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Protein

Alpha-amylase type B isozyme

Gene

AMY1.2

Organism
Hordeum vulgare (Barley)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:4 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Miscellaneous

There are at least 4 types of alpha-amylase in barley.
Binds starch not only at the active site, but also via accessory binding sites on the protein surface that are important for efficient binding to starch granules and thereby increase enzyme activity.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

  • Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units.By similarity EC:3.2.1.1

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

Ca2+3 PublicationsNote: Binds 3 Ca2+ ions per subunit.3 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the ‘Description’ field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi115Calcium 1Combined sources3 Publications1
Metal bindingi132Calcium 2Combined sources3 Publications1
Metal bindingi135Calcium 2; via carbonyl oxygenCombined sources3 Publications1
Metal bindingi137Calcium 2; via carbonyl oxygenCombined sources3 Publications1
Metal bindingi141Calcium 2Combined sources3 Publications1
Metal bindingi151Calcium 3Combined sources3 Publications1
Metal bindingi162Calcium 1Combined sources3 Publications1
Metal bindingi165Calcium 1; via carbonyl oxygenCombined sources3 Publications1
Metal bindingi166Calcium 3Combined sources3 Publications1
Metal bindingi167Calcium 3; via carbonyl oxygenCombined sources3 Publications1
Metal bindingi170Calcium 3; via carbonyl oxygenCombined sources3 Publications1
Metal bindingi172Calcium 1Combined sources3 Publications1
Metal bindingi172Calcium 3Combined sources3 Publications1
<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei203Nucleophile1 Publication1
Metal bindingi207Calcium 1; via carbonyl oxygenCombined sources3 Publications1
Active sitei228Proton donor1 Publication1
<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei230Substrate1 Publication1
Binding sitei232Substrate1 Publication1
Binding sitei250Substrate1 Publication1
Binding sitei257Substrate1 Publication1
Binding sitei293SubstrateBy similarity1
Binding sitei312Substrate1 Publication1
<p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence that are not defined in any other subsection. This subsection can be displayed in different sections (‘Function’, ‘PTM / Processing’, ‘Pathology and Biotech’) according to its content.<p><a href='/help/site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sitei313Transition state stabilizer1 Publication1
Binding sitei318SubstrateBy similarity1
Binding sitei397SubstrateBy similarity1
Binding sitei424SubstrateBy similarity1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionGlycosidase, Hydrolase
Biological processCarbohydrate metabolism, Germination
LigandCalcium, Metal-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

More...
BRENDAi
3.2.1.1 2687

Protein family/group databases

Carbohydrate-Active enZymes

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CAZyi
GH13 Glycoside Hydrolase Family 13

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Alpha-amylase type B isozyme (EC:3.2.1.1By similarity)
Alternative name(s):
1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
AMY2-2
High pI alpha-amylase
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:AMY1.2
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHordeum vulgare (Barley)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri4513 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaLiliopsidaPoalesPoaceaeBOP cladePooideaeTriticodaeTriticeaeHordeinaeHordeum

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 24Add BLAST24
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_000000140525 – 427Alpha-amylase type B isozymeAdd BLAST403

Proteomic databases

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P04063

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of the gene product at various stages of a cell, tissue or organism development. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at the protein level’.<p><a href='/help/developmental_stage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Developmental stagei

Production of alpha-amylase is hormonally regulated. Germinating embryos produce the hormone gibberellic acid, which within 10 hours stimulates the aleurone cells covering the endosperm of the seed to produce alpha-amylase. The enzyme then degrades the starch within the endosperm for use by the developing plant embryo.

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

Type B isozyme mRNA is undetectable in unstimulated cells and increases a hundred-fold after stimulation with gibberellic acid.

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

More...
ExpressionAtlasi
P04063 baseline

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Monomer.2 Publications

Protein-protein interaction databases

Database of interacting proteins

More...
DIPi
DIP-6097N

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
P04063, 1 interactor

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1427
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

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ProteinModelPortali
P04063

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
P04063

Database of comparative protein structure models

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ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

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MobiDBi
Search...

