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Protein

Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrial

Gene

GLS

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Isoform 2 lacks catalytic activity.

Caution

Isoform 3 is predicted to be expressed at very low levels due to a premature stop codon in the mRNA, leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (PubMed:14759258), but has been shown to be well expressed (PubMed:17940881 and PubMed:11015561) and the encoded protein is detected in mitochondria (PubMed:22228304).2 Publications
A report observed N-glycosylation at Asn-620 (PubMed:19139490). However, as the protein is mitochondrial, additional evidences are required to confirm this result.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Isoform 1 and isoform 3 are activated by phosphate. Inhibited by BPTES. BPTES binds between subunits and favors dissociation of the tetramer into dimers.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=1.9 mM for glutamine (isoform 1)1 Publication
  2. KM=1.4 mM for glutamine (isoform 3)1 Publication

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei286Substrate1
    Binding sitei335Substrate1
    Binding sitei381Substrate1
    Binding sitei388Substrate1
    Binding sitei414Substrate1
    Binding sitei466Substrate1
    Binding sitei484Substrate; via amide nitrogen1

    <p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

    • glutaminase activity Source: UniProtKB

    GO - Biological processi

    <p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

    Molecular functionHydrolase

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

    More...
    BRENDAi
    3.5.1.2 2681

    Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

    More...
    Reactomei
    R-HSA-210500 Glutamate Neurotransmitter Release Cycle
    R-HSA-5628897 TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes
    R-HSA-70614 Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination)

    SABIO-RK: Biochemical Reaction Kinetics Database

    More...
    SABIO-RKi
    O94925

    <p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrial (EC:3.5.1.2)
    Short name:
    GLS
    Alternative name(s):
    K-glutaminase
    L-glutamine amidohydrolase
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
    Name:GLS
    Synonyms:GLS1, KIAA0838
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
    • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 2

    Organism-specific databases

    Eukaryotic Pathogen Database Resources

    More...
    EuPathDBi
    HostDB:ENSG00000115419.12

    Human Gene Nomenclature Database

    More...
    HGNCi
    HGNC:4331 GLS

    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

    More...
    MIMi
    138280 gene

    neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

    More...
    neXtProti
    NX_O94925

    <p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

    Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cytoplasm, Mitochondrion

    <p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

    Mutagenesis

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology_and_biotech_section">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi318F → Y: No effect on catalytic activity. Loss of inhibition by BPTES; when associated with S-322. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi322F → S: No effect on catalytic activity. Loss of inhibition by BPTES; when associated with Y-318. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi394Y → L: No effect on catalytic activity. Loss of inhibition by BPTES. 1 Publication1

    Organism-specific databases

    DisGeNET

    More...
    DisGeNETi
    2744

    Open Targets

    More...
    OpenTargetsi
    ENSG00000115419

    The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base

    More...
    PharmGKBi
    PA28734

    Chemistry databases

    ChEMBL database of bioactive drug-like small molecules

    More...
    ChEMBLi
    CHEMBL2146302

    Drug and drug target database

    More...
    DrugBanki
    DB13155 Esculin
    DB09374 Indocyanine green
    DB00142 L-Glutamic Acid
    DB00130 L-Glutamine

    IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

    More...
    GuidetoPHARMACOLOGYi
    2891

    Polymorphism and mutation databases

    BioMuta curated single-nucleotide variation and disease association database

    More...
    BioMutai
    GLS

    <p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a transit peptide.<p><a href='/help/transit' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Transit peptidei1 – 16MitochondrionBy similarityAdd BLAST16
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_000001162217 – 669Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrialAdd BLAST653

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei130N6-succinyllysineBy similarity1
    Modified residuei164N6-succinyllysineBy similarity1
    Modified residuei311N6-acetyllysineCombined sources1
    Modified residuei652PhosphoserineBy similarity1

    Keywords - PTMi

    Acetylation, Phosphoprotein

    Proteomic databases

    Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics

    More...
    EPDi
    O94925

    MaxQB - The MaxQuant DataBase

    More...
    MaxQBi
    O94925

    PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

    More...
    PaxDbi
    O94925

    PeptideAtlas

    More...
    PeptideAtlasi
    O94925

    PRoteomics IDEntifications database

    More...
    PRIDEi
    O94925

    ProteomicsDB human proteome resource

    More...
    ProteomicsDBi
    50560
    50561 [O94925-2]
    50562 [O94925-3]

    Consortium for Top Down Proteomics

    More...
    TopDownProteomicsi
    O94925-2 [O94925-2]

