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Protein

Orexin

Gene

Hcrt

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Neuropeptides that play a significant role in the regulation of food intake and sleep-wakefulness, possibly by coordinating the complex behavioral and physiologic responses of these complementary homeostatic functions. A broader role in the homeostatic regulation of energy metabolism, autonomic function, hormonal balance and the regulation of body fluids, is also suggested. A modulation effect on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) secretion also suggests a more minor contribution to the regulation of reproductive function. Orexin-A binds to both OX1R and OX2R with a high affinity, whereas orexin-B binds only to OX2R with a similar high affinity.

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionNeuropeptide

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-RNO-389397 Orexin and neuropeptides FF and QRFP bind to their respective receptors
R-RNO-416476 G alpha (q) signalling events

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Orexin
Alternative name(s):
Hypocretin
Short name:
Hcrt
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
Alternative name(s):
Hypocretin-1
Short name:
Hcrt1
Alternative name(s):
Hypocretin-2
Short name:
Hcrt2
Gene namesi
Name:Hcrt
Synonyms:Ox, Ppox
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 Componenti: Chromosome 10

Organism-specific databases

RGDi2786 Hcrt

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Endoplasmic reticulum

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 321 PublicationAdd BLAST32
PeptideiPRO_000002027033 – 65Orexin-AAdd BLAST33
PeptideiPRO_000002027169 – 96Orexin-BAdd BLAST28
PropeptideiPRO_000002027297 – 130Add BLAST34

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei33Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid1 Publication1
Disulfide bondi38 ↔ 44
Disulfide bondi39 ↔ 46
Modified residuei65Leucine amide1 Publication1
Modified residuei96Methionine amide1 Publication1

Post-translational modificationi

Specific enzymatic cleavages at paired basic residues yield the different active peptides.

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiO55232
PRIDEiO55232

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Produced by a small group of neurons restricted to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus and perifornical areas. Positive neurons project widely throughout the entire neuroaxis. Particularly abundant projections in the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, amygdala, septum, diagonal band of Broca, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, thalamus, anterior and posterior hypothalamus, midbrain, brainstem, and spinal cord. Immunoreactivity reported in the enteric nervous system and pancreas. In small amount, also detected in the testis.

Developmental stagei

Detected as early as embryonic day 18, but expression increased dramatically after the third postnatal week.

Inductioni

By nutritional state, up-regulated by fasting, fluid deprivation and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Orexin-A immunoreactivity varies diurnally and peaks during the dark phase, in the pons and the location of locus coeruleus.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSRNOG00000018892 Expressed in 2 organ(s), highest expression level in testis
GenevisibleiO55232 RN

Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000025547

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO55232
SMRiO55232
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the orexin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410J4FI Eukaryota
ENOG410Y5WS LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000014272
HOGENOMiHOG000230990
HOVERGENiHBG000256
InParanoidiO55232
KOiK05246
OMAiSECCRQP
OrthoDBiEOG091G0K5S
PhylomeDBiO55232
TreeFamiTF330756

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR001704 Orexin
PANTHERiPTHR15173 PTHR15173, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF02072 Orexin, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF037824 Orexin, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR01091 OREXINPP

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

O55232-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MNLPSTKVPW AAVTLLLLLL LPPALLSLGV DAQPLPDCCR QKTCSCRLYE
60 70 80 90 100
LLHGAGNHAA GILTLGKRRP GPPGLQGRLQ RLLQANGNHA AGILTMGRRA
110 120 130
GAELEPYPCP GRRCPTATAT ALAPRGGSRV
Length:130
Mass (Da):13,645
Last modified:June 1, 1998 - v1
Checksum:i00CAB259EDF2A404
GO

Mass spectrometryi

Molecular mass is 3558.7±0.1 Da from positions 33 - 65. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF041241 mRNA Translation: AAC40039.1
AF019565 mRNA Translation: AAC02933.1
RefSeqiNP_037311.1, NM_013179.2
UniGeneiRn.7628

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000025547; ENSRNOP00000025547; ENSRNOG00000018892
GeneIDi25723
KEGGirno:25723
UCSCiRGD:2786 rat

Similar proteinsi

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Protein Spotlight

Qui dort dine - Issue 15 of October 2001

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF041241 mRNA Translation: AAC40039.1
AF019565 mRNA Translation: AAC02933.1
RefSeqiNP_037311.1, NM_013179.2
UniGeneiRn.7628

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO55232
SMRiO55232
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000025547

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiO55232
PRIDEiO55232

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000025547; ENSRNOP00000025547; ENSRNOG00000018892
GeneIDi25723
KEGGirno:25723
UCSCiRGD:2786 rat

Organism-specific databases

CTDi3060
RGDi2786 Hcrt

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410J4FI Eukaryota
ENOG410Y5WS LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000014272
HOGENOMiHOG000230990
HOVERGENiHBG000256
InParanoidiO55232
KOiK05246
OMAiSECCRQP
OrthoDBiEOG091G0K5S
PhylomeDBiO55232
TreeFamiTF330756

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-RNO-389397 Orexin and neuropeptides FF and QRFP bind to their respective receptors
R-RNO-416476 G alpha (q) signalling events

Miscellaneous databases

PROiPR:O55232

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSRNOG00000018892 Expressed in 2 organ(s), highest expression level in testis
GenevisibleiO55232 RN

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR001704 Orexin
PANTHERiPTHR15173 PTHR15173, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF02072 Orexin, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF037824 Orexin, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR01091 OREXINPP
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiOREX_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O55232
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 30, 2000
Last sequence update: June 1, 1998
Last modified: September 12, 2018
This is version 127 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

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