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Entry version 234 (18 Sep 2019)
Sequence version 2 (23 Jan 2007)
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Protein

L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain

Gene

LDHA

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: pyruvate fermentation to lactate

This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes (S)-lactate from pyruvate.
Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
  1. L-lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6A (LDHAL6A), L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDHC), L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDHC), L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDHC), L-lactate dehydrogenase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDHC), L-lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6B (LDHAL6B), L-lactate dehydrogenase, L-lactate dehydrogenase (HEL-S-133P), L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDHAL6A), L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDHC), L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDHAL6A), L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDHB), L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain (LDHA), L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain (LDHB), L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDHB), L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDHC), L-lactate dehydrogenase, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDHC), L-lactate dehydrogenase C chain (LDHC)
This subpathway is part of the pathway pyruvate fermentation to lactate, which is itself part of Fermentation.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes (S)-lactate from pyruvate, the pathway pyruvate fermentation to lactate and in Fermentation.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei99NAD1 Publication1
Binding sitei106Substrate1
Binding sitei138NAD or substrate1 Publication1
Binding sitei169Substrate1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei193Proton acceptor1
Binding sitei248Substrate1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi29 – 57NAD1 PublicationAdd BLAST29

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionOxidoreductase
LigandNAD

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-HSA-70268 Pyruvate metabolism

SABIO-RK: Biochemical Reaction Kinetics Database

More...
SABIO-RKi
P00338

SIGNOR Signaling Network Open Resource

More...
SIGNORi
P00338

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

More...
UniPathwayi
UPA00554;UER00611

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain (EC:1.1.1.27)
Short name:
LDH-A
Alternative name(s):
Cell proliferation-inducing gene 19 protein
LDH muscle subunit
Short name:
LDH-M
Renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-59
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:LDHA
ORF Names:PIG19
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 11

Organism-specific databases

Human Gene Nomenclature Database

More...
HGNCi
HGNC:6535 LDHA

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

More...
MIMi
150000 gene

neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

More...
neXtProti
NX_P00338

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Pathology and Biotech’ section provides information on the disease(s) associated with genetic variations in a given protein. The information is extracted from the scientific literature and diseases that are also described in the <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=omim">OMIM</a> database are represented with a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/diseases">controlled vocabulary</a> in the following way:<p><a href='/help/involvement_in_disease' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Involvement in diseasei

Glycogen storage disease 11 (GSD11)1 Publication
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA metabolic disorder that results in exertional myoglobinuria, pain, cramps and easy fatigue.
Related information in OMIM

Keywords - Diseasei

Disease mutation, Glycogen storage disease

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNET

More...
DisGeNETi
3939

MalaCards human disease database

More...
MalaCardsi
LDHA
MIMi612933 phenotype

Open Targets

More...
OpenTargetsi
ENSG00000134333

Orphanet; a database dedicated to information on rare diseases and orphan drugs

More...
Orphaneti
284426 Glycogen storage disease due to lactate dehydrogenase M-subunit deficiency

The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base

More...
PharmGKBi
PA30319

Chemistry databases

ChEMBL database of bioactive drug-like small molecules

More...
ChEMBLi
CHEMBL4835

Drug and drug target database

More...
DrugBanki
DB11638 Artenimol
DB09130 Copper
DB02483 Etheno-Nad
DB00157 NADH
DB02701 Nicotinamide
DB03940 Oxamic Acid
DB09118 Stiripentol

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMuta curated single-nucleotide variation and disease association database

More...
BioMutai
LDHA

Domain mapping of disease mutations (DMDM)

More...
DMDMi
126047

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section indicates that the initiator methionine is cleaved from the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/init_met' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Initiator methionineiRemovedCombined sources1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001684112 – 332L-lactate dehydrogenase A chainAdd BLAST331

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei2N-acetylalanineCombined sources1 Publication1
Modified residuei5N6-acetyllysine; alternateCombined sources1
Modified residuei5N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei10PhosphotyrosineCombined sources1
Modified residuei14N6-acetyllysineCombined sources1
Modified residuei18PhosphothreonineCombined sources1
Modified residuei57N6-acetyllysine; alternateCombined sources1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM / Processing</a> section describes <strong>covalent linkages</strong> of various types formed <strong>between two proteins (interchain cross-links)</strong> or <strong>between two parts of the same protein (intrachain cross-links)</strong>, except the disulfide bonds that are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/disulfid">'Disulfide bond'</a> subsection.<p><a href='/help/crosslnk' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-linki57Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in SUMO2); alternateCombined sources
Modified residuei81N6-acetyllysineCombined sources1
Modified residuei118N6-acetyllysine; alternateCombined sources1
Modified residuei118N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei126N6-acetyllysineCombined sources1
Modified residuei224N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei232N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei239PhosphotyrosineBy similarity1
Modified residuei243N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei309PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei310PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei318N6-acetyllysine; alternateCombined sources1
Modified residuei318N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei322PhosphothreonineBy similarity1