    PTM databases

    iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

    More...
    iPTMneti
    O94925

    Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

    More...
    PhosphoSitePlusi
    O94925

    SwissPalm database of S-palmitoylation events

    More...
    SwissPalmi
    O94925

    <p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

    Isoform 1 and isoform 3 are detected in brain cortex. Isoform 3 is highly expressed in astrocytoma, ganglioglioma and ependymoma. Isoform 1 is highly expressed in brain and kidney, but not detected in liver. Isoform 3 is highly expressed in heart and pancreas, detected at lower levels in placenta, lung, pancreas and kidney, but is not detected in liver. Isoform 2 is expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle.1 Publication

    Gene expression databases

    Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

    More...
    Bgeei
    ENSG00000115419 Expressed in 225 organ(s), highest expression level in middle temporal gyrus

    CleanEx database of gene expression profiles

    More...
    CleanExi
    HS_GLS

    ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

    More...
    ExpressionAtlasi
    O94925 baseline and differential

    Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

    More...
    Genevisiblei
    O94925 HS

    Organism-specific databases

    Human Protein Atlas

    More...
    HPAi
    HPA036223

    <p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

    Heterotetramer. Interacts with ATCAY; the interaction is direct and may control GLS localization, negatively regulating its activity.3 Publications

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

    More...
    BioGridi
    109006, 48 interactors

    Database of interacting proteins

    More...
    DIPi
    DIP-50591N

    Protein interaction database and analysis system

    More...
    IntActi
    O94925, 19 interactors

    STRING: functional protein association networks

    More...
    STRINGi
    9606.ENSP00000317379

    Chemistry databases

    BindingDB database of measured binding affinities

    More...
    BindingDBi
    O94925

    <p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1669
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
    Show more details

    3D structure databases

    Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

    More...
    ProteinModelPortali
    O94925

    SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

    More...
    SMRi
    O94925

    Database of comparative protein structure models

    More...
    ModBasei
    Search...

    MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

    More...
    MobiDBi
    Search...

    Miscellaneous databases

    Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

    More...
    EvolutionaryTracei
    O94925

    <p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section indicates the positions and types of repeated sequence motifs or repeated domains within the protein.<p><a href='/help/repeat' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Repeati585 – 614ANK 1Add BLAST30
    Repeati619 – 648ANK 2Add BLAST30

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the glutaminase family.Curated

    Keywords - Domaini

    ANK repeat, Repeat, Transit peptide

    Phylogenomic databases

    evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

    More...
    eggNOGi
    KOG0506 Eukaryota
    COG2066 LUCA

    Ensembl GeneTree

    More...
    GeneTreei
    ENSGT00390000010463

    The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

    More...
    HOGENOMi
    HOG000216891

    The HOVERGEN Database of Homologous Vertebrate Genes

    More...
    HOVERGENi
    HBG005856

    InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

    More...
    InParanoidi
    O94925

    KEGG Orthology (KO)

    More...
    KOi
    K01425

    Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

    More...
    OMAi
    RHQFIIP

    Database of Orthologous Groups

    More...
    OrthoDBi
    EOG091G03YU

    Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

    More...
    PhylomeDBi
    O94925

    TreeFam database of animal gene trees

    More...
    TreeFami
    TF313359

    Family and domain databases

    Conserved Domains Database

    More...
    CDDi
    cd00204 ANK, 1 hit

    Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

    More...
    Gene3Di
    1.25.40.20, 1 hit

    HAMAP database of protein families

    More...
    HAMAPi
    MF_00313 Glutaminase, 1 hit

    Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

    More...
    InterProi
    View protein in InterPro
    IPR002110 Ankyrin_rpt
    IPR020683 Ankyrin_rpt-contain_dom
    IPR036770 Ankyrin_rpt-contain_sf
    IPR012338 Beta-lactam/transpept-like
    IPR015868 Glutaminase

    The PANTHER Classification System

    More...
    PANTHERi
    PTHR12544 PTHR12544, 1 hit

    Pfam protein domain database

    More...
    Pfami
    View protein in Pfam
    PF12796 Ank_2, 1 hit
    PF04960 Glutaminase, 1 hit

    Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

    More...
    SMARTi
    View protein in SMART
    SM00248 ANK, 2 hits

    Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

    More...
    SUPFAMi
    SSF48403 SSF48403, 1 hit
    SSF56601 SSF56601, 1 hit

    TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

    More...
    TIGRFAMsi
    TIGR03814 Gln_ase, 1 hit

    PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

    More...
    PROSITEi
    View protein in PROSITE
    PS50297 ANK_REP_REGION, 1 hit
    PS50088 ANK_REPEAT, 1 hit

