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Entry version 214 (07 Apr 2021)
Sequence version 2 (17 Oct 2006)
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Protein

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase parkin

Gene

PRKN

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Functions within a multiprotein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, catalyzing the covalent attachment of ubiquitin moieties onto substrate proteins (PubMed:10888878, PubMed:10973942, PubMed:11431533, PubMed:12150907, PubMed:12628165, PubMed:15105460, PubMed:16135753, PubMed:21376232, PubMed:21532592, PubMed:23754282, PubMed:23620051, PubMed:24660806, PubMed:24751536, PubMed:32047033, PubMed:29311685, PubMed:22396657). Substrates include SYT11 and VDAC1 (PubMed:32047033, PubMed:29311685). Other substrates are BCL2, CCNE1, GPR37, RHOT1/MIRO1, MFN1, MFN2, STUB1, SNCAIP, SEPTIN5, TOMM20, USP30, ZNF746, MIRO1 and AIMP2 (PubMed:10888878, PubMed:10973942, PubMed:11431533, PubMed:12150907, PubMed:12628165, PubMed:15105460, PubMed:16135753, PubMed:21376232, PubMed:21532592, PubMed:23754282, PubMed:23620051, PubMed:24660806, PubMed:24751536, PubMed:22396657). Mediates monoubiquitination as well as 'Lys-6', 'Lys-11', 'Lys-48'-linked and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of substrates depending on the context (PubMed:19229105, PubMed:20889974, PubMed:25621951, PubMed:32047033, PubMed:25474007). Participates in the removal and/or detoxification of abnormally folded or damaged protein by mediating 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of misfolded proteins such as PARK7: 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitinated misfolded proteins are then recognized by HDAC6, leading to their recruitment to aggresomes, followed by degradation (PubMed:17846173, PubMed:19229105). Mediates 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of a 22 kDa O-linked glycosylated isoform of SNCAIP, possibly playing a role in Lewy-body formation (PubMed:11431533, PubMed:11590439, PubMed:15105460, PubMed:19229105, PubMed:15728840). Mediates monoubiquitination of BCL2, thereby acting as a positive regulator of autophagy (PubMed:20889974). Protects against mitochondrial dysfunction during cellular stress, by acting downstream of PINK1 to coordinate mitochondrial quality control mechanisms that remove and replace dysfunctional mitochondrial components (PubMed:32047033, PubMed:19029340, PubMed:19966284, PubMed:23620051, PubMed:24896179, PubMed:25527291, PubMed:18957282, PubMed:21376232, PubMed:22396657, PubMed:24660806, PubMed:25474007, PubMed:24784582, PubMed:11439185, PubMed:22082830, PubMed:23933751). Depending on the severity of mitochondrial damage and/or dysfunction, activity ranges from preventing apoptosis and stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis to regulating mitochondrial dynamics and eliminating severely damaged mitochondria via mitophagy (PubMed:32047033, PubMed:19029340, PubMed:19801972, PubMed:19966284, PubMed:23620051, PubMed:24896179, PubMed:25527291, PubMed:21376232, PubMed:22396657, PubMed:11439185, PubMed:22082830, PubMed:23933751). Activation and recruitment onto the outer membrane of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria (OMM) requires PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of both PRKN and ubiquitin (PubMed:24660806, PubMed:25474007, PubMed:24784582, PubMed:25527291). After mitochondrial damage, functions with PINK1 to mediate the decision between mitophagy or preventing apoptosis by inducing either the poly- or monoubiquitination of VDAC1, respectively; polyubiquitination of VDAC1 promotes mitophagy, while monoubiquitination of VDAC1 decreases mitochondrial calcium influx which ultimately inhibits apoptosis (PubMed:32047033). When cellular stress results in irreversible mitochondrial damage, promotes the autophagic degradation of dysfunctional depolarized mitochondria (mitophagy) by promoting the ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins such as TOMM20, RHOT1/MIRO1, MFN1 and USP30 (PubMed:19029340, PubMed:19966284, PubMed:23620051, PubMed:24896179, PubMed:25527291, PubMed:22396657, PubMed:23933751). Preferentially assembles 'Lys-6'-, 'Lys-11'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains, leading to mitophagy (PubMed:25621951, PubMed:32047033). The PINK1-PRKN pathway also promotes fission of damaged mitochondria by PINK1-mediated phosphorylation which promotes the PRKN-dependent degradation of mitochondrial proteins involved in fission such as MFN2 (PubMed:23620051). This prevents the refusion of unhealthy mitochondria with the mitochondrial network or initiates mitochondrial fragmentation facilitating their later engulfment by autophagosomes (PubMed:23620051). Regulates motility of damaged mitochondria via the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of MIRO1 and MIRO2; in motor neurons, this likely inhibits mitochondrial intracellular anterograde transport along the axons which probably increases the chance of the mitochondria undergoing mitophagy in the soma (PubMed:22396657). Involved in mitochondrial biogenesis via the 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination of transcriptional repressor ZNF746/PARIS which leads to its subsequent proteasomal degradation and allows activation of the transcription factor PPARGC1A (PubMed:21376232). Limits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (PubMed:18541373). Regulates cyclin-E during neuronal apoptosis (PubMed:12628165). In collaboration with CHPF isoform 2, may enhance cell viability and protect cells from oxidative stress (PubMed:22082830). Independently of its ubiquitin ligase activity, protects from apoptosis by the transcriptional repression of p53/TP53 (PubMed:19801972). May protect neurons against alpha synuclein toxicity, proteasomal dysfunction, GPR37 accumulation, and kainate-induced excitotoxicity (PubMed:11439185). May play a role in controlling neurotransmitter trafficking at the presynaptic terminal and in calcium-dependent exocytosis. May represent a tumor suppressor gene (PubMed:12719539).35 Publications

