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Protein

Apolipoprotein A-II

Gene

APOA2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

May stabilize HDL (high density lipoprotein) structure by its association with lipids, and affect the HDL metabolism.

Caution

The PDB entries that describe the 3D-structure of this protein have been obsoleted in response to US Office of Research Integrity Notice 2018-07782.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  • apolipoprotein receptor binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • cholesterol binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • cholesterol transporter activity Source: Ensembl
  • heat shock protein binding Source: CAFA
  • high-density lipoprotein particle binding Source: GO_Central
  • high-density lipoprotein particle receptor binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • lipase inhibitor activity Source: BHF-UCL
  • lipid binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • lipid transporter activity Source: BHF-UCL
  • phosphatidylcholine binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase activator activity Source: BHF-UCL
  • phospholipid binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • protein heterodimerization activity Source: UniProtKB
  • protein homodimerization activity Source: BHF-UCL

GO - Biological processi

  • acute inflammatory response Source: Ensembl
  • animal organ regeneration Source: Ensembl
  • cellular protein metabolic process Source: Reactome
  • cholesterol efflux Source: BHF-UCL
  • cholesterol homeostasis Source: BHF-UCL
  • cholesterol metabolic process Source: GO_Central
  • chylomicron assembly Source: Reactome
  • chylomicron remodeling Source: Reactome
  • diacylglycerol catabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
  • high-density lipoprotein particle assembly Source: BHF-UCL
  • high-density lipoprotein particle clearance Source: BHF-UCL
  • high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling Source: BHF-UCL
  • lipoprotein metabolic process Source: GO_Central
  • low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling Source: BHF-UCL
  • negative regulation of cholesterol import Source: BHF-UCL
  • negative regulation of cholesterol transport Source: BHF-UCL
  • negative regulation of cholesterol transporter activity Source: BHF-UCL
  • negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response Source: BHF-UCL
  • negative regulation of lipase activity Source: BHF-UCL
  • negative regulation of lipid catabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
  • negative regulation of very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling Source: BHF-UCL
  • peptidyl-methionine modification Source: UniProtKB
  • phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic process Source: BHF-UCL
  • phospholipid catabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
  • phospholipid efflux Source: BHF-UCL
  • positive regulation of cholesterol esterification Source: BHF-UCL
  • positive regulation of interleukin-8 biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of lipid catabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
  • post-translational protein modification Source: Reactome
  • protein oxidation Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption Source: Ensembl
  • regulation of lipid metabolic process Source: Reactome
  • regulation of protein stability Source: BHF-UCL
  • response to drug Source: Ensembl
  • response to estrogen Source: Ensembl
  • response to glucocorticoid Source: Ensembl
  • response to glucose Source: BHF-UCL
  • retinoid metabolic process Source: Reactome
  • reverse cholesterol transport Source: BHF-UCL
  • triglyceride metabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
  • triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle remodeling Source: BHF-UCL
  • viral process Source: UniProtKB-KW

Keywordsi

Biological processHost-virus interaction, Lipid transport, Transport

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-1989781 PPARA activates gene expression
R-HSA-381426 Regulation of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) transport and uptake by Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs)
R-HSA-8957275 Post-translational protein phosphorylation
R-HSA-8963888 Chylomicron assembly
R-HSA-8963901 Chylomicron remodeling
R-HSA-975634 Retinoid metabolism and transport

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Apolipoprotein A-II
Short name:
Apo-AII
Short name:
ApoA-II
Alternative name(s):
Apolipoprotein A2
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
Proapolipoprotein A-II
Short name:
ProapoA-II
Alternative name(s):
Apolipoprotein A-II(1-76)
Gene namesi
Name:APOA2
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000158874.11
HGNCiHGNC:601 APOA2
MIMi107670 gene+phenotype
neXtProtiNX_P02652

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

HDL, Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi336
MalaCardsiAPOA2
MIMi107670 gene+phenotype
OpenTargetsiENSG00000158874
Orphaneti238269 Familial renal amyloidosis due to Apolipoprotein AII variant
PharmGKBiPA24886

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiAPOA2
DMDMi114000

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 181 PublicationAdd BLAST18
ChainiPRO_000042535119 – 100Proapolipoprotein A-IIAdd BLAST82
ChainiPRO_000000200324 – 100Apolipoprotein A-II1 PublicationAdd BLAST77
ChainiPRO_000000200424 – 99Truncated apolipoprotein A-II1 PublicationAdd BLAST76

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei24Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid2 Publications1
Disulfide bondi29Interchain (with C-136 in APOD); in heterodimeric form1 Publication
Modified residuei49Methionine sulfoxide1 Publication1
Modified residuei54Phosphoserine; by FAM20C1 Publication1
Modified residuei68Phosphoserine; by FAM20CCombined sources1 Publication1