Miscellaneous databases

Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

More...
EvolutionaryTracei
P04063

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni75 – 76Substrate binding1 Publication2
Regioni201 – 206Substrate binding1 Publication6
Regioni299 – 301Substrate binding1 Publication3
Regioni414 – 420Substrate bindingBy similarity7

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 13 family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
2.60.40.1180, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR012850 A-amylase_bs_C
IPR013775 A-amylase_pln
IPR006046 Alpha_amylase
IPR006047 Glyco_hydro_13_cat_dom
IPR013780 Glyco_hydro_b
IPR017853 Glycoside_hydrolase_SF

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF07821 Alpha-amyl_C2, 1 hit
PF00128 Alpha-amylase, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

More...
PIRSFi
PIRSF001028 Alph-amls_plant, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00110 ALPHAAMYLASE

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00642 Aamy, 1 hit
SM00810 Alpha-amyl_C2, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF51445 SSF51445, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P04063-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MANKHLSLSL FLVLLGLSAS LASGQVLFQG FNWESWKHNG GWYNFLMGKV
60 70 80 90 100
DDIAAAGITH VWLPPASQSV AEQGYMPGRL YDLDASKYGN KAQLKSLIGA
110 120 130 140 150
LHGKGVKAIA DIVINHRTAE HKDGRGIYCI FEGGTPDARL DWGPHMICRD
160 170 180 190 200
DRPYADGTGN PDTGADFGAA PDIDHLNLRV QKELVEWLNW LKADIGFDGW
210 220 230 240 250
RFDFAKGYSA DVAKIYIDRS EPSFAVAEIW TSLAYGGDGK PNLNQDQHRQ
260 270 280 290 300
ELVNWVDKVG GKGPATTFDF TTKGILNVAV EGELWRLRGT DGKAPGMIGW
310 320 330 340 350
WPAKAVTFVD NHDTGSTQHM WPFPSDRVMQ GYAYILTHPG TPCIFYDHFF
360 370 380 390 400
DWGLKEEIDR LVSVRTRHGI HNESKLQIIE ADADLYLAEI DGKVIVKLGP
410 420
RYDVGNLIPG GFKVAAHGND YAVWEKI
Length:427
Mass (Da):47,356
Last modified:July 15, 1998 - v3
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i957C0B16621BF748
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti134G → D in CAA33298 (Ref. 1) Curated1
Sequence conflicti425E → Q in CAA33298 (Ref. 1) Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
X15226 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA33298.1
K02637 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA98790.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
A31960 ALBHB

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X15226 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA33298.1
K02637 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA98790.1
PIRiA31960 ALBHB

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

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RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1AMYX-ray2.80A25-427[»]
1AVAX-ray1.90A/B25-427[»]
1BG9X-ray2.80A25-427[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP04063
SMRiP04063
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

DIPiDIP-6097N
IntActiP04063, 1 interactor

Protein family/group databases

CAZyiGH13 Glycoside Hydrolase Family 13

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP04063

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi3.2.1.1 2687

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP04063

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiP04063 baseline

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.60.40.1180, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR012850 A-amylase_bs_C
IPR013775 A-amylase_pln
IPR006046 Alpha_amylase
IPR006047 Glyco_hydro_13_cat_dom
IPR013780 Glyco_hydro_b
IPR017853 Glycoside_hydrolase_SF
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF07821 Alpha-amyl_C2, 1 hit
PF00128 Alpha-amylase, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF001028 Alph-amls_plant, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00110 ALPHAAMYLASE
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00642 Aamy, 1 hit
SM00810 Alpha-amyl_C2, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF51445 SSF51445, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiAMY2_HORVU
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P04063
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1986
Last sequence update: July 15, 1998
Last modified: December 5, 2018
This is version 127 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  3. Glycosyl hydrolases
    Classification of glycosyl hydrolase families and list of entries
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