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Protein

Glycoprotein hormones alpha chain

Gene

CGA

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Shared alpha chain of the active heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones thyrotropin/thyroid stimulating hormone/TSH, lutropin/luteinizing hormone/LH, follitropin/follicle stimulating hormone/FSH and choriogonadotropin/CG. These hormones bind specific receptors on target cells that in turn activate downstream signaling pathways.2 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  • follicle-stimulating hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  • hormone activity Source: AgBase

GO - Biological processi

  • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB
  • peptide hormone processing Source: Reactome
  • positive regulation of cell migration Source: BHF-UCL
  • positive regulation of cell proliferation Source: BHF-UCL
  • positive regulation of steroid biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II Source: BHF-UCL
  • regulation of signaling receptor activity Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II Source: Reactome

Keywordsi

Molecular functionHormone

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-193048 Androgen biosynthesis
R-HSA-193993 Mineralocorticoid biosynthesis
R-HSA-209822 Glycoprotein hormones
R-HSA-209968 Thyroxine biosynthesis
R-HSA-375281 Hormone ligand-binding receptors
R-HSA-418555 G alpha (s) signalling events
R-HSA-8866910 TFAP2 (AP-2) family regulates transcription of growth factors and their receptors
R-HSA-975578 Reactions specific to the complex N-glycan synthesis pathway
SABIO-RKiP01215
SIGNORiP01215

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glycoprotein hormones alpha chain
Alternative name(s):
Anterior pituitary glycoprotein hormones common subunit alpha
Choriogonadotropin alpha chain
Chorionic gonadotrophin subunit alpha
Short name:
CG-alpha
Follicle-stimulating hormone alpha chain
Short name:
FSH-alpha
Follitropin alpha chain
Luteinizing hormone alpha chain
Short name:
LSH-alpha
Lutropin alpha chain
Thyroid-stimulating hormone alpha chain
Short name:
TSH-alpha
Thyrotropin alpha chain
Gene namesi
Name:CGA
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 6

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000135346.8
HGNCiHGNC:1885 CGA
MIMi118850 gene
neXtProtiNX_P01215

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi76N → D: Increases from 1 to 3 the number of FSH binding a single FSHR receptor. 1 Publication1

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi1081
OpenTargetsiENSG00000135346
PharmGKBiPA26433

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL2146305

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiCGA
DMDMi121312

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 244 PublicationsAdd BLAST24
ChainiPRO_000001164025 – 116Glycoprotein hormones alpha chainAdd BLAST92

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Disulfide bondi31 ↔ 55Combined sources3 Publications
Disulfide bondi34 ↔ 84Combined sources3 Publications
Disulfide bondi52 ↔ 106Combined sources3 Publications
Disulfide bondi56 ↔ 108Combined sources3 Publications
GlycosylationiCAR_00003676N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineCombined sources2 Publications1
Disulfide bondi83 ↔ 111Combined sources3 Publications
GlycosylationiCAR_000037102N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineCombined sources2 Publications1

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP01215
PeptideAtlasiP01215
PRIDEiP01215
ProteomicsDBi51346

PTM databases

GlyConnecti165
194
197
88
89
iPTMnetiP01215
PhosphoSitePlusiP01215
UniCarbKBiP01215

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000135346
CleanExiHS_CGA
ExpressionAtlasiP01215 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP01215 HS

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB023350
HPA029698

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Heterodimer. The active hormones thyrotropin, lutropin, follitropin and choriogonadotropin are heterodimers composed of CGA, a common alpha chain described here and a unique beta chain which confers their biological specificity to the hormones: TSHB for thyrotropin, LHB for lutropin, FSHB for follitropin and choriogonadotropin subunit beta/CGB for choriogonadotropin.2 Publications

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
FSHBP012254EBI-718913,EBI-1030645

GO - Molecular functioni

  • follicle-stimulating hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  • hormone activity Source: AgBase

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi107507, 6 interactors
DIPiDIP-6182N
IntActiP01215, 3 interactors
MINTiP01215
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000358595

Structurei

Secondary structure

1116
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Beta strandi33 – 38Combined sources6
Turni40 – 42Combined sources3
Beta strandi50 – 62Combined sources13
Helixi65 – 68Combined sources4
Beta strandi76 – 80Combined sources5
Beta strandi83 – 94Combined sources12
Turni95 – 97Combined sources3
Beta strandi98 – 109Combined sources12
Beta strandi112 – 114Combined sources3

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP01215
SMRiP01215
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP01215

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IWI0 Eukaryota
ENOG4111Q75 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000012242
HOGENOMiHOG000232008
HOVERGENiHBG000452
InParanoidiP01215
KOiK08522
PhylomeDBiP01215
TreeFamiTF332733

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.10.90.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR029034 Cystine-knot_cytokine
IPR000476 Glyco_hormone
PANTHERiPTHR11509 PTHR11509, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00236 Hormone_6, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00274 GLYCOHORMONE
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00067 GHA, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF57501 SSF57501, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00779 GLYCO_HORMONE_ALPHA_1, 1 hit
PS00780 GLYCO_HORMONE_ALPHA_2, 1 hit
PS50277 GLYCO_HORMONE_ALPHA_3, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P01215-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MDYYRKYAAI FLVTLSVFLH VLHSAPDVQD CPECTLQENP FFSQPGAPIL
60 70 80 90 100
QCMGCCFSRA YPTPLRSKKT MLVQKNVTSE STCCVAKSYN RVTVMGGFKV
110
ENHTACHCST CYYHKS
Length:116
Mass (Da):13,075
Last modified:July 21, 1986 - v1
Checksum:iF0623CD8CC90CFCD
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti29Q → E AA sequence (PubMed:1158880).Curated1
Sequence conflicti108 – 109CS → SC AA sequence (PubMed:890569).Curated2
Sequence conflicti108 – 109CS → SC AA sequence (PubMed:5065401).Curated2

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
J00152, J00150, J00151 Genomic DNA Translation: AAD13690.1
S70585, S70583, S70584 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB30827.1
BC020782 mRNA Translation: AAH20782.1
BC055080 mRNA Translation: AAH55080.1
V00518 mRNA Translation: CAA23777.1
CCDSiCCDS5007.1
PIRiA93213 TTHUAP
RefSeqiNP_000726.1, NM_000735.3
NP_001239312.1, NM_001252383.1
UniGeneiHs.119689

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000627148; ENSP00000486024; ENSG00000135346
GeneIDi1081
KEGGihsa:1081
UCSCiuc063pyi.1 human

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGLHA_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P01215
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: July 21, 1986
Last modified: July 18, 2018
This is version 191 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 6
    Human chromosome 6: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  4. Protein Spotlight
    Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries
  5. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

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