Miscellaneous

The parkin locus (PRKN), adjacent to the 6q telomere is hyper-recombinable and lies within FRA6E, the third most common fragile site in tumor tissue.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

In the autoinhibited state the side chain of Phe-463 inserts into a hydrophobic groove in RING-0, occluding the ubiquitin acceptor site Cys-431, whereas the REP repressor element binds RING-1 and blocks its E2-binding site (PubMed:23727886, PubMed:23770887). Activation of PRKN requires 2 steps: (1) phosphorylation at Ser-65 by PINK1 and (2) binding to phosphorylated ubiquitin, leading to unlock repression of the catalytic Cys-431 by the RING-0 region via an allosteric mechanism and converting PRKN to its fully-active form (PubMed:24660806, PubMed:25474007, PubMed:24784582, PubMed:25527291). According to another report, phosphorylation at Ser-65 by PINK1 is not essential for activation and only binding to phosphorylated ubiquitin is essential to unlock repression (PubMed:24751536).7 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: protein ubiquitination

This protein is involved in the pathway protein ubiquitination, which is part of Protein modification.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway protein ubiquitination and in Protein modification.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the 'Description' field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi238Zinc 1PROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Metal bindingi241Zinc 1PROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Metal bindingi253Zinc 2PROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Metal bindingi257Zinc 2; via pros nitrogenPROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Metal bindingi260Zinc 1PROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Metal bindingi263Zinc 1PROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Metal bindingi289Zinc 2PROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Metal bindingi293Zinc 2PROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Metal bindingi332Zinc 3PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1
Metal bindingi337Zinc 3PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1
Metal bindingi352Zinc 3PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1
Metal bindingi360Zinc 3PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1
Metal bindingi365Zinc 4PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1
Metal bindingi368Zinc 4PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1
Metal bindingi373Zinc 4; via tele nitrogenPROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Metal bindingi377Zinc 4PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1
Metal bindingi418Zinc 5PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1
Metal bindingi421Zinc 5PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei431PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1
Metal bindingi436Zinc 5PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1
Metal bindingi441Zinc 5PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1
Metal bindingi446Zinc 6PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1
Metal bindingi449Zinc 6PROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Metal bindingi457Zinc 6PROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Metal bindingi461Zinc 6; via tele nitrogenPROSITE-ProRule annotation1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section specifies the position(s) and type(s) of zinc fingers within the protein.<p><a href='/help/zn_fing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Zinc fingeri141 – 225RING-type 0; atypicalAdd BLAST85
Zinc fingeri238 – 293RING-type 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST56
Zinc fingeri313 – 377IBR-typePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST65
Zinc fingeri418 – 449RING-type 2; atypicalPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST32

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionTransferase
Biological processAutophagy, Transcription, Transcription regulation, Ubl conjugation pathway
LigandMetal-binding, Zinc

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

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BRENDAi
2.3.2.B10, 2681

Pathway Commons web resource for biological pathway data

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PathwayCommonsi
O60260

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

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Reactomei
R-HSA-5205685, PINK1-PRKN Mediated Mitophagy
R-HSA-5689877, Josephin domain DUBs
R-HSA-9646399, Aggrephagy
R-HSA-977225, Amyloid fiber formation
R-HSA-983168, Antigen processing: Ubiquitination & Proteasome degradation

