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Protein

Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase

Gene

GGCT

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes the formation of 5-oxoproline from gamma-glutamyl dipeptides and may play a significant role in glutathione homeostasis. Induces release of cytochrome c from mitochondria with resultant induction of apoptosis.2 Publications

Catalytic activityi

Alpha-(gamma-L-glutamyl)-L-amino acid = alpha-L-amino acid + 5-oxo-L-proline.

Kineticsi

  1. KM=2.0 mM for gamma-glutamyl-L-alanine
  1. Vmax=50.3 µmol/min/mg enzyme

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Active sitei98Proton acceptor1 Publication1
Binding sitei139Substrate1 Publication1

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • glutathione biosynthetic process Source: Reactome
  • release of cytochrome c from mitochondria Source: UniProtKB

Keywordsi

Molecular functionLyase

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi2.3.2.4 2681
ReactomeiR-HSA-174403 Glutathione synthesis and recycling

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase (EC:4.3.2.9)
Alternative name(s):
Cytochrome c-releasing factor 21
Gene namesi
Name:GGCT
Synonyms:C7orf24, CRF21
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 7

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000006625.17
HGNCiHGNC:21705 GGCT
MIMi137170 gene
neXtProtiNX_O75223

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi23G → A: Marked decrease in catalytic efficiency. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi98E → A or Q: Abolishes activity without altering structure. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi105Y → F: Marked decrease in catalytic efficiency and specific activity. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi125Y → F: Little or no change in reaction kinetics. 1 Publication1

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi79017
OpenTargetsiENSG00000006625
PharmGKBiPA162389392

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGGCT

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000895801 – 188Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferaseAdd BLAST188

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei173PhosphoserineBy similarity1

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

EPDiO75223
MaxQBiO75223
PaxDbiO75223
PeptideAtlasiO75223
PRIDEiO75223
ProteomicsDBi49871
49872 [O75223-2]

2D gel databases

OGPiO75223

PTM databases

iPTMnetiO75223
PhosphoSitePlusiO75223

Expressioni

Inductioni

By geranylgeraniol.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000006625 Expressed in 234 organ(s), highest expression level in mammalian vulva
CleanExiHS_GGCT
ExpressionAtlasiO75223 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiO75223 HS

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA020735
HPA029914

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer.2 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi122486, 10 interactors
IntActiO75223, 7 interactors
MINTiO75223
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000275428

Structurei

Secondary structure

1188
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO75223
SMRiO75223
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiO75223

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni19 – 24Substrate binding1 Publication6

Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG4059 Eukaryota
ENOG4111IGG LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00500000044921
HOGENOMiHOG000008049
HOVERGENiHBG050922
InParanoidiO75223
KOiK00682
OMAiAPHDYVM
OrthoDBiEOG091G0NMM
PhylomeDBiO75223
TreeFamiTF314378

Family and domain databases

CDDicd06661 GGCT_like, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR017939 G-Glutamylcylcotransferase
IPR013024 GGCT-like
IPR036568 GGCT-like_sf
PANTHERiPTHR12935 PTHR12935, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF110857 SSF110857, 1 hit

Sequences (4+)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 4 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

This entry has 4 described isoforms and 3 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.iShow all

Isoform 1 (identifier: O75223-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MANSGCKDVT GPDEESFLYF AYGSNLLTER IHLRNPSAAF FCVARLQDFK
60 70 80 90 100
LDFGNSQGKT SQTWHGGIAT IFQSPGDEVW GVVWKMNKSN LNSLDEQEGV
110 120 130 140 150
KSGMYVVIEV KVATQEGKEI TCRSYLMTNY ESAPPSPQYK KIICMGAKEN
160 170 180
GLPLEYQEKL KAIEPNDYTG KVSEEIEDII KKGETQTL
Length:188
Mass (Da):21,008
Last modified:November 1, 1998 - v1
Checksum:i88B5C6F67F31C56C
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: O75223-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     97-114: QEGVKSGMYVVIEVKVAT → LFAWVQKKMVCRWSIKRS
     115-188: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:114
Mass (Da):12,943
Checksum:i45207EF9348A6A72
GO
Isoform 3 (identifier: O75223-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     48-141: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available. Gene prediction based on EST data.
Show »
Length:94
Mass (Da):10,504
Checksum:i8E15402CE6521BCC
GO
Isoform 4 (identifier: O75223-4) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     97-188: QEGVKSGMYV...IIKKGETQTL → WRKKRHTAFQ...MVCRWSIKRS

Note: No experimental confirmation available. Gene prediction based on EST data.
Show »
Length:166
Mass (Da):19,092
Checksum:iD0D2773376F33287
GO

Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 3 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
B8ZZK2B8ZZK2_HUMAN
Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase
GGCT
166Annotation score:
H7BZK5H7BZK5_HUMAN
Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase
GGCT
119Annotation score:
A0A0B4J1Y4A0A0B4J1Y4_HUMAN
Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase
GGCT
51Annotation score:

