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Protein

Galectin-9

Gene

LGALS9

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Binds galactosides (PubMed:18005988). Has high affinity for the Forssman pentasaccharide (PubMed:18005988). Ligand for HAVCR2/TIM3 (PubMed:16286920). Binding to HAVCR2 induces T-helper type 1 lymphocyte (Th1) death (PubMed:16286920). Also stimulates bactericidal activity in infected macrophages by causing macrophage activation and IL1B secretion which restricts intracellular bacterial growth (By similarity). Ligand for P4HB; the interaction retains P4HB at the cell surface of Th2 T-helper cells, increasing disulfide reductase activity at the plasma membrane, altering the plasma membrane redox state and enhancing cell migration (PubMed:21670307). Ligand for CD44; the interaction enhances binding of SMAD3 to the FOXP3 promoter, leading to up-regulation of FOXP3 expression and increased induced regulatory T (iTreg) cell stability and suppressive function (By similarity). Promotes ability of mesenchymal stromal cells to suppress T-cell proliferation (PubMed:23817958). Expands regulatory T-cells and induces cytotoxic T-cell apoptosis following virus infection (PubMed:20209097). Activates ERK1/2 phosphorylation inducing cytokine (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12) and chemokine (CCL2) production in mast and dendritic cells (PubMed:24465902, PubMed:16116184). Inhibits degranulation and induces apoptosis of mast cells (PubMed:24465902). Induces maturation and migration of dendritic cells (PubMed:25754930, PubMed:16116184). Inhibits natural killer (NK) cell function (PubMed:23408620). Can transform NK cell phenotype from peripheral to decidual during pregnancy (PubMed:25578313). Astrocyte derived galectin-9 enhances microglial TNF production (By similarity). May play a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus. May provide the molecular basis for urate flux across cell membranes, allowing urate that is formed during purine metabolism to efflux from cells and serving as an electrogenic transporter that plays an important role in renal and gastrointestinal urate excretion (By similarity). Highly selective to the anion urate (By similarity).By similarity11 Publications
Isoform 2: Acts as an eosinophil chemoattractant (PubMed:9642261). It also inhibits angiogenesis (PubMed:24333696). Suppresses IFNG production by natural killer cells (By similarity).By similarity2 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Binding sitei48Beta-galactoside 11
Binding sitei61Beta-galactoside 11
Binding sitei65Beta-galactoside 11
Binding sitei75Beta-galactoside 11
Binding sitei267Beta-galactoside 21
Binding sitei271Beta-galactoside 21
Binding sitei281Beta-galactoside 2By similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

  • carbohydrate binding Source: UniProtKB
  • disaccharide binding Source: UniProtKB
  • enzyme binding Source: UniProtKB
  • galactose binding Source: ProtInc

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Biological processChemotaxis, Immunity
LigandLectin

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-451927 Interleukin-2 family signaling

Protein family/group databases

UniLectiniO00182

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Galectin-9
Short name:
Gal-9
Alternative name(s):
Ecalectin
Tumor antigen HOM-HD-21
Gene namesi
Name:LGALS9
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 17

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000168961.16
HGNCiHGNC:6570 LGALS9
MIMi601879 gene
neXtProtiNX_O00182

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi3965
OpenTargetsiENSG00000168961
PharmGKBiPA30347

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL5474
DrugBankiDB04472 (R)-1-Para-Nitro-Phenyl-2-Azido-Ethanol

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiLGALS9

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000769461 – 355Galectin-9Add BLAST355

Proteomic databases

EPDiO00182
MaxQBiO00182
PaxDbiO00182
PeptideAtlasiO00182
PRIDEiO00182
ProteomicsDBi47764
47765 [O00182-2]

PTM databases

iPTMnetiO00182
PhosphoSitePlusiO00182

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Peripheral blood leukocytes and lymphatic tissues. Expressed in lung, liver, breast and kidney with higher levels in tumor endothelial cells than normal endothelium (at protein level) (PubMed:24333696). Expressed in trophoblast cells in decidua and placenta in pregnancy (at protein level) (PubMed:23242525, PubMed:25578313). Isoform 2 is the most abundant isoform expressed in endothelial cells (PubMed:24333696). Upon endothelial cell activation isoform 2 expression decreases while expression of isoform 3 and isoform 5 increases (PubMed:24333696). Isoform 4 decreases in pathological pregnancy (PubMed:23242525).3 Publications

Inductioni

By toll-like receptor ligands zymosan (TLR2 ligand), polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) (TLR3 ligand) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (TLR4 ligand) and by proinflammatory cytokines IFNG, TNFA, IL1A and IL1B in mesenchymal stromal cells (PubMed:23817958). By IFNG in macrophages (PubMed:20209097). Up-regulated in dendritic cells following infection with dengue virus (PubMed:25754930). Up-regulated in Kupffer cells following infection with hepatitis C virus (PubMed:20209097). Up-regulated in plasma following infection with HIV-1 (PubMed:24786365).4 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000168961 Expressed in 201 organ(s), highest expression level in mucosa of transverse colon
CleanExiHS_LGALS9
ExpressionAtlasiO00182 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiO00182 HS