SignaLink: a signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks

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SignaLinki
O60260

SIGNOR Signaling Network Open Resource

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SIGNORi
O60260

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

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UniPathwayi
UPA00143

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase parkinCurated (EC:2.3.2.312 Publications)
Short name:
Parkin
Alternative name(s):
Parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin-protein ligaseImported
Parkinson juvenile disease protein 2
Short name:
Parkinson disease protein 2
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:PRKNImported
Synonyms:PARK2
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 6

Organism-specific databases

Human Gene Nomenclature Database

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HGNCi
HGNC:8607, PRKN

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

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MIMi
602544, gene

neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

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neXtProti
NX_O60260

Eukaryotic Pathogen, Vector and Host Database Resources

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VEuPathDBi
HostDB:ENSG00000185345.18

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell junction, Cell projection, Cytoplasm, Endoplasmic reticulum, Membrane, Mitochondrion, Mitochondrion outer membrane, Nucleus, Synapse

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section provides information on the disease(s) associated with genetic variations in a given protein. The information is extracted from the scientific literature and diseases that are also described in the <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=omim">OMIM</a> database are represented with a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/diseases">controlled vocabulary</a> in the following way:<p><a href='/help/involvement_in_disease' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Involvement in diseasei

Parkinson disease (PARK)4 Publications
Disease susceptibility may be associated with variants affecting the gene represented in this entry. Heterozygous mutations act as susceptibility alleles for late-onset Parkinson disease (PubMed:12730996 and PubMed:12629236).
Disease descriptionA complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscular rigidity and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia. The pathology of Parkinson disease involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins), in surviving neurons in various areas of the brain. The disease is progressive and usually manifests after the age of 50 years, although early-onset cases (before 50 years) are known. The majority of the cases are sporadic suggesting a multifactorial etiology based on environmental and genetic factors. However, some patients present with a positive family history for the disease. Familial forms of the disease usually begin at earlier ages and are associated with atypical clinical features.
Related information in OMIM
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural variantiVAR_01973642R → P in PARK2 and PARK; induces a conformational change in the PSMD4-binding site of Ubl resulting in impaired proteasomal binding; decreases ubiquitination and degradation; increased aggregation; impairs the ability to ubiquitinate and degrade SYT11. 7 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs368134308EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019749253C → Y in PARK; late onset. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs747427602EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019750256R → C in PARK2 and PARK; at heterozygosity it is associated with late onset Parkinson disease; impairs the ability to ubiquitinate SNCAIP and ZNF746; decreased binding to the TP53 promoter; abolishes TP53 transcriptional repression. 7 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs150562946EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019752275R → W in PARK2 and PARK; at heterozygosity it is associated with late onset Parkinson disease; impairs the ability to ubiquitinate SNCAIP; abolishes p53/TP53 transcriptional repression; impairs the ability to ubiquitinate and degrade SYT11. 12 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs34424986EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019753280D → N in PARK; does not affect PINK-1 dependent localization to depolarized mitochondria. 3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs72480422EnsemblClinVar.1
Parkinson disease 2 (PARK2)30 Publications
The disease is caused by variants affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, tremor, and onset usually before 40. It differs from classic Parkinson disease by early DOPA-induced dyskinesia, diurnal fluctuation of the symptoms, sleep benefit, dystonia and hyper-reflexia. Dementia is absent. Pathologically, patients show loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, similar to that seen in Parkinson disease; however, Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins) are absent.
Related information in OMIM
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_01973315V → M in PARK2. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs532703934Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_01973433R → Q in PARK2. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs147757966EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_01973537P → L in PARK2. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs148990138Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_01973642R → P in PARK2 and PARK; induces a conformational change in the PSMD4-binding site of Ubl resulting in impaired proteasomal binding; decreases ubiquitination and degradation; increased aggregation; impairs the ability to ubiquitinate and degrade SYT11. 7 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs368134308EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_01973746A → P in PARK2. 1 Publication1
Natural variantiVAR_07007856V → E in PARK2. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs137853059EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_01973882A → E in PARK2. 3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs55774500EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_01973992A → V in PARK2. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs566229879Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_019741161K → N in PARK2; severely compromises the mitochondrial localization; fails to stabilize BCL2; decreased binding to the TP53 promoter; abolishes TP53 transcriptional repression. 5 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs137853057EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_054107192M → L in PARK2; unknown pathological significance. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs9456735EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019743192M → V in PARK2; unknown pathological significance. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs9456735EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019744211K → N in PARK2; severely compromises the mitochondrial localization; fails to stabilize BCL2. 5 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs137853060EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019746212C → Y in PARK2. 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs137853058EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019747240T → M in PARK2. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs137853054EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019748240T → R in PARK2; impairs the ability to ubiquitinate SNCAIP and BCL2; loss of UBE2L3 binding; severely compromises the mitochondrial localization. 6 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs137853054EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019750256R → C in PARK2 and PARK; at heterozygosity it is associated with late onset Parkinson disease; impairs the ability to ubiquitinate SNCAIP and ZNF746; decreased binding to the TP53 promoter; abolishes TP53 transcriptional repression. 7 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs150562946EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019752275R → W in PARK2 and PARK; at heterozygosity it is associated with late onset Parkinson disease; impairs the ability to ubiquitinate SNCAIP; abolishes p53/TP53 transcriptional repression; impairs the ability to ubiquitinate and degrade SYT11. 12 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs34424986EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019754284G → R in PARK2. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs751037529EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019755289C → G in PARK2; increased aggregation; fails to ubiquitinate SYT11; loses ability to bind SYT11; impaired relocalization to damaged mitochondria; loss of function in mitophagy. 3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs55961220Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_019756328G → E in PARK2; does not affect PINK-1 dependent localization to depolarized mitochondria. 3 Publications1
Natural variantiVAR_019759351T → P in PARK2; impairs folding of IBR domain. 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1554274861Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_070079402R → C in PARK2. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs55830907EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019763415T → N in PARK2; impairs the ability to ubiquitinate SNCAIP; does not affect turnover of CDCRE1; impairs PINK1-dependent localization to dysfunctional depolarized mitochondria. 5 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs778125254EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_070080418C → R in PARK2; decreased binding to the TP53 promoter; abolishes TP53 transcriptional repression; fails to ubiquitinate SYT11 but does not loose ability to bind SYT11. 3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1554252200Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_019764430G → D in PARK2; impairs PINK1-dependent localization to dysfunctional depolarized mitochondria; impaired E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase toward ZNF746. 7 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs191486604EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019765431C → F in PARK2; impaired E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase toward ZNF746 and BCL2. 3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs397514694EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019766437P → L in PARK2; impaired E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase toward BCL2. 5 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs149953814EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_019767441C → R in PARK2; decreased binding to the TP53 promoter; abolishes TP53 transcriptional repression. 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs778305273Ensembl.1
Defects in PRKN may be involved in the development and/or progression of ovarian cancer.

