A3524C
GO

Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 4 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
F5H0C8F5H0C8_HUMAN
Gamma-enolase
ENO2
315Annotation score:
U3KQQ1U3KQQ1_HUMAN
Gamma-enolase
ENO2
86Annotation score:
U3KQP4U3KQP4_HUMAN
Gamma-enolase
ENO2
73Annotation score:
F5H1C3F5H1C3_HUMAN
Gamma-enolase
ENO2
103Annotation score:

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAA52388 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti4E → Q in CAA31512 (PubMed:3208766).Curated1
Sequence conflicti4E → Q in CAA32505 (PubMed:3208766).Curated1
Sequence conflicti27 – 28AK → GC in AAA52388 (PubMed:3385803).Curated2
Sequence conflicti127E → N in AAA52388 (PubMed:3385803).Curated1
Sequence conflicti240I → M in CAA31512 (PubMed:3208766).Curated1
Sequence conflicti240I → M in CAA32505 (PubMed:3208766).Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_002354264P → A. 1
Natural variantiVAR_002355395T → A. 1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_05548261 – 104GVLKA…TENKS → A in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST44

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X13120 mRNA Translation: CAA31512.1
X14327 mRNA Translation: CAA32505.1
M36768 mRNA Translation: AAA52388.1 Different initiation.
M22349 mRNA Translation: AAB59554.1
X51956 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA36215.1
AK295220 mRNA Translation: BAH12015.1
BT007383 mRNA Translation: AAP36047.1
U47924 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB51320.1
BC002745 mRNA Translation: AAH02745.1
CCDSiCCDS8570.1 [P09104-1]
PIRiJU0060 NOHUG
RefSeqiNP_001966.1, NM_001975.2 [P09104-1]
UniGeneiHs.511915

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000229277; ENSP00000229277; ENSG00000111674 [P09104-1]
ENST00000535366; ENSP00000437402; ENSG00000111674 [P09104-1]
ENST00000538763; ENSP00000441490; ENSG00000111674 [P09104-2]
ENST00000541477; ENSP00000438873; ENSG00000111674 [P09104-1]
GeneIDi2026
KEGGihsa:2026
UCSCiuc058knm.1 human [P09104-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Similar proteinsi

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X13120 mRNA Translation: CAA31512.1
X14327 mRNA Translation: CAA32505.1
M36768 mRNA Translation: AAA52388.1 Different initiation.
M22349 mRNA Translation: AAB59554.1
X51956 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA36215.1
AK295220 mRNA Translation: BAH12015.1
BT007383 mRNA Translation: AAP36047.1
U47924 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB51320.1
BC002745 mRNA Translation: AAH02745.1
CCDSiCCDS8570.1 [P09104-1]
PIRiJU0060 NOHUG
RefSeqiNP_001966.1, NM_001975.2 [P09104-1]
UniGeneiHs.511915

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1TE6X-ray1.80A/B2-434[»]
2AKMX-ray1.92A/B2-434[»]
2AKZX-ray1.36A/B2-434[»]
3UCCX-ray1.50A/B2-434[»]
3UCDX-ray1.41A/B2-434[»]
3UJEX-ray1.55A/B2-434[»]
3UJFX-ray2.10A/B2-434[»]
3UJRX-ray1.40A/B2-434[»]
3UJSX-ray1.65A/B2-434[»]
4ZA0X-ray2.31A/B1-434[»]
4ZCWX-ray1.99A/B1-434[»]
5EU9X-ray2.05A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H1-434[»]
5IDZX-ray2.63A/B1-434[»]
5TD9X-ray2.32A/B1-434[»]
5TIJX-ray2.63A/B1-434[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP09104
SMRiP09104
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi108340, 87 interactors
IntActiP09104, 29 interactors
MINTiP09104
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000229277

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP09104
DrugBankiDB02726 2-Phosphoglycolic Acid

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP09104
PhosphoSitePlusiP09104
SwissPalmiP09104

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiENO2
DMDMi20981682

2D gel databases

OGPiP09104
UCD-2DPAGEiP09104

Proteomic databases

EPDiP09104
PaxDbiP09104
PeptideAtlasiP09104
PRIDEiP09104
ProteomicsDBi52198

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi2026
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000229277; ENSP00000229277; ENSG00000111674 [P09104-1]
ENST00000535366; ENSP00000437402; ENSG00000111674 [P09104-1]
ENST00000538763; ENSP00000441490; ENSG00000111674 [P09104-2]
ENST00000541477; ENSP00000438873; ENSG00000111674 [P09104-1]
GeneIDi2026
KEGGihsa:2026
UCSCiuc058knm.1 human [P09104-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2026
DisGeNETi2026
EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000111674.8
GeneCardsiENO2
HGNCiHGNC:3353 ENO2
HPAiCAB000063
CAB073539
CAB079023
HPA068284
HPA068721
MIMi131360 gene
neXtProtiNX_P09104
OpenTargetsiENSG00000111674
PharmGKBiPA27788
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG2670 Eukaryota
COG0148 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00910000144064
HOGENOMiHOG000072174
HOVERGENiHBG000067
InParanoidiP09104
KOiK01689
OMAiAEERACN
OrthoDBiEOG091G07NH
PhylomeDBiP09104
TreeFamiTF300391

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayi
UPA00109;UER00187

BioCyciMetaCyc:HS10646-MONOMER
BRENDAi4.2.1.11 2681
ReactomeiR-HSA-70171 Glycolysis
R-HSA-70263 Gluconeogenesis
SABIO-RKiP09104

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiENO2 human
EvolutionaryTraceiP09104
GeneWikiiEnolase_2
GenomeRNAii2026
PMAP-CutDBiP09104
PROiPR:P09104
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000111674 Expressed in 195 organ(s), highest expression level in right hemisphere of cerebellum
CleanExiHS_ENO2
ExpressionAtlasiP09104 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP09104 HS

Family and domain databases

CDDicd03313 enolase, 1 hit
Gene3Di3.20.20.120, 1 hit
3.30.390.10, 1 hit
HAMAPiMF_00318 Enolase, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000941 Enolase
IPR036849 Enolase-like_C_sf
IPR029017 Enolase-like_N
IPR034390 Enolase-like_superfamily
IPR020810 Enolase_C
IPR020809 Enolase_CS
IPR020811 Enolase_N
PANTHERiPTHR11902 PTHR11902, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00113 Enolase_C, 1 hit
PF03952 Enolase_N, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF001400 Enolase, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00148 ENOLASE
SFLDiSFLDG00178 enolase, 1 hit
SFLDS00001 Enolase, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM01192 Enolase_C, 1 hit
SM01193 Enolase_N, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF51604 SSF51604, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01060 eno, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00164 ENOLASE, 1 hit
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiENOG_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P09104
Secondary accession number(s): B7Z2X9, Q96J33
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 1, 1989
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: September 12, 2018
This is version 217 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  3. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  4. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  5. Human chromosome 12
    Human chromosome 12: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  6. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  7. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
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