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Entry version 172 (08 May 2019)
Sequence version 2 (01 Aug 1992)
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Protein

Insulin

Gene

INS

Organism
Bos taurus (Bovine)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

  • hormone activity Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • identical protein binding Source: IntAct
  • insulin receptor binding Source: AgBase

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionHormone
Biological processCarbohydrate metabolism, Glucose metabolism

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Insulin
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:INS
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiBos taurus (Bovine)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9913 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaRuminantiaPecoraBovidaeBovinaeBos
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000009136 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unplaced

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Protein family/group databases

Allergome; a platform for allergen knowledge

More...
Allergomei
2118 Bos d Insulin

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 243 PublicationsAdd BLAST24
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the position and length of an active peptide in the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/peptide' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PeptideiPRO_000001576425 – 54Insulin B chain1 PublicationAdd BLAST30
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section describes a propeptide, which is a part of a protein that is cleaved during maturation or activation. Once cleaved, a propeptide generally has no independent biological function.<p><a href='/help/propep' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PropeptideiPRO_000001576557 – 82C peptideAdd BLAST26
PeptideiPRO_000001576685 – 105Insulin A chain1 PublicationAdd BLAST21

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi31 ↔ 91Interchain (between B and A chains)1 Publication
Disulfide bondi43 ↔ 104Interchain (between B and A chains)1 Publication
Disulfide bondi90 ↔ 952 Publications

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P01317

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P01317

PTM databases

CarbonylDB database of protein carbonylation sites

More...
CarbonylDBi
P01317

Miscellaneous databases

CutDB - Proteolytic event database

More...
PMAP-CutDBi
P01317

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the '<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section%27">Interaction</a> section provides information about binary protein-protein interactions. The data presented in this section are a quality-filtered subset of binary interactions automatically derived from the <a href="http://www.ebi.ac.uk/intact/">IntAct database</a>. It is updated on a monthly basis. Each binary interaction is displayed on a separate line.<p><a href='/help/binary_interactions' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binary interactionsi

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

Database of interacting proteins

More...
DIPi
DIP-52901N

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
P01317, 5 interactors

Molecular INTeraction database

More...
MINTi
P01317

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
9913.ENSBTAP00000017289

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1105
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1APHX-ray2.00A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
1BPHX-ray2.00A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
1CPHX-ray1.90A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
1DPHX-ray1.90A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
1HO0NMR-A25-54[»]
1PIDX-ray1.30A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-49[»]
2A3GX-ray2.25A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
2BN1X-ray1.40A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
2BN3X-ray1.40A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
2INSX-ray2.50A/C85-105[»]
B/D26-54[»]
2ZP6X-ray2.56A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4BS3X-ray2.30A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
4E7TX-ray1.40A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4E7UX-ray1.30A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4E7VX-ray1.801/3/5/A/C/E/G/I/K/M/O/Q/S/U/W/Y85-105[»]
2/4/6/B/D/F/H/J/L/N/P/R/T/V/X/Z25-54[»]
4I5YX-ray1.80A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
4I5ZX-ray1.80A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
4IDWX-ray2.70A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4IHNX-ray1.16A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
4M4FX-ray1.90A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4M4HX-ray1.90A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4M4IX-ray1.90A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4M4JX-ray1.90A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4M4LX-ray1.45A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4M4MX-ray1.50A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
5AZZX-ray1.45A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
5KQVX-ray4.40A/I85-105[»]
B/J25-54[»]
5MIZNMR-A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
6QQ7X-ray1.65A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
6QQGX-ray2.15A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
6QRHX-ray2.15A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
6QRKX-ray2.10A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P01317

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

Miscellaneous databases

Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

More...
EvolutionaryTracei
P01317

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the insulin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
ENOG410J0XC Eukaryota
ENOG4111VJB LUCA

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000261669

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P01317

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
1644517at2759

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR004825 Insulin
IPR016179 Insulin-like
IPR036438 Insulin-like_sf
IPR022353 Insulin_CS
IPR022352 Insulin_family

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00049 Insulin, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00277 INSULIN
PR00276 INSULINFAMLY

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00078 IlGF, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF56994 SSF56994, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00262 INSULIN, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P01317-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MALWTRLRPL LALLALWPPP PARAFVNQHL CGSHLVEALY LVCGERGFFY
60 70 80 90 100
TPKARREVEG PQVGALELAG GPGAGGLEGP PQKRGIVEQC CASVCSLYQL

ENYCN
Length:105
Mass (Da):11,393
Last modified:August 1, 1992 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i75307CF78E61C06A
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
M54979 mRNA Translation: AAA30722.1

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
A40909 IPBO

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/cross_references_section">Cross-references</a> section provides links to various web resources that are relevant for a specific protein.<p><a href='/help/web_resource' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Web resourcesi

Protein Spotlight

Protein of the 20th century - Issue 9 of April 2001

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M54979 mRNA Translation: AAA30722.1
PIRiA40909 IPBO

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1APHX-ray2.00A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
1BPHX-ray2.00A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
1CPHX-ray1.90A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
1DPHX-ray1.90A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
1HO0NMR-A25-54[»]
1PIDX-ray1.30A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-49[»]
2A3GX-ray2.25A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
2BN1X-ray1.40A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
2BN3X-ray1.40A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
2INSX-ray2.50A/C85-105[»]
B/D26-54[»]
2ZP6X-ray2.56A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4BS3X-ray2.30A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
4E7TX-ray1.40A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4E7UX-ray1.30A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4E7VX-ray1.801/3/5/A/C/E/G/I/K/M/O/Q/S/U/W/Y85-105[»]
2/4/6/B/D/F/H/J/L/N/P/R/T/V/X/Z25-54[»]
4I5YX-ray1.80A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
4I5ZX-ray1.80A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
4IDWX-ray2.70A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4IHNX-ray1.16A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
4M4FX-ray1.90A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4M4HX-ray1.90A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4M4IX-ray1.90A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4M4JX-ray1.90A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4M4LX-ray1.45A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
4M4MX-ray1.50A/C85-105[»]
B/D25-54[»]
5AZZX-ray1.45A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
5KQVX-ray4.40A/I85-105[»]
B/J25-54[»]
5MIZNMR-A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
6QQ7X-ray1.65A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
6QQGX-ray2.15A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
6QRHX-ray2.15A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
6QRKX-ray2.10A85-105[»]
B25-54[»]
SMRiP01317
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

DIPiDIP-52901N
IntActiP01317, 5 interactors
MINTiP01317
STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000017289

Protein family/group databases

Allergomei2118 Bos d Insulin

PTM databases

CarbonylDBiP01317

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP01317
PRIDEiP01317

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410J0XC Eukaryota
ENOG4111VJB LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000261669
InParanoidiP01317
OrthoDBi1644517at2759

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP01317
PMAP-CutDBiP01317

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR004825 Insulin
IPR016179 Insulin-like
IPR036438 Insulin-like_sf
IPR022353 Insulin_CS
IPR022352 Insulin_family
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00049 Insulin, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00277 INSULIN
PR00276 INSULINFAMLY
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00078 IlGF, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF56994 SSF56994, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00262 INSULIN, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiINS_BOVIN
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P01317
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: August 1, 1992
Last modified: May 8, 2019
This is version 172 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  3. Protein Spotlight
    Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
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