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

ISGylated.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Isopeptide bond, Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

The CPTAC Assay portal

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CPTACi
CPTAC-91

Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics

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EPDi
P00338

jPOST - Japan Proteome Standard Repository/Database

More...
jPOSTi
P00338

MassIVE - Mass Spectrometry Interactive Virtual Environment

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MassIVEi
P00338

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

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PaxDbi
P00338

PeptideAtlas

More...
PeptideAtlasi
P00338

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
P00338

ProteomicsDB human proteome resource

More...
ProteomicsDBi
51230 [P00338-1]
51231 [P00338-2]
51232 [P00338-3]
51233 [P00338-4]
51234 [P00338-5]

Consortium for Top Down Proteomics

More...
TopDownProteomicsi
P00338-1 [P00338-1]
P00338-4 [P00338-4]
P00338-5 [P00338-5]

2D gel databases

DOSAC-COBS 2D-PAGE database

More...
DOSAC-COBS-2DPAGEi
P00338

USC-OGP 2-DE database

More...
OGPi
P00338

REPRODUCTION-2DPAGE

More...
REPRODUCTION-2DPAGEi
IPI00217966

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

More...
iPTMneti
P00338

Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

More...
PhosphoSitePlusi
P00338

SwissPalm database of S-palmitoylation events

More...
SwissPalmi
P00338

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSG00000134333 Expressed in 107 organ(s), highest expression level in left coronary artery

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

More...
ExpressionAtlasi
P00338 baseline and differential

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

More...
Genevisiblei
P00338 HS

Organism-specific databases

Human Protein Atlas

More...
HPAi
CAB015336
CAB069404

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homotetramer.

1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the '<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section%27">Interaction</a> section provides information about binary protein-protein interactions. The data presented in this section are a quality-filtered subset of binary interactions automatically derived from the <a href="http://www.ebi.ac.uk/intact/">IntAct database</a>. It is updated on a monthly basis. Each binary interaction is displayed on a separate line.<p><a href='/help/binary_interactions' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binary interactionsi

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

More...
BioGridi
110131, 178 interactors

Protein interaction database and analysis system

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IntActi
P00338, 55 interactors

Molecular INTeraction database

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MINTi
P00338

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
9606.ENSP00000445175

Chemistry databases

BindingDB database of measured binding affinities

More...
BindingDBi
P00338

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1332
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
P00338

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

Miscellaneous databases

Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

More...
EvolutionaryTracei
P00338

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the LDH/MDH superfamily. LDH family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG1495 Eukaryota
COG0039 LUCA

Ensembl GeneTree

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GeneTreei
ENSGT00940000153201

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

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HOGENOMi
HOG000213793

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
P00338

KEGG Orthology (KO)

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KOi
K00016

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

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OMAi
MDLMQTA

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
1204514at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
P00338

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

More...
TreeFami
TF314963

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

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Gene3Di
3.90.110.10, 1 hit

HAMAP database of protein families

More...
HAMAPi
MF_00488 Lactate_dehydrog, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR001557 L-lactate/malate_DH
IPR011304 L-lactate_DH
IPR018177 L-lactate_DH_AS
IPR022383 Lactate/malate_DH_C
IPR001236 Lactate/malate_DH_N
IPR015955 Lactate_DH/Glyco_Ohase_4_C
IPR036291 NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF02866 Ldh_1_C, 1 hit
PF00056 Ldh_1_N, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

More...
PIRSFi
PIRSF000102 Lac_mal_DH, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00086 LLDHDRGNASE

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF51735 SSF51735, 1 hit
SSF56327 SSF56327, 1 hit

TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

More...
TIGRFAMsi
TIGR01771 L-LDH-NAD, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00064 L_LDH, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (5+)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 5 <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

