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Protein

Period circadian protein homolog 1

Gene

PER1

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Transcriptional repressor which forms a core component of the circadian clock. The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, regulates various physiological processes through the generation of approximately 24 hour circadian rhythms in gene expression, which are translated into rhythms in metabolism and behavior. It is derived from the Latin roots 'circa' (about) and 'diem' (day) and acts as an important regulator of a wide array of physiological functions including metabolism, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, and renal function. Consists of two major components: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, and the peripheral clocks that are present in nearly every tissue and organ system. Both the central and peripheral clocks can be reset by environmental cues, also known as Zeitgebers (German for 'timegivers'). The predominant Zeitgeber for the central clock is light, which is sensed by retina and signals directly to the SCN. The central clock entrains the peripheral clocks through neuronal and hormonal signals, body temperature and feeding-related cues, aligning all clocks with the external light/dark cycle. Circadian rhythms allow an organism to achieve temporal homeostasis with its environment at the molecular level by regulating gene expression to create a peak of protein expression once every 24 hours to control when a particular physiological process is most active with respect to the solar day. Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and CRY2) plays a critical role in rhythm generation, whereas delays imposed by post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important for determining the period (tau) of the rhythms (tau refers to the period of a rhythm and is the length, in time, of one complete cycle). A diurnal rhythm is synchronized with the day/night cycle, while the ultradian and infradian rhythms have a period shorter and longer than 24 hours, respectively. Disruptions in the circadian rhythms contribute to the pathology of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, metabolic syndromes and aging. A transcription/translation feedback loop (TTFL) forms the core of the molecular circadian clock mechanism. Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the form of a heterodimer and activate the transcription of core clock genes and clock-controlled genes (involved in key metabolic processes), harboring E-box elements (5'-CACGTG-3') within their promoters. The core clock genes: PER1/2/3 and CRY1/2 which are transcriptional repressors form the negative limb of the feedback loop and interact with the CLOCK|NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1|ARNTL2/BMAL2 heterodimer inhibiting its activity and thereby negatively regulating their own expression. This heterodimer also activates nuclear receptors NR1D1/2 and RORA/B/G, which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. Regulates circadian target genes expression at post-transcriptional levels, but may not be required for the repression at transcriptional level. Controls PER2 protein decay. Represses CRY2 preventing its repression on CLOCK/ARNTL target genes such as FXYD5 and SCNN1A in kidney and PPARA in liver. Besides its involvement in the maintenance of the circadian clock, has an important function in the regulation of several processes. Participates in the repression of glucocorticoid receptor NR3C1/GR-induced transcriptional activity by reducing the association of NR3C1/GR to glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) by ARNTL:CLOCK. Plays a role in the modulation of the neuroinflammatory state via the regulation of inflammatory mediators release, such as CCL2 and IL6. In spinal astrocytes, negatively regulates the MAPK14/p38 and MAPK8/JNK MAPK cascades as well as the subsequent activation of NFkappaB. Coordinately regulates the expression of multiple genes that are involved in the regulation of renal sodium reabsorption. Can act as gene expression activator in a gene and tissue specific manner, in kidney enhances WNK1 and SLC12A3 expression in collaboration with CLOCK. Modulates hair follicle cycling. Represses the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 induced transcription of BHLHE40/DEC1.1 Publication

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Biological processBiological rhythms, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

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Reactomei
R-HSA-400253 Circadian Clock

SIGNOR Signaling Network Open Resource

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SIGNORi
O15534

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Period circadian protein homolog 1
Short name:
hPER1
Alternative name(s):
Circadian clock protein PERIOD 1
Circadian pacemaker protein Rigui
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:PER1
Synonyms:KIAA0482, PER, RIGUI
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 17

Organism-specific databases

Eukaryotic Pathogen Database Resources

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EuPathDBi
HostDB:ENSG00000179094.13

Human Gene Nomenclature Database

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HGNCi
HGNC:8845 PER1

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

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MIMi
602260 gene

neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

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neXtProti
NX_O15534

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology_and_biotech_section">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi121 – 126TSGCSS → AAGCSA: Strongly decreases interaction with BTRC and FBXW11 and inhibits degradation promoted by CSNK1E. 6
Mutagenesisi210 – 213SEYT → AEYA: No effect on interaction with BTRC and FBXW11. 1 Publication4
Mutagenesisi714 – 726SVVSV…CSFSS → AVVAVTAQCAFAA: No effect on interaction with BTRC and FBXW11. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST13
Mutagenesisi794 – 798FLSRF → ALSRA: Strongly decreases interaction with BTRC and FBXW11. 1 Publication5