    <p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (3+)i

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

    <p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    This entry describes 3 <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

    This entry has 3 described isoforms and 6 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

    Isoform 1 (identifier: O94925-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    Also known as: KGA

    This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

    « Hide
            10         20         30         40         50
    MMRLRGSGML RDLLLRSPAG VSATLRRAQP LVTLCRRPRG GGRPAAGPAA
    60 70 80 90 100
    AARLHPWWGG GGWPAEPLAR GLSSSPSEIL QELGKGSTHP QPGVSPPAAP
    110 120 130 140 150
    AAPGPKDGPG ETDAFGNSEG KELVASGENK IKQGLLPSLE DLLFYTIAEG
    160 170 180 190 200
    QEKIPVHKFI TALKSTGLRT SDPRLKECMD MLRLTLQTTS DGVMLDKDLF
    210 220 230 240 250
    KKCVQSNIVL LTQAFRRKFV IPDFMSFTSH IDELYESAKK QSGGKVADYI
    260 270 280 290 300
    PQLAKFSPDL WGVSVCTVDG QRHSTGDTKV PFCLQSCVKP LKYAIAVNDL
    310 320 330 340 350
    GTEYVHRYVG KEPSGLRFNK LFLNEDDKPH NPMVNAGAIV VTSLIKQGVN
    360 370 380 390 400
    NAEKFDYVMQ FLNKMAGNEY VGFSNATFQS ERESGDRNFA IGYYLKEKKC
    410 420 430 440 450
    FPEGTDMVGI LDFYFQLCSI EVTCESASVM AATLANGGFC PITGERVLSP
    460 470 480 490 500
    EAVRNTLSLM HSCGMYDFSG QFAFHVGLPA KSGVAGGILL VVPNVMGMMC
    510 520 530 540 550
    WSPPLDKMGN SVKGIHFCHD LVSLCNFHNY DNLRHFAKKL DPRREGGDQR
    560 570 580 590 600
    VKSVINLLFA AYTGDVSALR RFALSAMDME QRDYDSRTAL HVAAAEGHVE
    610 620 630 640 650
    VVKFLLEACK VNPFPKDRWN NTPMDEALHF GHHDVFKILQ EYQVQYTPQG
    660
    DSDNGKENQT VHKNLDGLL
    Length:669
    Mass (Da):73,461
    Last modified:May 1, 1999 - v1
    <p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i4E5E63505E84E0B7
    GO
    Isoform 2 (identifier: O94925-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    Also known as: GAM

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         162-169: ALKSTGLR → VSFYIFLS
         170-669: Missing.

    Show »
    Length:169
    Mass (Da):17,738
    Checksum:i869F0D4A9B2B3AEE
    GO
    Isoform 3 (identifier: O94925-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
    Also known as: Glutaminase C, GAC

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         551-669: VKSVINLLFA...TVHKNLDGLL → HSFGPLDYES...YRMESLGEKS

    Show »
    Length:598
    Mass (Da):65,460
    Checksum:i3076ED034A79ABA5
    GO

    <p>In eukaryotic reference proteomes, unreviewed entries that are likely to belong to the same gene are computationally mapped, based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.<p><a href='/help/gene_centric_isoform_mapping' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

    There are 6 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
    EntryEntry nameProtein names
    Gene namesLengthAnnotation
    B7Z509B7Z509_HUMAN
    Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitocho...
    GLS
    174Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
    H7C201H7C201_HUMAN
    Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitocho...
    GLS
    182Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
    B8ZZA8B8ZZA8_HUMAN
    Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitocho...
    GLS
    169Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
    C9JIJ6C9JIJ6_HUMAN
    Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitocho...
    GLS
    164Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
    B8ZZC5B8ZZC5_HUMAN
    Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitocho...
    GLS
    103Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
    H7BZD1H7BZD1_HUMAN
    Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitocho...
    GLS
    114Annotation score:

    Annotation score:1 out of 5

    <p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

    The sequence BAA74861 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally shortened.Curated

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the canonical sequence (displayed by default in the entry) and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples. Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown origin.<p><a href='/help/conflict' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence conflicti6G → S in AAF00090 (PubMed:11015561).Curated1
    Sequence conflicti66E → D in AAF00090 (PubMed:11015561).Curated1
    Sequence conflicti219F → L in AAG47842 (PubMed:10719215).Curated1
    Sequence conflicti268V → A in AAD47056 (PubMed:11015561).Curated1

