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Entry version 120 (07 Apr 2021)
Sequence version 2 (24 Mar 2009)
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Protein

Beta-galactosidase GanA

Gene

ganA

Organism
Bacillus subtilis (strain 168)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Involved in galactan degradation (PubMed:27501980).

Hydrolyzes galactooligosaccharides released by the endo-beta-1,4-galactanase GanB from galactan (PubMed:17056685, PubMed:27501980).

Degrades galactotetraose, galactotriose and galactobiose, generating galactose as the end product (PubMed:27501980).

It is unable to use lactose (PubMed:17056685).

In vitro, shows maximal activity with o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (PNPG) as substrates, trace activity with p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside and o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-fucopyranoside as substrates, but no activity with p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-mannopyranoside or p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside as substrates (PubMed:17056685).

2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Inhibited by zinc, cobalt and copper ions.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 6.0-6.5.1 Publication

Temperature dependencei

Optimum temperature is 50 degrees Celsius. Thermolabile above 50 degrees Celsius.1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei105SubstrateBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the 'Description' field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi109ZincBy similarity1
Binding sitei143SubstrateBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei144Proton donorSequence analysis1
Metal bindingi149ZincBy similarity1
Metal bindingi151ZincBy similarity1
Metal bindingi154ZincBy similarity1
Active sitei308NucleophileSequence analysis1
Binding sitei316SubstrateBy similarity1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionGlycosidase, Hydrolase
LigandMetal-binding, Zinc

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

More...
BioCyci
BSUB:BSU34130-MONOMER

Protein family/group databases

Carbohydrate-Active enZymes

More...
CAZyi
GH42, Glycoside Hydrolase Family 42

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Beta-galactosidase GanA (EC:3.2.1.232 Publications)
Short name:
Beta-gal
Alternative name(s):
Beta-1,4-galactooligomerase
Galactooligomerase
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:ganA1 Publication
Synonyms:galO1 Publication, lacA, yvfN
Ordered Locus Names:BSU34130
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiBacillus subtilis (strain 168)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri224308 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaFirmicutesBacilliBacillalesBacillaceaeBacillus
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000001570 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the in vivo effects caused by ablation of the gene (or one or more transcripts) coding for the protein described in the entry. This includes gene knockout and knockdown, provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell level.<p><a href='/help/disruption_phenotype' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disruption phenotypei

No chromogen 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal) hydrolyzation. Reduces beta-galactosidase activity observed with polygalacturonic acid, citrus and apple pectins, galactan and soy flour.1 Publication

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00003670261 – 672Beta-galactosidase GanAAdd BLAST672

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
O07012

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
O07012

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

Repressed by the transcriptional regulator GanR and induced by galactobiose. Also repressed by glucose.1 Publication

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homotrimer.

1 Publication

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
224308.BSU34130

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
O07012

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni356 – 359Substrate bindingBy similarity4

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 42 family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
COG1874, Bacteria

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
O07012

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
2.60.40.1180, 1 hit
3.40.50.880, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR013739, Beta_galactosidase_C
IPR013738, Beta_galactosidase_Trimer
IPR029062, Class_I_gatase-like
IPR003476, Glyco_hydro_42
IPR013529, Glyco_hydro_42_N
IPR013780, Glyco_hydro_b
IPR017853, Glycoside_hydrolase_SF

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR36447, PTHR36447, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF02449, Glyco_hydro_42, 1 hit
PF08533, Glyco_hydro_42C, 1 hit
PF08532, Glyco_hydro_42M, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

More...
PIRSFi
PIRSF001084, B-galactosidase, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF51445, SSF51445, 1 hit
SSF52317, SSF52317, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