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNET

More...
DisGeNETi
5187

Open Targets

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OpenTargetsi
ENSG00000179094

The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base

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PharmGKBi
PA33184

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMuta curated single-nucleotide variation and disease association database

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BioMutai
PER1

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001626271 – 1290Period circadian protein homolog 1Add BLAST1290

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei121Phosphothreonine; by CSNK1ESequence analysis1
Modified residuei122Phosphoserine; by CSNK1ESequence analysis1
Modified residuei126Phosphoserine; by CSNK1ESequence analysis1
Modified residuei661PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei663PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei704PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei815PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei979PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei980PhosphoserineCombined sources1

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_section">PTM/processing</a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection <strong>complements</strong> the information provided at the sequence level or describes modifications for which <strong>position-specific data is not yet available</strong>.<p><a href='/help/post-translational_modification' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated on serine residues by CSNK1D, CSNK1E and probably also by CSNK1G2. Phosphorylation by CSNK1D or CSNK1E promotes nuclear location of PER proteins as well as ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. May be dephosphorylated by PP1.1 Publication
Ubiquitinated; requires phosphorylation by CSNK1E and interaction with BTRC and FBXW11. Deubiquitinated by USP2 (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics

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EPDi
O15534

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

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PaxDbi
O15534

PeptideAtlas

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PeptideAtlasi
O15534

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

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PRIDEi
O15534

ProteomicsDB human proteome resource

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ProteomicsDBi
48743

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

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iPTMneti
O15534

Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

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PhosphoSitePlusi
O15534

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Widely expressed. Expressed in hair follicles (at protein level).Found in heart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas, kidney, spleen, thymus, prostate, testis, ovary and small intestine. Highest level in skeletal muscle.4 Publications

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

Serum-induced levels in fibroblasts show circadian oscillations. Maximum levels after 1 hour stimulation, minimum levels after 12 hours. Another peak is then observed after 20 hours. Protein levels show maximum levels at 6 hours, decrease to reach minimum levels at 20 hours, and increase again to reach a second peak after 26 hours. Levels then decrease slightly and then increase to maximum levels at 32 hours. Levels of phosphorylated form increase between 3 hours and 12 hours.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

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Bgeei
ENSG00000179094 Expressed in 224 organ(s), highest expression level in right adrenal gland

CleanEx database of gene expression profiles

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CleanExi
HS_PER1

ExpressionAtlas, Differential and Baseline Expression

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ExpressionAtlasi
O15534 baseline and differential

Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator

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Genevisiblei
O15534 HS

Organism-specific databases

Human Protein Atlas

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HPAi
HPA047947
HPA067064

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homodimer. Component of the circadian core oscillator, which includes the CRY proteins, CLOCK or NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, CSNK1D and/or CSNK1E, TIMELESS, and the PER proteins. Interacts directly with TIMELESS, PER2, PER3 and, through a C-terminal domain, with CRY1 and CRY2. Interacts with ARNTL/BMAL1 and CLOCK. Interacts with GPRASP1. Interacts (phosphorylated) with BTRC and FBXW11; the interactions trigger proteasomal degradation. Interacts with NONO, WDR5 and SFPQ. Interacts with USP2 (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the '<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section%27">Interaction</a> section provides information about binary protein-protein interactions. The data presented in this section are a quality-filtered subset of binary interactions automatically derived from the <a href="http://www.ebi.ac.uk/intact/">IntAct database</a>. It is updated on a monthly basis. Each binary interaction is displayed on a separate line.<p><a href='/help/binary_interactions' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
Cry2Q9R1943EBI-2557276,EBI-1266619From Mus musculus.

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid)

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BioGridi
111210, 46 interactors

ComplexPortal: manually curated resource of macromolecular complexes

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ComplexPortali
CPX-3221 Cry2-Per1 complex
CPX-3222 Cry1-Per1 complex

Database of interacting proteins

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DIPi
DIP-56603N

Protein interaction database and analysis system

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IntActi
O15534, 10 interactors

Molecular INTeraction database

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MINTi
O15534

STRING: functional protein association networks

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STRINGi
9606.ENSP00000314420

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

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ProteinModelPortali
O15534

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
O15534

Database of comparative protein structure models

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ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

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MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/family_and_domains_section">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini208 – 275PAS 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST68
Domaini348 – 414PAS 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST67
Domaini422 – 465PACAdd BLAST44