This entry has 5 described isoforms and 10 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Isoform 1 (identifier: P00338-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the <div> <p><b>What is the canonical sequence?</b><p><a href='/help/canonical_and_isoforms' target='_top'>More...</a></p>canonicali sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MATLKDQLIY NLLKEEQTPQ NKITVVGVGA VGMACAISIL MKDLADELAL
60 70 80 90 100
VDVIEDKLKG EMMDLQHGSL FLRTPKIVSG KDYNVTANSK LVIITAGARQ
110 120 130 140 150
QEGESRLNLV QRNVNIFKFI IPNVVKYSPN CKLLIVSNPV DILTYVAWKI
160 170 180 190 200
SGFPKNRVIG SGCNLDSARF RYLMGERLGV HPLSCHGWVL GEHGDSSVPV
210 220 230 240 250
WSGMNVAGVS LKTLHPDLGT DKDKEQWKEV HKQVVESAYE VIKLKGYTSW
260 270 280 290 300
AIGLSVADLA ESIMKNLRRV HPVSTMIKGL YGIKDDVFLS VPCILGQNGI
310 320 330
SDLVKVTLTS EEEARLKKSA DTLWGIQKEL QF
Length:332
Mass (Da):36,689
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i401E8604CEB7F908
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: P00338-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     230-274: VHKQVVESAY...KNLRRVHPVS → CRYTLGDPKG...ACCPFYLICD
     275-332: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:274
Mass (Da):30,057
Checksum:iD43CB4ACB426D6F0
GO
Isoform 3 (identifier: P00338-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-1: M → MGEPSGGYTYTQTSIFLFHAKIPFGSKSNM

Show »
Length:361
Mass (Da):39,837
Checksum:iD47D88F7C90BF11D
GO
Isoform 4 (identifier: P00338-4) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     82-139: Missing.

Show »
Length:274
Mass (Da):30,205
Checksum:i1EB83D11978134AD
GO
Isoform 5 (identifier: P00338-5) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     237-241: SAYEV → RVFTE
     242-332: Missing.

Show »
Length:241
Mass (Da):26,712
Checksum:i20B4A3E33A1ED002
GO

<p>In eukaryotic reference proteomes, unreviewed entries that are likely to belong to the same gene are computationally mapped, based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.<p><a href='/help/gene_centric_isoform_mapping' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 10 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
F5GXC7F5GXC7_HUMAN
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
LDHA
45Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
F5H8H6F5H8H6_HUMAN
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
LDHA
42Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
F5GWW2F5GWW2_HUMAN
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
LDHA
45Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
F5GXU1F5GXU1_HUMAN
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
LDHA
46Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
F5GXY2F5GXY2_HUMAN
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
LDHA
156Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
F5GZQ4F5GZQ4_HUMAN
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
LDHA
72Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
F5GXH2F5GXH2_HUMAN
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
LDHA
114Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
F5GYU2F5GYU2_HUMAN
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
LDHA
144Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
F5H5J4F5H5J4_HUMAN
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
LDHA
89Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
F5H6W8F5H6W8_HUMAN
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
LDHA
94Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural variantiVAR_004180222K → E2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs748436361Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_004181315R → C1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs200093825Ensembl.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_0422061M → MGEPSGGYTYTQTSIFLFHA KIPFGSKSNM in isoform 3. 1 Publication1
Alternative sequenceiVSP_04278682 – 139Missing in isoform 4. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST58
Alternative sequenceiVSP_014261230 – 274VHKQV…VHPVS → CRYTLGDPKGAAILKSSDVI SFHCLGYNRILGGGCACCPF YLICD in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST45
Alternative sequenceiVSP_042788237 – 241SAYEV → RVFTE in isoform 5. Curated5
Alternative sequenceiVSP_042789242 – 332Missing in isoform 5. CuratedAdd BLAST91
Alternative sequenceiVSP_042787275 – 332Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST58

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

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EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

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DDBJi
Links Updated
X02152 mRNA Translation: CAA26088.1
X03077
, X03078, X03079, X03080, X03081, X03082, X03083 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA26879.1
AY423727 mRNA Translation: AAS00490.1
AK130587 mRNA Translation: BAC85389.1
AK296667 mRNA Translation: BAG59264.1
AK298834 mRNA Translation: BAH12879.1
CR456775 mRNA Translation: CAG33056.1
CR541714 mRNA Translation: CAG46515.1
AK223078 mRNA Translation: BAD96798.1
AC084117 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471064 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW68395.1
CH471064 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW68396.1
BC067223 mRNA Translation: AAH67223.1
S66853 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB20418.1

The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

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CCDSi
CCDS44549.1 [P00338-4]
CCDS53609.1 [P00338-3]
CCDS53610.1 [P00338-2]
CCDS53611.1 [P00338-5]
CCDS7839.1 [P00338-1]