O07012-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MLHGGDYNPD QWLDRPDILA DDIKLMKLSH TNTFSVGIFA WSALEPEEGV
60 70 80 90 100
YQFEWLDDIF ERIHSIGGRV ILATPSGARP AWLSQTYPEV LRVNASRVKQ
110 120 130 140 150
LHGGRHNHCL TSKVYREKTR HINRLLAERY GHHPALLMWH ISNEYGGDCH
160 170 180 190 200
CDLCQHAFRE WLKSKYDNSL KTLNHAWWTP FWSHTFNDWS QIESPSPIGE
210 220 230 240 250
NGLHGLNLDW RRFVTDQTIS FYENEIIPLK ELTPDIPITT NFMADTPDLI
260 270 280 290 300
PYQGLDYSKF AKHVDAISWD AYPVWHNDWE STADLAMKVG FINDLYRSLK
310 320 330 340 350
QQPFLLMECT PSAVNWHNVN KAKRPGMNLL SSMQMIAHGS DSVLYFQYRK
360 370 380 390 400
SRGSSEKLHG AVVDHDNSPK NRVFQEVAKV GETLERLSEV VGTKRPAQTA
410 420 430 440 450
ILYDWENHWA LEDAQGFAKA TKRYPQTLQQ HYRTFWEHDI PVDVITKEQD
460 470 480 490 500
FSPYKLLIVP MLYLISEDTV SRLKAFTADG GTLVMTYISG VVNEHDLTYT
510 520 530 540 550
GGWHPDLQAI FGVEPLETDT LYPKDRNAVS YRSQIYEMKD YATVIDVKTA
560 570 580 590 600
SVEAVYQEDF YARTPAVTSH EYQQGKAYFI GARLEDQFQR DFYEGLITDL
610 620 630 640 650
SLSPVFPVRH GKGVSVQARQ DQDNDYIFVM NFTEEKQLVT FDQSVKDIMT
660 670
GDILSGDLTM EKYEVRIVVN TH
Length:672
Mass (Da):77,499
Last modified:March 24, 2009 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i324242C5D45E35BD
GO

<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

The sequence CAB08008 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Extended N-terminus.Curated
The sequence CAB15418 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Extended N-terminus.Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
Z94043 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB08008.1 Different initiation.
AL009126 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB15418.1 Different initiation.

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
B69649

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_391293.1, NC_000964.3
WP_010886616.1, NZ_JNCM01000033.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblBacteriai
CAB15418; CAB15418; BSU_34130

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
936313

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
bsu:BSU34130

Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC)

More...
PATRICi
fig|224308.43.peg.3577

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
Z94043 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB08008.1 Different initiation.
AL009126 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB15418.1 Different initiation.
PIRiB69649
RefSeqiNP_391293.1, NC_000964.3
WP_010886616.1, NZ_JNCM01000033.1

3D structure databases

SMRiO07012
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi224308.BSU34130

Protein family/group databases

CAZyiGH42, Glycoside Hydrolase Family 42

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiO07012
PRIDEiO07012

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaiCAB15418; CAB15418; BSU_34130
GeneIDi936313
KEGGibsu:BSU34130
PATRICifig|224308.43.peg.3577

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG1874, Bacteria
InParanoidiO07012

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciBSUB:BSU34130-MONOMER

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.60.40.1180, 1 hit
3.40.50.880, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR013739, Beta_galactosidase_C
IPR013738, Beta_galactosidase_Trimer
IPR029062, Class_I_gatase-like
IPR003476, Glyco_hydro_42
IPR013529, Glyco_hydro_42_N
IPR013780, Glyco_hydro_b
IPR017853, Glycoside_hydrolase_SF
PANTHERiPTHR36447, PTHR36447, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF02449, Glyco_hydro_42, 1 hit
PF08533, Glyco_hydro_42C, 1 hit
PF08532, Glyco_hydro_42M, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF001084, B-galactosidase, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF51445, SSF51445, 1 hit
SSF52317, SSF52317, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiBGAL2_BACSU
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O07012
Secondary accession number(s): Q795J9
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 24, 2009
Last sequence update: March 24, 2009
Last modified: April 7, 2021
This is version 120 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Glycosyl hydrolases
    Classification of glycosyl hydrolase families and list of entries
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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