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni1 – 151Interaction with BTRC1 PublicationAdd BLAST151
Regioni596 – 815Required for phosphorylation by CSNK1EBy similarityAdd BLAST220
Regioni1149 – 1290CRY binding domainBy similarityAdd BLAST142

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a short (usually not more than 20 amino acids) conserved sequence motif of biological significance.<p><a href='/help/motif' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Motifi138 – 147Nuclear export signal 1By similarity10
Motifi489 – 498Nuclear export signal 2By similarity10
Motifi827 – 843Nuclear localization signalBy similarityAdd BLAST17
Motifi982 – 989Nuclear export signal 3By similarity8
Motifi1043 – 1047LXXLL5

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes the position of regions of compositional bias within the protein and the particular amino acids that are over-represented within those regions.<p><a href='/help/compbias' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Compositional biasi49 – 129Ser-richAdd BLAST81
Compositional biasi653 – 656Poly-Ser4
Compositional biasi848 – 1013Pro-richAdd BLAST166
Compositional biasi1030 – 1104Ser-richAdd BLAST75
Compositional biasi1269 – 1273Poly-Glu5
Compositional biasi1276 – 1279Poly-Ser4

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

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eggNOGi
ENOG410IMRF Eukaryota
ENOG410ZBUP LUCA

Ensembl GeneTree

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GeneTreei
ENSGT00940000159217

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

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HOGENOMi
HOG000231111

The HOVERGEN Database of Homologous Vertebrate Genes

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HOVERGENi
HBG008167

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

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InParanoidi
O15534

KEGG Orthology (KO)

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KOi
K21944

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

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OMAi
RHHQTPR

Database of Orthologous Groups

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OrthoDBi
EOG091G00PA

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

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PhylomeDBi
O15534

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

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TreeFami
TF318445

Family and domain databases

Conserved Domains Database

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CDDi
cd00130 PAS, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

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InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR000014 PAS
IPR035965 PAS-like_dom_sf
IPR013655 PAS_fold_3
IPR022728 Period_circadian-like_C

Pfam protein domain database

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Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF08447 PAS_3, 1 hit
PF12114 Period_C, 1 hit

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

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SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00091 PAS, 2 hits

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

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SUPFAMi
SSF55785 SSF55785, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

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PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS50112 PAS, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (4+)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 4 <p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket
Note: Additional isoforms seem to exist.

