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Protein

Galectin-9

Gene

Lgals9

Organism
Mus musculus (Mouse)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Binds galactosides (By similarity). Has high affinity for the Forssman pentasaccharide (By similarity). Ligand for HAVCR2/TIM3 (By similarity). Binding to HAVCR2 induces T-helper type 1 lymphocyte (Th1) death (By similarity). Also stimulates bactericidal activity in infected macrophages by causing macrophage activation and IL1B secretion which restricts intracellular bacterial growth (PubMed:20937702). Ligand for P4HB; the interaction retains P4HB at the cell surface of Th2 T-helper cells, increasing disulfide reductase activity at the plasma membrane, altering the plasma membrane redox state and enhancing cell migration (PubMed:21670307). Ligand for CD44; the interaction enhances binding of SMAD3 to the FOXP3 promoter, leading to up-regulation of FOXP3 expression and increased induced regulatory T (iTreg) cell stability and suppressive function (PubMed:25065622). Promotes ability of mesenchymal stromal cells to suppress T-cell proliferation (By similarity). Expands regulatory T-cells and induces cytotoxic T-cell apoptosis following virus infection (By similarity). Activates ERK1/2 phosphorylation inducing cytokine (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12) and chemokine (CCL2) production in mast and dendritic cells (By similarity). Inhibits degranulation and induces apoptosis of mast cells (By similarity). Induces maturation and migration of dendritic cells (By similarity). Inhibits natural killer (NK) cell function (PubMed:23408620). Can transform NK cell phenotype from peripheral to decidual during pregnancy (By similarity). Astrocyte derived galectin-9 enhances microglial TNF production (PubMed:25158758). May play a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus. May provide the molecular basis for urate flux across cell membranes, allowing urate that is formed during purine metabolism to efflux from cells and serving as an electrogenic transporter that plays an important role in renal and gastrointestinal urate excretion (By similarity). Highly selective to the anion urate (By similarity).By similarity5 Publications
Isoform 2: Acts as an eosinophil chemoattractant (By similarity). It also inhibits angiogenesis (By similarity). Suppresses IFNG production by natural killer cells.By similarity1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Binding sitei47Beta-galactoside 11
Binding sitei60Beta-galactoside 11
Binding sitei64Beta-galactoside 11
Binding sitei74Beta-galactoside 11
Binding sitei265Beta-galactoside 2By similarity1
Binding sitei269Beta-galactoside 2By similarity1
Binding sitei279Beta-galactoside 2By similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

  • carbohydrate binding Source: UniProtKB
  • enzyme binding Source: UniProtKB
  • galactoside binding Source: UniProtKB
  • protein serine/threonine kinase activator activity Source: UniProtKB
  • signaling receptor binding Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Biological processChemotaxis, Immunity
LigandLectin

Protein family/group databases

UniLectiniO08573

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Galectin-9
Short name:
Gal-9
Gene namesi
Name:Lgals9
OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)
Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
Proteomesi
  • UP000000589 Componenti: Chromosome 11

Organism-specific databases

MGIiMGI:109496 Lgals9

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Increased natural killer (NK) cell activity with enhanced degranulation, higher expression of NK cell activating receptors, increased frequency of intermediate and mature NK cells, and greater production of interferon-gamma following murine cytomegalovirus infection (PubMed:23408620). Defective iTreg cell differentiation with impaired Foxp3 expression, reduced stability and suppressor function of iTreg cells and reduced frequency of iTreg cells but not natural regulatory T (nTreg) cells in lamina propria (PubMed:25065622).2 Publications

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000769471 – 353Galectin-9Add BLAST353

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiO08573
PaxDbiO08573
PRIDEiO08573

