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Entry version 164 (31 Jul 2019)
Sequence version 2 (23 Jan 2007)
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Protein

Hemoglobin subunit alpha

Gene

HBA

Organism
Bos taurus (Bovine)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the ‘Description’ field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi59Iron (heme distal ligand)1
Metal bindingi88Iron (heme proximal ligand)1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Biological processOxygen transport, Transport
LigandHeme, Iron, Metal-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-BTA-1237044 Erythrocytes take up carbon dioxide and release oxygen
R-BTA-1247673 Erythrocytes take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide
R-BTA-2168880 Scavenging of heme from plasma

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Hemoglobin subunit alpha
Alternative name(s):
Alpha-globin
Hemoglobin alpha chain
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:HBA
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiBos taurus (Bovine)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9913 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaRuminantiaPecoraBovidaeBovinaeBos
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000009136 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 25

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Protein family/group databases

Allergome; a platform for allergen knowledge

More...
Allergomei
8242 Bos d HG

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section indicates that the initiator methionine is cleaved from the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/init_met' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Initiator methionineiRemoved2 Publications
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00000525682 – 142Hemoglobin subunit alphaAdd BLAST141

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei4PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei8N6-succinyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei12N6-succinyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei17N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei17N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei25PhosphotyrosineBy similarity1
Modified residuei36PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei41N6-succinyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei50PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei103PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei109PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei125PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei135PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei138PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei139PhosphoserineBy similarity1

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P01966

PeptideAtlas

More...
PeptideAtlasi
P01966

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P01966

Miscellaneous databases

CutDB - Proteolytic event database

More...
PMAP-CutDBi
P01966

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Red blood cells.

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSBTAG00000026417 Expressed in 8 organ(s), highest expression level in spleen

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

More...
ExpressionAtlasi
P01966 baseline and differential

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Heterotetramer of two alpha chains and two beta chains.

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

More...
BioGridi
169070, 1 interactor

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
9913.ENSBTAP00000037374

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1142
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P01966

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

Miscellaneous databases

Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

More...
EvolutionaryTracei
P01966

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the globin family.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG3378 Eukaryota
COG1018 LUCA

Ensembl GeneTree

More...
GeneTreei
ENSGT00940000154590

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000036867

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P01966

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K13822

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
DKFLCAV

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
1398217at2759

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

More...
TreeFami
TF332328

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

More...
CDDi
cd08927 Hb-alpha_like, 1 hit

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
1.10.490.10, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR000971 Globin
IPR009050 Globin-like_sf
IPR012292 Globin/Proto
IPR002338 Haemoglobin_a-typ
IPR002339 Haemoglobin_pi

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00042 Globin, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00612 ALPHAHAEM
PR00815 PIHAEM

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF46458 SSF46458, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS01033 GLOBIN, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P01966-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MVLSAADKGN VKAAWGKVGG HAAEYGAEAL ERMFLSFPTT KTYFPHFDLS
60 70 80 90 100
HGSAQVKGHG AKVAAALTKA VEHLDDLPGA LSELSDLHAH KLRVDPVNFK
110 120 130 140
LLSHSLLVTL ASHLPSDFTP AVHASLDKFL ANVSTVLTSK YR
Length:142
Mass (Da):15,184
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i6D20CADDA05C0DC5
GO

<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section provides information on polymorphic variants. If the variant is associated with a disease state, the description of the latter can be found in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/involvement_in_disease">'Involvement in disease'</a> subsection.<p><a href='/help/polymorphism' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Polymorphismi

There are 3 alleles in Podolian cattle; N, S and Y.1 Publication

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural varianti90H → Y in allele Y. 1 Publication1
Natural varianti132N → S in allele S. 1 Publication1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AJ242797 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB56827.1
AJ242798 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB56828.1
AJ242799 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB56829.1
BC102940 mRNA Translation: AAI02941.1
BC133477 mRNA Translation: AAI33478.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
A02289 HABO

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_001070890.2, NM_001077422.3
XP_001788728.1, XM_001788676.4
XP_003585623.1, XM_003585575.2

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENSBTAT00000037545; ENSBTAP00000037374; ENSBTAG00000051412

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
100140149
512439

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
bta:100140149
bta:512439

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/cross_references_section">Cross-references</a> section provides links to various web resources that are relevant for a specific protein.<p><a href='/help/web_resource' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Web resourcesi

Worthington enzyme manual

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AJ242797 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB56827.1
AJ242798 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB56828.1
AJ242799 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB56829.1
BC102940 mRNA Translation: AAI02941.1
BC133477 mRNA Translation: AAI33478.1
PIRiA02289 HABO
RefSeqiNP_001070890.2, NM_001077422.3
XP_001788728.1, XM_001788676.4
XP_003585623.1, XM_003585575.2

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1FSXX-ray2.10A/C2-142[»]
1G08X-ray1.90A/C2-142[»]
1G09X-ray2.04A/C2-142[»]
1G0AX-ray2.04A/C2-142[»]
1HDAX-ray2.20A/C2-142[»]
2QSPX-ray1.85A/C2-142[»]
2QSSX-ray1.75A/C2-142[»]
3CIUX-ray3.50A/C2-142[»]
3PI8X-ray2.20A/C2-142[»]
3PI9X-ray2.90A/C2-142[»]
3PIAX-ray2.10A/C2-142[»]
6IHXX-ray1.46A/C2-141[»]
6II1X-ray1.34A/C2-139[»]
SMRiP01966
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi169070, 1 interactor
STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000037374

Protein family/group databases

Allergomei8242 Bos d HG

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP01966
PeptideAtlasiP01966
PRIDEiP01966

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSBTAT00000037545; ENSBTAP00000037374; ENSBTAG00000051412
GeneIDi100140149
512439
KEGGibta:100140149
bta:512439

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
15121
3039

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3378 Eukaryota
COG1018 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00940000154590
HOGENOMiHOG000036867
InParanoidiP01966
KOiK13822
OMAiDKFLCAV
OrthoDBi1398217at2759
TreeFamiTF332328

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-BTA-1237044 Erythrocytes take up carbon dioxide and release oxygen
R-BTA-1247673 Erythrocytes take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide
R-BTA-2168880 Scavenging of heme from plasma

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP01966
PMAP-CutDBiP01966

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSBTAG00000026417 Expressed in 8 organ(s), highest expression level in spleen
ExpressionAtlasiP01966 baseline and differential

Family and domain databases

CDDicd08927 Hb-alpha_like, 1 hit
Gene3Di1.10.490.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000971 Globin
IPR009050 Globin-like_sf
IPR012292 Globin/Proto
IPR002338 Haemoglobin_a-typ
IPR002339 Haemoglobin_pi
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00042 Globin, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00612 ALPHAHAEM
PR00815 PIHAEM
SUPFAMiSSF46458 SSF46458, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS01033 GLOBIN, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiHBA_BOVIN
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P01966
Secondary accession number(s): A3KN13
, Q3SZE0, Q9TTR9, Q9TTS0, Q9TTS1
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: July 31, 2019
This is version 164 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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