This entry has 4 described isoforms and 7 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Isoform Rigui 4.7 (identifier: O15534-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MSGPLEGADG GGDPRPGESF CPGGVPSPGP PQHRPCPGPS LADDTDANSN
60 70 80 90 100
GSSGNESNGH ESRGASQRSS HSSSSGNGKD SALLETTESS KSTNSQSPSP
110 120 130 140 150
PSSSIAYSLL SASSEQDNPS TSGCSSEQSA RARTQKELMT ALRELKLRLP
160 170 180 190 200
PERRGKGRSG TLATLQYALA CVKQVQANQE YYQQWSLEEG EPCSMDMSTY
210 220 230 240 250
TLEELEHITS EYTLQNQDTF SVAVSFLTGR IVYISEQAAV LLRCKRDVFR
260 270 280 290 300
GTRFSELLAP QDVGVFYGST APSRLPTWGT GASAGSGLRD FTQEKSVFCR
310 320 330 340 350
IRGGPDRDPG PRYQPFRLTP YVTKIRVSDG APAQPCCLLI AERIHSGYEA
360 370 380 390 400
PRIPPDKRIF TTRHTPSCLF QDVDERAAPL LGYLPQDLLG APVLLFLHPE
410 420 430 440 450
DRPLMLAIHK KILQLAGQPF DHSPIRFCAR NGEYVTMDTS WAGFVHPWSR
460 470 480 490 500
KVAFVLGRHK VRTAPLNEDV FTPPAPSPAP SLDTDIQELS EQIHRLLLQP
510 520 530 540 550
VHSPSPTGLC GVGAVTSPGP LHSPGSSSDS NGGDAEGPGP PAPVTFQQIC
560 570 580 590 600
KDVHLVKHQG QQLFIESRAR PQSRPRLPAT GTFKAKALPC QSPDPELEAG
610 620 630 640 650
SAPVQAPLAL VPEEAERKEA SSCSYQQINC LDSILRYLES CNLPSTTKRK
660 670 680 690 700
CASSSSYTTS SASDDDRQRT GPVSVGTKKD PPSAALSGEG ATPRKEPVVG
710 720 730 740 750
GTLSPLALAN KAESVVSVTS QCSFSSTIVH VGDKKPPESD IIMMEDLPGL
760 770 780 790 800
APGPAPSPAP SPTVAPDPAP DAYRPVGLTK AVLSLHTQKE EQAFLSRFRD
810 820 830 840 850
LGRLRGLDSS STAPSALGER GCHHGPAPPS RRHHCRSKAK RSRHHQNPRA
860 870 880 890 900
EAPCYVSHPS PVPPSTPWPT PPATTPFPAV VQPYPLPVFS PRGGPQPLPP
910 920 930 940 950
APTSVPPAAF PAPLVTPMVA LVLPNYLFPT PSSYPYGALQ TPAEGPPTPA
960 970 980 990 1000
SHSPSPSLPA LAPSPPHRPD SPLFNSRCSS PLQLNLLQLE ELPRAEGAAV
1010 1020 1030 1040 1050
AGGPGSSAGP PPPSAEAAEP EARLAEVTES SNQDALSGSS DLLELLLQED
1060 1070 1080 1090 1100
SRSGTGSAAS GSLGSGLGSG SGSGSHEGGS TSASITRSSQ SSHTSKYFGS
1110 1120 1130 1140 1150
IDSSEAEAGA ARGGAEPGDQ VIKYVLQDPI WLLMANADQR VMMTYQVPSR
1160 1170 1180 1190 1200
DMTSVLKQDR ERLRAMQKQQ PRFSEDQRRE LGAVHSWVRK GQLPRALDVM
1210 1220 1230 1240 1250
ACVDCGSSTQ DPGHPDDPLF SELDGLGLEP MEEGGGEQGS SGGGSGEGEG
1260 1270 1280 1290
CEEAQGGAKA SSSQDLAMEE EEEGRSSSSP ALPTAGNCTS
Length:1,290
Mass (Da):136,212
Last modified:December 16, 2008 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i60B844468EEF4D1B
GO
Isoform Rigui 3.0 (identifier: O15534-2)
Sequence is not available
Length:
Mass (Da):
Isoform Rigui 6.6 (identifier: O15534-3)
Also known as: Truncated
Sequence is not available
Length:
Mass (Da):
Isoform 2 (identifier: O15534-4) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-32: MSGPLEGADGGGDPRPGESFCPGGVPSPGPPQ → MLEVLEEIWSVRARRA
     822-875: CHHGPAPPSR...TPWPTPPATT → SHLGPPGACP...GTGPSLASPH
     876-1290: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:859
Mass (Da):91,644
Checksum:i08F94197E204DEE5
GO

<p>In eukaryotic reference proteomes, unreviewed entries that are likely to belong to the same gene are computationally mapped, based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.<p><a href='/help/gene_centric_isoform_mapping' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 7 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
J3KRL7J3KRL7_HUMAN
Period circadian protein homolog 1
PER1
1,267Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
J3QLQ5J3QLQ5_HUMAN
Period circadian protein homolog 1
PER1
112Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
J3KSL6J3KSL6_HUMAN
Period circadian protein homolog 1
PER1
117Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
J3QSH9J3QSH9_HUMAN
Period circadian protein homolog 1
PER1 hCG_31279
572Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
J3KTM2J3KTM2_HUMAN
Period circadian protein homolog 1
PER1
824Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
J3QL55J3QL55_HUMAN
Period circadian protein homolog 1
PER1
175Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
J3QL46J3QL46_HUMAN
Period circadian protein homolog 1
PER1
168Annotation score:

Annotation score:1 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

The sequence BAC06326 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally shortened.Curated

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes natural variant(s) of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/variant' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Natural variantiVAR_079176422H → Q Found in a patient with Moyamoya disease; unknown pathological significance. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1464745710Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_036038696E → Q in a breast cancer sample; somatic mutation. 1 Publication1
Natural variantiVAR_047899962A → P7 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs2585405Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_047900968R → H. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs3027193Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_036039985N → S in a breast cancer sample; somatic mutation. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1323588262Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_0360401060S → L in a colorectal cancer sample; somatic mutation. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs761958964Ensembl.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting. The information stored in this subsection is used to automatically construct alternative protein sequence(s) for display.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_0562051 – 32MSGPL…PGPPQ → MLEVLEEIWSVRARRA in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST32
Alternative sequenceiVSP_056206822 – 875CHHGP…PPATT → SHLGPPGACPLPSLGLDCWG VGLKGGVSAPGTQAGVASTT RPCLGTGPSLASPH in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST54
Alternative sequenceiVSP_056207876 – 1290Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST415