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylation sites are present in the extracellular medium.1 Publication
Apolipoprotein A-II is O-glycosylated.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, Oxidation, Phosphoprotein, Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP02652
PaxDbiP02652
PeptideAtlasiP02652
PRIDEiP02652
ProteomicsDBi51538
TopDownProteomicsiP02652

2D gel databases

SWISS-2DPAGEiP02652

PTM databases

CarbonylDBiP02652
iPTMnetiP02652
PhosphoSitePlusiP02652

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBiP02652

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Plasma; synthesized in the liver and intestine.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000158874
CleanExiHS_APOA2
ExpressionAtlasiP02652 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP02652 HS

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB025885

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Monomer. Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Also forms a disulfide-linked heterodimer with APOD (PubMed:7918467). Interacts with HCV core protein. Interacts with APOA1BP and NDRG1.5 Publications

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
CATSPER1Q8NEC55EBI-1171525,EBI-744545

GO - Molecular functioni

  • apolipoprotein receptor binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • heat shock protein binding Source: CAFA
  • high-density lipoprotein particle receptor binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • protein heterodimerization activity Source: UniProtKB
  • protein homodimerization activity Source: BHF-UCL

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi106833, 15 interactors
IntActiP02652, 9 interactors
MINTiP02652
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000356969

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP02652
SMRiP02652
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP02652

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni32 – 43O-glycosylated at one siteAdd BLAST12

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the apolipoprotein A2 family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410KCI2 Eukaryota
ENOG4110NY0 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000003306
HOGENOMiHOG000033999
HOVERGENiHBG050544
InParanoidiP02652
KOiK08758
PhylomeDBiP02652
TreeFamiTF338165

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR006801 ApoA-II
IPR036172 ApoA-II_sf
PANTHERiPTHR11027 PTHR11027, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF04711 ApoA-II, 1 hit
ProDomiView protein in ProDom or Entries sharing at least one domain
PD010397 ApoA-II, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF82936 SSF82936, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P02652-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKLLAATVLL LTICSLEGAL VRRQAKEPCV ESLVSQYFQT VTDYGKDLME
60 70 80 90 100
KVKSPELQAE AKSYFEKSKE QLTPLIKKAG TELVNFLSYF VELGTQPATQ
Length:100
Mass (Da):11,175
Last modified:August 13, 1987 - v1
Checksum:i1247868A25EC3AF2
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti96Q → H in CAA28583 (PubMed:6428397).Curated1

Mass spectrometryi

Molecular mass is 17252 Da from positions 24 - 100. Determined by ESI. Homodimer, without methionine sulfoxide.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 17269 Da from positions 24 - 100. Determined by ESI. Homodimer, with 1 methionine sulfoxide, oxidation at Met-49.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 8701.2 Da from positions 24 - 100. Determined by MALDI. Monomer.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 8823.4 Da from positions 24 - 100. Determined by MALDI. Cysteinylated ApoA-II monomer.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 17421.3 Da from positions 24 - 100. Determined by MALDI. Homodimer.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 17293.4 Da from positions 24 - 100. Determined by MALDI. Heterodimer with truncated apolipoprotein A-II.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 8578.3 Da from positions 24 - 99. Determined by MALDI. Monomer.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 17166.2 Da from positions 24 - 99. Determined by MALDI. Homodimer.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 17380 Da from positions 25 - 100. Determined by MALDI. Homodimer.1 Publication

Polymorphismi

A homozygous transition at position 1 of intron 3 of APOA2 results in deficiency of apolipoprotein A-II, without significant influence either on lipid and lipoprotein profiles or on the occurrence of coronary artery disease [MIMi:107670].1 Publication

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X04898 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA28583.1
X00955 mRNA Translation: CAA25467.1
X02905 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA26665.1
X02619 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA26474.1
M29882 mRNA Translation: AAA51701.1
AY100524 Genomic DNA Translation: AAM49807.1
AK312034 mRNA Translation: BAG34971.1
BT006786 mRNA Translation: AAP35432.1
AL590714 Genomic DNA No translation available.
BC005282 mRNA Translation: AAH05282.1
CCDSiCCDS1226.1
PIRiA93586 LPHUA2
RefSeqiNP_001634.1, NM_001643.1
UniGeneiHs.237658

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000367990; ENSP00000356969; ENSG00000158874
GeneIDi336
KEGGihsa:336
UCSCiuc001fzc.2 human

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAPOA2_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P02652
Secondary accession number(s): B2R524
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: August 13, 1987
Last modified: June 20, 2018
This is version 211 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 1
    Human chromosome 1: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

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