    Natural variant

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural variantiVAR_049188254A → P. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs16833035Ensembl.1

    Alternative sequence

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting. The information stored in this subsection is used to automatically construct alternative protein sequence(s) for display.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_001765162 – 169ALKSTGLR → VSFYIFLS in isoform 2. Curated8
    Alternative sequenceiVSP_001766170 – 669Missing in isoform 2. CuratedAdd BLAST500
    Alternative sequenceiVSP_001767551 – 669VKSVI…LDGLL → HSFGPLDYESLQQELALKET VWKKVSPESNEDISTTVVYR MESLGEKS in isoform 3. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST119

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:

    EMBL nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    EMBLi

    GenBank nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    GenBanki

    DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

    More...
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AF158555 mRNA Translation: AAD47056.1
    AF097492 mRNA Translation: AAF00088.1
    AF097493 mRNA Translation: AAF00089.1
    AF097495 mRNA Translation: AAF00090.1
    AB020645 mRNA Translation: BAA74861.2 Different initiation.
    AF223943 mRNA Translation: AAF33825.1
    AF327434 mRNA Translation: AAG47842.1
    BC038507 mRNA Translation: AAH38507.2
    AF279697 mRNA Translation: AAG17700.1

    The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

    More...
    CCDSi
    CCDS2308.1 [O94925-1]
    CCDS58744.1 [O94925-3]

    NCBI Reference Sequences

    More...
    RefSeqi
    NP_001243239.1, NM_001256310.1 [O94925-3]
    NP_055720.3, NM_014905.4 [O94925-1]

    UniGene gene-oriented nucleotide sequence clusters

    More...
    UniGenei
    Hs.116448
    Hs.737608

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

    More...
    Ensembli
    ENST00000320717; ENSP00000317379; ENSG00000115419 [O94925-1]
    ENST00000338435; ENSP00000340689; ENSG00000115419 [O94925-3]

    Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

    More...
    GeneIDi
    2744

    KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

    More...
    KEGGi
    hsa:2744

    UCSC genome browser

    More...
    UCSCi
    uc002use.4 human [O94925-1]

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

    <p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

    <p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AF158555 mRNA Translation: AAD47056.1
    AF097492 mRNA Translation: AAF00088.1
    AF097493 mRNA Translation: AAF00089.1
    AF097495 mRNA Translation: AAF00090.1
    AB020645 mRNA Translation: BAA74861.2 Different initiation.
    AF223943 mRNA Translation: AAF33825.1
    AF327434 mRNA Translation: AAG47842.1
    BC038507 mRNA Translation: AAH38507.2
    AF279697 mRNA Translation: AAG17700.1
    CCDSiCCDS2308.1 [O94925-1]
    CCDS58744.1 [O94925-3]
    RefSeqiNP_001243239.1, NM_001256310.1 [O94925-3]
    NP_055720.3, NM_014905.4 [O94925-1]
    UniGeneiHs.116448
    Hs.737608

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:

    Protein Data Bank Europe

    More...
    PDBei

    Protein Data Bank RCSB

    More...
    RCSB PDBi

    Protein Data Bank Japan

    More...
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    3CZDX-ray2.40A221-533[»]
    3UNWX-ray2.56A/B/C/D71-597[»]
    3UO9X-ray2.30A/B/C/D71-597[»]
    3VOYX-ray2.20A221-533[»]
    3VOZX-ray2.40A221-533[»]
    3VP0X-ray2.40A221-533[»]
    3VP1X-ray2.30A221-533[»]
    3VP2X-ray2.70A221-533[»]
    3VP3X-ray2.70A221-533[»]
    3VP4X-ray2.45A221-533[»]
    4O7DX-ray2.30A221-531[»]
    5D3OX-ray2.79A/B72-597[»]
    5FI2X-ray2.50A/B/C/D72-597[»]
    5FI6X-ray2.52A/B/C/D72-597[»]
    5FI7X-ray2.50A/B/C/D72-597[»]
    5HL1X-ray2.40A/B/C/D72-597[»]
    5I94X-ray2.98A/B/C/D72-597[»]
    5JYOX-ray2.10A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H221-533[»]
    5JYPX-ray2.74A221-533[»]
    5U0IX-ray1.42A/B551-669[»]
    5U0JX-ray1.72A/B/C/D551-669[»]
    5UQEX-ray3.60A/B/C/D/F137-656[»]
    5WJ6X-ray2.44A/B/C/D72-550[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliO94925
    SMRiO94925
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi109006, 48 interactors
    DIPiDIP-50591N
    IntActiO94925, 19 interactors
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000317379