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF022991 mRNA Translation: AAC51765.1
AB002107 mRNA Translation: BAA22633.1
AF102137 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF15544.1
AB030817 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA94085.1
AB088477 mRNA Translation: BAC06326.2 Different initiation.
AK295410 mRNA Translation: BAG58361.1
AC129492 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471108 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW90090.1
CH471108 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW90091.1
BC137346 mRNA Translation: AAI37347.1

The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project

More...
CCDSi
CCDS11131.1 [O15534-1]

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
T00018

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_002607.2, NM_002616.2 [O15534-1]
XP_005256746.1, XM_005256689.1 [O15534-1]

UniGene gene-oriented nucleotide sequence clusters

More...
UniGenei
Hs.445534

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENST00000317276; ENSP00000314420; ENSG00000179094 [O15534-1]
ENST00000354903; ENSP00000346979; ENSG00000179094 [O15534-4]

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
5187

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
hsa:5187

UCSC genome browser

More...
UCSCi
uc002gkd.4 human [O15534-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF022991 mRNA Translation: AAC51765.1
AB002107 mRNA Translation: BAA22633.1
AF102137 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF15544.1
AB030817 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA94085.1
AB088477 mRNA Translation: BAC06326.2 Different initiation.
AK295410 mRNA Translation: BAG58361.1
AC129492 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471108 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW90090.1
CH471108 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW90091.1
BC137346 mRNA Translation: AAI37347.1
CCDSiCCDS11131.1 [O15534-1]
PIRiT00018
RefSeqiNP_002607.2, NM_002616.2 [O15534-1]
XP_005256746.1, XM_005256689.1 [O15534-1]
UniGeneiHs.445534

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1UL6model-A830-845[»]
ProteinModelPortaliO15534
SMRiO15534
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi111210, 46 interactors
ComplexPortaliCPX-3221 Cry2-Per1 complex
CPX-3222 Cry1-Per1 complex
DIPiDIP-56603N
IntActiO15534, 10 interactors
MINTiO15534
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000314420

PTM databases

iPTMnetiO15534
PhosphoSitePlusiO15534

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiPER1

Proteomic databases

EPDiO15534
PaxDbiO15534
PeptideAtlasiO15534
PRIDEiO15534
ProteomicsDBi48743

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000317276; ENSP00000314420; ENSG00000179094 [O15534-1]
ENST00000354903; ENSP00000346979; ENSG00000179094 [O15534-4]
GeneIDi5187
KEGGihsa:5187
UCSCiuc002gkd.4 human [O15534-1]

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
5187
DisGeNETi5187
EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000179094.13

GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases

More...
GeneCardsi
PER1

H-Invitational Database, human transcriptome db

More...
H-InvDBi
HIX0039072
HGNCiHGNC:8845 PER1
HPAiHPA047947
HPA067064
MIMi602260 gene
neXtProtiNX_O15534
OpenTargetsiENSG00000179094
PharmGKBiPA33184

Human Unidentified Gene-Encoded large proteins database

More...
HUGEi
Search...

GenAtlas: human gene database

More...
GenAtlasi
Search...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IMRF Eukaryota
ENOG410ZBUP LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00940000159217
HOGENOMiHOG000231111
HOVERGENiHBG008167
InParanoidiO15534
KOiK21944
OMAiRHHQTPR
OrthoDBiEOG091G00PA
PhylomeDBiO15534
TreeFamiTF318445

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-400253 Circadian Clock
SIGNORiO15534

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data

More...
ChiTaRSi
PER1 human

The Gene Wiki collection of pages on human genes and proteins

More...
GeneWikii
PER1

Database of phenotypes from RNA interference screens in Drosophila and Homo sapiens

More...
GenomeRNAii
5187

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:O15534

The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

More...
SOURCEi
Search...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000179094 Expressed in 224 organ(s), highest expression level in right adrenal gland
CleanExiHS_PER1
ExpressionAtlasiO15534 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiO15534 HS

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00130 PAS, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000014 PAS
IPR035965 PAS-like_dom_sf
IPR013655 PAS_fold_3
IPR022728 Period_circadian-like_C
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF08447 PAS_3, 1 hit
PF12114 Period_C, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00091 PAS, 2 hits
SUPFAMiSSF55785 SSF55785, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS50112 PAS, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiPER1_HUMAN
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O15534
Secondary accession number(s): B2RPA8, B4DI49, D3DTR3
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 15, 1999
Last sequence update: December 16, 2008
Last modified: December 5, 2018
This is version 179 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. Human chromosome 17
    Human chromosome 17: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  5. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
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