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology%5Fand%5Fbiotech%5Fsection">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi65S → A: Loss of phosphorylation. Undergoes autoubiquitination in the presence of phosphorylated ubiquitin. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi65S → E: Phosphomimetic mutant; still requires PINK1 for activation. PRKN is activated in presence of phosphorylated ubiquitin. 3 Publications1
Mutagenesisi175T → A: Loss of phosphorylation. Reduced mitochondrial localization; when associated with A-217. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi175T → E: Phosphomimetic mutant. Mostly localizes to the mitochondria; when associated with E-217. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi211K → N: Loss of activity towards MIRO1. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi217T → A: Loss of phosphorylation. Reduced mitochondrial localization; when associated with A-175. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi217T → E: Phosphomimetic mutant. Mostly localizes to the mitochondria; when associated with E-175. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi238C → S: Loss of mitochondrial localization. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi332C → S: Impairs folding of IBR domain. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi337C → A: Impairs the ability to ubiquitinate SNCAIP. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi365C → S: Impairs protein folding. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi403W → A: Decreased autoinhibition and increased E3 activity. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi415T → N: Loss of activity and self-ubiquitination. Loss of monoubiquitination resulting in an increase in apoptosis. No effect on polyubiquitination or mitophagy. 3 Publications1
Mutagenesisi421C → A: Impairs the ability of self-ubiquitination and to ubiquitinate SNCAIP. 2 Publications1
Mutagenesisi429G → E: Reduced self-ubiquitination. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi430G → D: Loss of self-ubiquitination. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi431C → A: Loss of activity. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi431C → S: Impairs the ability to ubiquitinate target proteins. No effect on translocation to mitochondria. 5 Publications1
Mutagenesisi433H → N or A: Impaired activity. 2 Publications