    Chemistry databases

    BindingDBiO94925
    ChEMBLiCHEMBL2146302
    DrugBankiDB13155 Esculin
    DB09374 Indocyanine green
    DB00142 L-Glutamic Acid
    DB00130 L-Glutamine
    GuidetoPHARMACOLOGYi2891

    PTM databases

    iPTMnetiO94925
    PhosphoSitePlusiO94925
    SwissPalmiO94925

    Polymorphism and mutation databases

    BioMutaiGLS

    Proteomic databases

    EPDiO94925
    MaxQBiO94925
    PaxDbiO94925
    PeptideAtlasiO94925
    PRIDEiO94925
    ProteomicsDBi50560
    50561 [O94925-2]
    50562 [O94925-3]
    TopDownProteomicsiO94925-2 [O94925-2]

    Protocols and materials databases

    The DNASU plasmid repository

    More...
    DNASUi
    2744
    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000320717; ENSP00000317379; ENSG00000115419 [O94925-1]
    ENST00000338435; ENSP00000340689; ENSG00000115419 [O94925-3]
    GeneIDi2744
    KEGGihsa:2744
    UCSCiuc002use.4 human [O94925-1]

    Organism-specific databases

    Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

    More...
    CTDi
    2744
    DisGeNETi2744
    EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000115419.12

    GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases

    More...
    GeneCardsi
    GLS

    H-Invitational Database, human transcriptome db

    More...
    H-InvDBi
    HIX0161645
    HGNCiHGNC:4331 GLS
    HPAiHPA036223
    MIMi138280 gene
    neXtProtiNX_O94925
    OpenTargetsiENSG00000115419
    PharmGKBiPA28734

    Human Unidentified Gene-Encoded large proteins database

    More...
    HUGEi
    Search...

    GenAtlas: human gene database

    More...
    GenAtlasi
    Search...

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG0506 Eukaryota
    COG2066 LUCA
    GeneTreeiENSGT00390000010463
    HOGENOMiHOG000216891
    HOVERGENiHBG005856
    InParanoidiO94925
    KOiK01425
    OMAiRHQFIIP
    OrthoDBiEOG091G03YU
    PhylomeDBiO94925
    TreeFamiTF313359

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BRENDAi3.5.1.2 2681
    ReactomeiR-HSA-210500 Glutamate Neurotransmitter Release Cycle
    R-HSA-5628897 TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes
    R-HSA-70614 Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination)
    SABIO-RKiO94925

    Miscellaneous databases

    ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data

    More...
    ChiTaRSi
    GLS human
    EvolutionaryTraceiO94925

    Database of phenotypes from RNA interference screens in Drosophila and Homo sapiens

    More...
    GenomeRNAii
    2744

    Protein Ontology

    More...
    PROi
    PR:O94925

    The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

    More...
    SOURCEi
    Search...

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiENSG00000115419 Expressed in 225 organ(s), highest expression level in middle temporal gyrus
    CleanExiHS_GLS
    ExpressionAtlasiO94925 baseline and differential
    GenevisibleiO94925 HS

    Family and domain databases

    CDDicd00204 ANK, 1 hit
    Gene3Di1.25.40.20, 1 hit
    HAMAPiMF_00313 Glutaminase, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR002110 Ankyrin_rpt
    IPR020683 Ankyrin_rpt-contain_dom
    IPR036770 Ankyrin_rpt-contain_sf
    IPR012338 Beta-lactam/transpept-like
    IPR015868 Glutaminase
    PANTHERiPTHR12544 PTHR12544, 1 hit
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF12796 Ank_2, 1 hit
    PF04960 Glutaminase, 1 hit
    SMARTiView protein in SMART
    SM00248 ANK, 2 hits
    SUPFAMiSSF48403 SSF48403, 1 hit
    SSF56601 SSF56601, 1 hit
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR03814 Gln_ase, 1 hit
    PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
    PS50297 ANK_REP_REGION, 1 hit
    PS50088 ANK_REPEAT, 1 hit

    ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

    More...
    ProtoNeti
    Search...

    <p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiGLSK_HUMAN
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O94925
    Secondary accession number(s): Q9UL05
    , Q9UL06, Q9UL07, Q9UN40
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 24, 2001
    Last sequence update: May 1, 1999
    Last modified: December 5, 2018
    This is version 188 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
    <p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    <p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    2. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families
    3. Human chromosome 2
      Human chromosome 2: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    4. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
      Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    5. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
      List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    6. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
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