Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.
Entry version 134 (26 Feb 2020)
Sequence version 1 (01 Nov 1986)
Previous versions | rss
Help videoAdd a publicationFeedback
Protein

Proenkephalin-A

Gene

Penk

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Met- and Leu-enkephalins compete with and mimic the effects of opiate drugs. They play a role in a number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress. PENK(114-133) and PENK(239-260) increase glutamate release in the striatum. PENK(114-133) decreases GABA concentration in the striatum.1 Publication

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionEndorphin, Neuropeptide, Opioid peptide

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-RNO-375276 Peptide ligand-binding receptors
R-RNO-381426 Regulation of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) transport and uptake by Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs)
R-RNO-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events
R-RNO-8957275 Post-translational protein phosphorylation

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Proenkephalin-A
Cleaved into the following 8 chains:
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:Penk
Synonyms:Penk-rs, Penk1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 5

Organism-specific databases

Rat genome database

More...
RGDi
68946 Penk

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 24Sequence analysisAdd BLAST24
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the position and length of an active peptide in the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/peptide' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PeptideiPRO_000000828125 – 97SynenkephalinAdd BLAST73
PeptideiPRO_0000008282100 – 104Met-enkephalin5
PeptideiPRO_0000008283107 – 111Met-enkephalin5
PeptideiPRO_0000008284114 – 133PENK(114-133)Add BLAST20
PeptideiPRO_0000008285136 – 140Met-enkephalin5
PeptideiPRO_0000008286143 – 185PENK(143-185)Add BLAST43
PeptideiPRO_0000008287188 – 195Met-enkephalin-Arg-Gly-Leu8
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM / Processing</a> section describes a propeptide, which is a part of a protein that is cleaved during maturation or activation. Once cleaved, a propeptide generally has no independent biological function.<p><a href='/help/propep' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PropeptideiPRO_0000008288198 – 209Add BLAST12
PeptideiPRO_0000008289212 – 216Met-enkephalin5
PropeptideiPRO_0000008290219 – 229Add BLAST11
PeptideiPRO_0000008291232 – 236Leu-enkephalin5
PeptideiPRO_0000008292239 – 260PENK(239-260)Add BLAST22
PeptideiPRO_0000008293263 – 269Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe7

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi26 ↔ 48By similarity
Disulfide bondi30 ↔ 52By similarity
Disulfide bondi33 ↔ 65By similarity
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei253PhosphoserineCombined sources1

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

The N-terminal domain contains 6 conserved cysteines thought to be involved in disulfide bonding and/or processing.

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P04094

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P04094

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

More...
iPTMneti
P04094

Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

More...
PhosphoSitePlusi
P04094

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified 'at protein level'.<br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Expressed in brain, heart and testis.

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSRNOG00000008943 Expressed in heart and 9 other tissues

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

More...
Genevisiblei
P04094 RN

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
10116.ENSRNOP00000011892

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
ENOG410IJUY Eukaryota
ENOG4110ZYD LUCA

Ensembl GeneTree

More...
GeneTreei
ENSGT00950000183149

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P04094

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K18832

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
GRPEWWL

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
1149395at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
P04094

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

More...
TreeFami
TF332620

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR006024 Opioid_neupept
IPR000703 Proenkphlin_A

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR11438 PTHR11438, 1 hit
PTHR11438:SF3 PTHR11438:SF3, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF01160 Opiods_neuropep, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR01028 OPIOIDPRCRSR
PR01029 PENKAPRCRSR

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS01252 OPIOIDS_PRECURSOR, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P04094-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MAQFLRLCIW LLALGSCLLA TVQADCSQDC AKCSYRLVRP GDINFLACTL
60 70 80 90 100
ECEGQLPSFK IWETCKDLLQ VSKPEFPWDN IDMYKDSSKQ DESHLLAKKY
110 120 130 140 150
GGFMKRYGGF MKKMDELYPV EPEEEANGGE ILAKRYGGFM KKDADEGDTL
160 170 180 190 200
ANSSDLLKEL LGTGDNRAKD SHQQESTNND EDSTSKRYGG FMRGLKRSPQ
210 220 230 240 250
LEDEAKELQK RYGGFMRRVG RPEWWMDYQK RYGGFLKRFA ESLPSDEEGE
260
SYSKEVPEME KRYGGFMRF
Length:269
Mass (Da):30,932
Last modified:November 1, 1986 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i2BF0EA81A1D59692
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti12L → V in AAA60734 (PubMed:6094550).Curated1
Sequence conflicti12L → V in CAA68804 (PubMed:2707437).Curated1

<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports information derived from mass spectrometry experiments done on the entire protein or on biologically active derived peptide(s).<p><a href='/help/mass_spectrometry' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mass spectrometryi

Molecular mass is 2203.971 Da. Determined by ESI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 4592.8 Da. Determined by ESI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 2504.027 Da. Determined by ESI. 1 Publication

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
K02807 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA60734.1
M28263 mRNA Translation: AAA41115.1
Y07503 mRNA Translation: CAA68804.1
S49491 mRNA Translation: AAB24022.1
BC083563 mRNA Translation: AAH83563.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
A92464 EQRTA

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_058835.1, NM_017139.1
XP_006237897.1, XM_006237835.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENSRNOT00000011892; ENSRNOP00000011892; ENSRNOG00000008943
ENSRNOT00000089318; ENSRNOP00000074581; ENSRNOG00000008943

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
29237

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
rno:29237

UCSC genome browser

More...
UCSCi
RGD:68946 rat

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
K02807 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA60734.1
M28263 mRNA Translation: AAA41115.1
Y07503 mRNA Translation: CAA68804.1
S49491 mRNA Translation: AAB24022.1
BC083563 mRNA Translation: AAH83563.1
PIRiA92464 EQRTA
RefSeqiNP_058835.1, NM_017139.1
XP_006237897.1, XM_006237835.1

3D structure databases

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

SWISS-MODEL Interactive Workspace

More...
SWISS-MODEL-Workspacei
Submit a new modelling project...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000011892

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP04094
PhosphoSitePlusiP04094

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP04094
PRIDEiP04094

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000011892; ENSRNOP00000011892; ENSRNOG00000008943
ENSRNOT00000089318; ENSRNOP00000074581; ENSRNOG00000008943
GeneIDi29237
KEGGirno:29237
UCSCiRGD:68946 rat

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
5179
RGDi68946 Penk

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IJUY Eukaryota
ENOG4110ZYD LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00950000183149
InParanoidiP04094
KOiK18832
OMAiGRPEWWL
OrthoDBi1149395at2759
PhylomeDBiP04094
TreeFamiTF332620

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-RNO-375276 Peptide ligand-binding receptors
R-RNO-381426 Regulation of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) transport and uptake by Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs)
R-RNO-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events
R-RNO-8957275 Post-translational protein phosphorylation

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:P04094

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSRNOG00000008943 Expressed in heart and 9 other tissues
GenevisibleiP04094 RN

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR006024 Opioid_neupept
IPR000703 Proenkphlin_A
PANTHERiPTHR11438 PTHR11438, 1 hit
PTHR11438:SF3 PTHR11438:SF3, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF01160 Opiods_neuropep, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR01028 OPIOIDPRCRSR
PR01029 PENKAPRCRSR
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS01252 OPIOIDS_PRECURSOR, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiPENK_RAT
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P04094
Secondary accession number(s): Q53X05
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1986
Last sequence update: November 1, 1986
Last modified: February 26, 2020
This is version 134 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

We'd like to inform you that we have updated our Privacy Notice to comply with Europe’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that applies since 25 May 2018.

Do not show this banner again