PTM databases

iPTMnetiO08573
PhosphoSitePlusiO08573
SwissPalmiO08573

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Accentuated expression in liver and thymus of embryo, detected in embryonic heart, brain, lung, liver, and kidney. Highly expressed in adult thymus, small intestine, and liver, and to a lesser extent in lung, kidney, spleen, cardiac, and skeletal muscle. Barely detectable in brain and reticulocyte. Expressed in placenta, uterus and decidua during pregnancy (PubMed:23242525). Expressed in CD4+ T-cells with higher levels in iTreg cells than other T-cell types and sustained high levels throughout iTreg cell differentiation (at protein level) (PubMed:25065622). Expressed in myeloid cells in lung (PubMed:20937702). Constitutively expressed in microglia (PubMed:25158758). Isoform 1 is expressed exclusively in the small intestine. Isoform 2 expression in decidua increases in pathological pregnancy from gestation day 7.5 to 13.5 and it is higher than in normal pregnancy (PubMed:23242525). Isoform 3 expression in decidua is higher in normal pregnancy than in pathological pregnancy (PubMed:23242525).4 Publications

Developmental stagei

The expression increases with successive stages of embryonic development.

Inductioni

By viral mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in microglia (PubMed:25158758). Up-regulated in macrophages following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PubMed:20937702).2 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSMUSG00000001123 Expressed in 217 organ(s), highest expression level in placenta
CleanExiMM_LGALS9
ExpressionAtlasiO08573 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiO08573 MM

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer.1 Publication

Binary interactionsi

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

IntActiO08573, 5 interactors
MINTiO08573
STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000103904

Structurei

Secondary structure

1353
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO08573
SMRiO08573
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiO08573

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini17 – 147Galectin 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST131
Domaini225 – 353Galectin 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST129

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni81 – 87Beta-galactoside binding 17
Regioni285 – 291Beta-galactoside binding 2By similarity7

Domaini

Contains two homologous but distinct carbohydrate-binding domains.

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3587 Eukaryota
ENOG4111EA0 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119105
HOGENOMiHOG000290194
HOVERGENiHBG002412
InParanoidiO08573
KOiK10093
OMAiDYEHRLP
PhylomeDBiO08573
TreeFamiTF315551

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00070 GLECT, 2 hits
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR013320 ConA-like_dom_sf
IPR001079 Galectin_CRD
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00337 Gal-bind_lectin, 2 hits
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00908 Gal-bind_lectin, 2 hits
SM00276 GLECT, 2 hits
SUPFAMiSSF49899 SSF49899, 2 hits
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51304 GALECTIN, 2 hits

Sequences (3+)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 3 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

This entry has 3 described isoforms and 2 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Isoform 1 (identifier: O08573-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: Long, FL1 Publication

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MALFSAQSPY INPIIPFTGP IQGGLQEGLQ VTLQGTTKSF AQRFVVNFQN
60 70 80 90 100
SFNGNDIAFH FNPRFEEGGY VVCNTKQNGQ WGPEERKMQM PFQKGMPFEL
110 120 130 140 150
CFLVQRSEFK VMVNKKFFVQ YQHRVPYHLV DTIAVSGCLK LSFITFQNSA
160 170 180 190 200
APVQHVFSTL QFSQPVQFPR TPKGRKQKTQ NFRPAHQAPM AQTTIHMVHS
210 220 230 240 250
TPGQMFSTPG IPPVVYPTPA YTIPFYTPIP NGLYPSKSIM ISGNVLPDAT
260 270 280 290 300
RFHINLRCGG DIAFHLNPRF NENAVVRNTQ INNSWGQEER SLLGRMPFSR
310 320 330 340 350
GQSFSVWIIC EGHCFKVAVN GQHMCEYYHR LKNLQDINTL EVAGDIQLTH

VQT
Length:353
Mass (Da):40,036
Last modified:July 1, 1997 - v1
Checksum:iB54036F6E280C531
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: O08573-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: Short, D51 Publication

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     148-178: Missing.

Show »
Length:322
Mass (Da):36,544
Checksum:iB4961AFB6F1FF13F
GO
Isoform 3 (identifier: O08573-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: D5/61 Publication

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     148-178: Missing.
     179-190: Missing.