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

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PIRi
A00347 DEHULM

NCBI Reference Sequences

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RefSeqi
NP_001128711.1, NM_001135239.1 [P00338-4]
NP_001158886.1, NM_001165414.1 [P00338-3]
NP_001158887.1, NM_001165415.1 [P00338-2]
NP_001158888.1, NM_001165416.1 [P00338-5]
NP_005557.1, NM_005566.3 [P00338-1]

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENST00000227157; ENSP00000227157; ENSG00000134333 [P00338-5]
ENST00000379412; ENSP00000368722; ENSG00000134333 [P00338-1]
ENST00000396222; ENSP00000379524; ENSG00000134333 [P00338-2]
ENST00000422447; ENSP00000395337; ENSG00000134333 [P00338-1]
ENST00000430553; ENSP00000406172; ENSG00000134333 [P00338-4]
ENST00000540430; ENSP00000445175; ENSG00000134333 [P00338-3]
ENST00000542179; ENSP00000445331; ENSG00000134333 [P00338-1]

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

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GeneIDi
3939

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

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KEGGi
hsa:3939

UCSC genome browser

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UCSCi
uc001mol.4 human [P00338-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/cross_references_section">Cross-references</a> section provides links to various web resources that are relevant for a specific protein.<p><a href='/help/web_resource' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Web resourcesi

Wikipedia

Lactate dehydrogenase entry

Protein Spotlight

Another dark horse - Issue 109 of September 2009

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X02152 mRNA Translation: CAA26088.1
X03077
, X03078, X03079, X03080, X03081, X03082, X03083 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA26879.1
AY423727 mRNA Translation: AAS00490.1
AK130587 mRNA Translation: BAC85389.1
AK296667 mRNA Translation: BAG59264.1
AK298834 mRNA Translation: BAH12879.1
CR456775 mRNA Translation: CAG33056.1
CR541714 mRNA Translation: CAG46515.1
AK223078 mRNA Translation: BAD96798.1
AC084117 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471064 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW68395.1
CH471064 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW68396.1
BC067223 mRNA Translation: AAH67223.1
S66853 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB20418.1
CCDSiCCDS44549.1 [P00338-4]
CCDS53609.1 [P00338-3]
CCDS53610.1 [P00338-2]
CCDS53611.1 [P00338-5]
CCDS7839.1 [P00338-1]
PIRiA00347 DEHULM
RefSeqiNP_001128711.1, NM_001135239.1 [P00338-4]
NP_001158886.1, NM_001165414.1 [P00338-3]
NP_001158887.1, NM_001165415.1 [P00338-2]
NP_001158888.1, NM_001165416.1 [P00338-5]
NP_005557.1, NM_005566.3 [P00338-1]

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

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PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

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RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

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PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1I10X-ray2.30A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H2-332[»]
4AJPX-ray2.38A/B/C/D2-332[»]
4JNKX-ray1.90A/B/C/D2-332[»]
4L4RX-ray2.10A/H2-332[»]
4L4SX-ray2.90A/H2-332[»]
4M49X-ray2.05A/B/C/D2-332[»]
4OJNX-ray2.40A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H2-332[»]
4OKNX-ray2.10A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H2-332[»]
4QO7X-ray2.14A/B/C/D2-332[»]
4QO8X-ray2.00A/B/C/D2-332[»]
4QSMX-ray3.00A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H2-332[»]
4QT0X-ray3.20A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H2-332[»]
4R68X-ray2.11A/B/C/D2-332[»]
4R69X-ray3.19A/B/C/D2-332[»]
4RLSX-ray1.91A/B/C/D2-332[»]
4ZVVX-ray2.20A/B/C/D1-332[»]
5IXSX-ray2.05A/B/C/D2-332[»]
5IXYX-ray3.00A/B/C/D2-332[»]
5W8HX-ray1.80A/B/C/D1-332[»]
5W8IX-ray1.95A/B/C/D1-332[»]
5W8JX-ray1.55A/B/C/D1-332[»]
5W8KX-ray1.60A/B/C/D1-332[»]
5W8LX-ray1.95A/B/C/D1-332[»]
6BADX-ray2.10A/B/C/D2-332[»]
6BAGX-ray2.40A/B/C/D2-332[»]
6BAXX-ray2.05A/B/C/D2-332[»]
6BAZX-ray2.70A/B/C/D2-332[»]
6BB0X-ray1.95A/B/C/D2-332[»]
6BB1X-ray2.30A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H2-332[»]
6BB2X-ray2.47A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H2-332[»]
6BB3X-ray2.40A/B/C/D2-332[»]
SMRiP00338
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi110131, 178 interactors
IntActiP00338, 55 interactors
MINTiP00338
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000445175