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_04646348 – 141Missing in isoform 3. CuratedAdd BLAST94
Alternative sequenceiVSP_04646497 – 188QEGVK…ETQTL → WRKKRHTAFQNQGNHPCKHK TRMWDRDPKIPVQNLSLALC WQAQSGHGTCNRLFAWVQKK MVCRWSIKRS in isoform 4. CuratedAdd BLAST92
Alternative sequenceiVSP_03559997 – 114QEGVK…VKVAT → LFAWVQKKMVCRWSIKRS in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST18
Alternative sequenceiVSP_035600115 – 188Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST74

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AK315608 mRNA Translation: BAG37977.1
AC005154 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471073 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW93950.1
CH471073 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW93952.1
CH471073 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW93953.1
BC000625 mRNA Translation: AAH00625.1
BC005356 mRNA Translation: AAH05356.1
BC013937 mRNA Translation: AAH13937.1
BC019243 mRNA Translation: AAH19243.1
CCDSiCCDS5428.1 [O75223-1]
CCDS56474.1 [O75223-3]
CCDS56475.1 [O75223-2]
CCDS56476.1 [O75223-4]
RefSeqiNP_001186744.1, NM_001199815.1 [O75223-4]
NP_001186745.1, NM_001199816.1 [O75223-2]
NP_001186746.1, NM_001199817.1 [O75223-3]
NP_076956.1, NM_024051.3 [O75223-1]
UniGeneiHs.530024

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000005374; ENSP00000005374; ENSG00000006625 [O75223-2]
ENST00000275428; ENSP00000275428; ENSG00000006625 [O75223-1]
ENST00000409144; ENSP00000386610; ENSG00000006625 [O75223-3]
ENST00000409390; ENSP00000387235; ENSG00000006625 [O75223-4]
GeneIDi79017
KEGGihsa:79017
UCSCiuc003tba.4 human [O75223-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Similar proteinsi

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AK315608 mRNA Translation: BAG37977.1
AC005154 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471073 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW93950.1
CH471073 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW93952.1
CH471073 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW93953.1
BC000625 mRNA Translation: AAH00625.1
BC005356 mRNA Translation: AAH05356.1
BC013937 mRNA Translation: AAH13937.1
BC019243 mRNA Translation: AAH19243.1
CCDSiCCDS5428.1 [O75223-1]
CCDS56474.1 [O75223-3]
CCDS56475.1 [O75223-2]
CCDS56476.1 [O75223-4]
RefSeqiNP_001186744.1, NM_001199815.1 [O75223-4]
NP_001186745.1, NM_001199816.1 [O75223-2]
NP_001186746.1, NM_001199817.1 [O75223-3]
NP_076956.1, NM_024051.3 [O75223-1]
UniGeneiHs.530024

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2I5TX-ray2.01A/B2-188[»]
2PN7X-ray2.41A/B1-188[»]
2Q53X-ray2.01A/B2-188[»]
2RBHX-ray2.10A/B1-188[»]
3CRYX-ray1.70A/B1-188[»]
ProteinModelPortaliO75223
SMRiO75223
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi122486, 10 interactors
IntActiO75223, 7 interactors
MINTiO75223
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000275428

PTM databases

iPTMnetiO75223
PhosphoSitePlusiO75223

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGGCT

2D gel databases

OGPiO75223

Proteomic databases

EPDiO75223
MaxQBiO75223
PaxDbiO75223
PeptideAtlasiO75223
PRIDEiO75223
ProteomicsDBi49871
49872 [O75223-2]

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi79017
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000005374; ENSP00000005374; ENSG00000006625 [O75223-2]
ENST00000275428; ENSP00000275428; ENSG00000006625 [O75223-1]
ENST00000409144; ENSP00000386610; ENSG00000006625 [O75223-3]
ENST00000409390; ENSP00000387235; ENSG00000006625 [O75223-4]
GeneIDi79017
KEGGihsa:79017
UCSCiuc003tba.4 human [O75223-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi79017
DisGeNETi79017
EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000006625.17
GeneCardsiGGCT
HGNCiHGNC:21705 GGCT
HPAiHPA020735
HPA029914
MIMi137170 gene
neXtProtiNX_O75223
OpenTargetsiENSG00000006625
PharmGKBiPA162389392
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG4059 Eukaryota
ENOG4111IGG LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00500000044921
HOGENOMiHOG000008049
HOVERGENiHBG050922
InParanoidiO75223
KOiK00682
OMAiAPHDYVM
OrthoDBiEOG091G0NMM
PhylomeDBiO75223
TreeFamiTF314378

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi2.3.2.4 2681
ReactomeiR-HSA-174403 Glutathione synthesis and recycling

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiGGCT human
EvolutionaryTraceiO75223
GenomeRNAii79017
PROiPR:O75223
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000006625 Expressed in 234 organ(s), highest expression level in mammalian vulva
CleanExiHS_GGCT
ExpressionAtlasiO75223 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiO75223 HS

Family and domain databases

CDDicd06661 GGCT_like, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR017939 G-Glutamylcylcotransferase
IPR013024 GGCT-like
IPR036568 GGCT-like_sf
PANTHERiPTHR12935 PTHR12935, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF110857 SSF110857, 1 hit
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGGCT_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O75223
Secondary accession number(s): B2RDN0
, B8ZZN4, B8ZZR8, Q9BS37
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 22, 2003
Last sequence update: November 1, 1998
Last modified: September 12, 2018
This is version 140 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome
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Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

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