Show »
Length:310
Mass (Da):35,164
Checksum:i0269E1592EB9B535
GO

Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 2 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
B1AQR8B1AQR8_MOUSE
Galectin
Lgals9
352Annotation score:
G3X9T7G3X9T7_MOUSE
Galectin
Lgals9 mCG_1597
353Annotation score:

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti181N → D in AAH03754 (PubMed:15489334).Curated1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_003097148 – 178Missing in isoform 2 and isoform 3. 1 Publication1 PublicationAdd BLAST31
Alternative sequenceiVSP_057844179 – 190Missing in isoform 3. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST12

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U55061 mRNA Translation: AAB51190.1
U55060 mRNA Translation: AAB51189.1
AK146044 mRNA Translation: BAE26856.1
AL592551, AL592185 Genomic DNA Translation: CAI24050.1
AL592185, AL592551 Genomic DNA Translation: CAI25276.1
CH466556 Genomic DNA Translation: EDL15600.1
BC003754 mRNA Translation: AAH03754.1
CCDSiCCDS25116.1 [O08573-1]
CCDS48858.1 [O08573-2]
RefSeqiNP_001152773.1, NM_001159301.1 [O08573-2]
NP_034838.2, NM_010708.2
UniGeneiMm.341434

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000108268; ENSMUSP00000103903; ENSMUSG00000001123 [O08573-2]
GeneIDi16859
KEGGimmu:16859
UCSCiuc007kke.2 mouse [O08573-2]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Similar proteinsi

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U55061 mRNA Translation: AAB51190.1
U55060 mRNA Translation: AAB51189.1
AK146044 mRNA Translation: BAE26856.1
AL592551, AL592185 Genomic DNA Translation: CAI24050.1
AL592185, AL592551 Genomic DNA Translation: CAI25276.1
CH466556 Genomic DNA Translation: EDL15600.1
BC003754 mRNA Translation: AAH03754.1
CCDSiCCDS25116.1 [O08573-1]
CCDS48858.1 [O08573-2]
RefSeqiNP_001152773.1, NM_001159301.1 [O08573-2]
NP_034838.2, NM_010708.2
UniGeneiMm.341434

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2D6KX-ray2.50A/B1-147[»]
2D6LX-ray2.50X1-147[»]
2D6MX-ray1.60A/B1-147[»]
2D6NX-ray2.00A/B1-147[»]
2D6OX-ray1.78X1-147[»]
2D6PX-ray2.70A/B1-147[»]
ProteinModelPortaliO08573
SMRiO08573
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

IntActiO08573, 5 interactors
MINTiO08573
STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000103904

Protein family/group databases

UniLectiniO08573

PTM databases

iPTMnetiO08573
PhosphoSitePlusiO08573
SwissPalmiO08573

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiO08573
PaxDbiO08573
PRIDEiO08573

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000108268; ENSMUSP00000103903; ENSMUSG00000001123 [O08573-2]
GeneIDi16859
KEGGimmu:16859
UCSCiuc007kke.2 mouse [O08573-2]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi3965
MGIiMGI:109496 Lgals9

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3587 Eukaryota
ENOG4111EA0 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119105
HOGENOMiHOG000290194
HOVERGENiHBG002412
InParanoidiO08573
KOiK10093
OMAiDYEHRLP
PhylomeDBiO08573
TreeFamiTF315551

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiLgals9 mouse
EvolutionaryTraceiO08573
PROiPR:O08573
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSMUSG00000001123 Expressed in 217 organ(s), highest expression level in placenta
CleanExiMM_LGALS9
ExpressionAtlasiO08573 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiO08573 MM

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00070 GLECT, 2 hits
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR013320 ConA-like_dom_sf
IPR001079 Galectin_CRD
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00337 Gal-bind_lectin, 2 hits
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00908 Gal-bind_lectin, 2 hits
SM00276 GLECT, 2 hits
SUPFAMiSSF49899 SSF49899, 2 hits
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51304 GALECTIN, 2 hits
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiLEG9_MOUSE
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O08573
Secondary accession number(s): O08572, Q3UKE5, Q99L83
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1997
Last sequence update: July 1, 1997
Last modified: November 7, 2018
This is version 157 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. MGD cross-references
    Mouse Genome Database (MGD) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  2. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
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Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

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