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP00338
ChEMBLiCHEMBL4835
DrugBankiDB11638 Artenimol
DB09130 Copper
DB02483 Etheno-Nad
DB00157 NADH
DB02701 Nicotinamide
DB03940 Oxamic Acid
DB09118 Stiripentol

DrugCentral

More...
DrugCentrali
P00338

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP00338
PhosphoSitePlusiP00338
SwissPalmiP00338

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiLDHA
DMDMi126047

2D gel databases

DOSAC-COBS-2DPAGEiP00338
OGPiP00338
REPRODUCTION-2DPAGEiIPI00217966

Proteomic databases

CPTACiCPTAC-91
EPDiP00338
jPOSTiP00338
MassIVEiP00338
PaxDbiP00338
PeptideAtlasiP00338
PRIDEiP00338
ProteomicsDBi51230 [P00338-1]
51231 [P00338-2]
51232 [P00338-3]
51233 [P00338-4]
51234 [P00338-5]
TopDownProteomicsiP00338-1 [P00338-1]
P00338-4 [P00338-4]
P00338-5 [P00338-5]

Protocols and materials databases

The DNASU plasmid repository

More...
DNASUi
3939
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000227157; ENSP00000227157; ENSG00000134333 [P00338-5]
ENST00000379412; ENSP00000368722; ENSG00000134333 [P00338-1]
ENST00000396222; ENSP00000379524; ENSG00000134333 [P00338-2]
ENST00000422447; ENSP00000395337; ENSG00000134333 [P00338-1]
ENST00000430553; ENSP00000406172; ENSG00000134333 [P00338-4]
ENST00000540430; ENSP00000445175; ENSG00000134333 [P00338-3]
ENST00000542179; ENSP00000445331; ENSG00000134333 [P00338-1]
GeneIDi3939
KEGGihsa:3939
UCSCiuc001mol.4 human [P00338-1]

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

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CTDi
3939
DisGeNETi3939

GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases

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GeneCardsi
LDHA
HGNCiHGNC:6535 LDHA
HPAiCAB015336
CAB069404
MalaCardsiLDHA
MIMi150000 gene
612933 phenotype
neXtProtiNX_P00338
OpenTargetsiENSG00000134333
Orphaneti284426 Glycogen storage disease due to lactate dehydrogenase M-subunit deficiency
PharmGKBiPA30319

GenAtlas: human gene database

More...
GenAtlasi
Search...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1495 Eukaryota
COG0039 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00940000153201
HOGENOMiHOG000213793
InParanoidiP00338
KOiK00016
OMAiMDLMQTA
OrthoDBi1204514at2759
PhylomeDBiP00338
TreeFamiTF314963

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00554;UER00611
ReactomeiR-HSA-70268 Pyruvate metabolism
SABIO-RKiP00338
SIGNORiP00338

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data

More...
ChiTaRSi
LDHA human
EvolutionaryTraceiP00338

The Gene Wiki collection of pages on human genes and proteins

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GeneWikii
LDHA

Database of phenotypes from RNA interference screens in Drosophila and Homo sapiens

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GenomeRNAii
3939

Pharos

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Pharosi
P00338

Protein Ontology

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PROi
PR:P00338

The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

More...
SOURCEi
Search...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000134333 Expressed in 107 organ(s), highest expression level in left coronary artery
ExpressionAtlasiP00338 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP00338 HS

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.90.110.10, 1 hit
HAMAPiMF_00488 Lactate_dehydrog, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR001557 L-lactate/malate_DH
IPR011304 L-lactate_DH
IPR018177 L-lactate_DH_AS
IPR022383 Lactate/malate_DH_C
IPR001236 Lactate/malate_DH_N
IPR015955 Lactate_DH/Glyco_Ohase_4_C
IPR036291 NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF02866 Ldh_1_C, 1 hit
PF00056 Ldh_1_N, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF000102 Lac_mal_DH, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00086 LLDHDRGNASE
SUPFAMiSSF51735 SSF51735, 1 hit
SSF56327 SSF56327, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01771 L-LDH-NAD, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00064 L_LDH, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

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ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

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MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiLDHA_HUMAN
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P00338
Secondary accession number(s): B4DKQ2
, B7Z5E3, D3DQY3, F8W819, Q53G53, Q6IBM7, Q6ZNV1, Q9UDE8, Q9UDE9
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: September 18, 2019
This is version 234 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  3. Protein Spotlight
    Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries
  4. Human chromosome 11
    Human chromosome 11: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  5. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  6. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  7. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  8. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
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