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA046876
HPA047218

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Monomer.2 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi110156, 79 interactors
IntActiO00182, 13 interactors
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000378856

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiO00182

Structurei

Secondary structure

1355
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO00182
SMRiO00182
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiO00182

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini17 – 148Galectin 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST132
Domaini227 – 355Galectin 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST129

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni82 – 88Beta-galactoside binding 17
Regioni287 – 293Beta-galactoside binding 2By similarity7

Domaini

Contains two homologous but distinct carbohydrate-binding domains.

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3587 Eukaryota
ENOG4111EA0 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119105
HOGENOMiHOG000290194
HOVERGENiHBG002412
InParanoidiO00182
KOiK10093
OMAiDYEHRLP
OrthoDBiEOG091G0WP8
PhylomeDBiO00182
TreeFamiTF315551

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00070 GLECT, 2 hits
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR013320 ConA-like_dom_sf
IPR001079 Galectin_CRD
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00337 Gal-bind_lectin, 2 hits
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00908 Gal-bind_lectin, 2 hits
SM00276 GLECT, 2 hits
SUPFAMiSSF49899 SSF49899, 2 hits
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51304 GALECTIN, 2 hits

Sequences (6+)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 6 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

This entry has 6 described isoforms and 5 potential isoforms that are computationally mapped.Show allAlign All

Isoform 1 (identifier: O00182-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: Long, Gal-9FL1 Publication

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MAFSGSQAPY LSPAVPFSGT IQGGLQDGLQ ITVNGTVLSS SGTRFAVNFQ
60 70 80 90 100
TGFSGNDIAF HFNPRFEDGG YVVCNTRQNG SWGPEERKTH MPFQKGMPFD
110 120 130 140 150
LCFLVQSSDF KVMVNGILFV QYFHRVPFHR VDTISVNGSV QLSYISFQNP
160 170 180 190 200
RTVPVQPAFS TVPFSQPVCF PPRPRGRRQK PPGVWPANPA PITQTVIHTV
210 220 230 240 250
QSAPGQMFST PAIPPMMYPH PAYPMPFITT ILGGLYPSKS ILLSGTVLPS
260 270 280 290 300
AQRFHINLCS GNHIAFHLNP RFDENAVVRN TQIDNSWGSE ERSLPRKMPF
310 320 330 340 350
VRGQSFSVWI LCEAHCLKVA VDGQHLFEYY HRLRNLPTIN RLEVGGDIQL

THVQT
Length:355
Mass (Da):39,518
Last modified:July 15, 1998 - v2
Checksum:i4748C22FCAFA536A
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: O00182-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: Medium, Gal-9delta51 Publication, D51 Publication

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     149-180: Missing.

Show »
Length:323
Mass (Da):35,888
Checksum:i1A3EB2941FC7F377
GO
Isoform 3 (identifier: O00182-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: Short, Gal-9delta5/61 Publication, D5/61 Publication

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     149-180: Missing.
     181-192: Missing.

Show »
Length:311
Mass (Da):34,691
Checksum:i3D00232FE39D776C
GO
Isoform 4 (identifier: O00182-4) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: Gal-9delta5/101 Publication, D5/101 Publication

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     149-180: Missing.
     254-355: FHINLCSGNH...GDIQLTHVQT → CGSCVKLTASRWPWMVSTCLNTTIA

Show »
Length:246
Mass (Da):26,777
Checksum:i414EB1F6493EE81E
GO
Isoform 5 (identifier: O00182-5) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: Gal-9delta5/6/101 Publication, D5/6/101 Publication

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     149-180: Missing.
     181-192: Missing.
     254-355: FHINLCSGNH...GDIQLTHVQT → CGSCVKLTASRWPWMVSTCLNTTIA

Show »
Length:234
Mass (Da):25,579
Checksum:i29B8BF54B3F32BC3
GO
Isoform 6 (identifier: O00182-6) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: D61 Publication

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     181-192: Missing.

Show »
Length:343
Mass (Da):38,321
Checksum:i79BEC0B506CFA9DF
GO

Computationally mapped potential isoform sequencesi

There are 5 potential isoforms mapped to this entry.BLASTAlignShow allAdd to basket
EntryEntry nameProtein names
Gene namesLengthAnnotation
J3KS82J3KS82_HUMAN
Galectin
LGALS9
175Annotation score:
J3QS92J3QS92_HUMAN
Galectin
LGALS9
125Annotation score:
K7EPS0K7EPS0_HUMAN
Galectin
LGALS9
115Annotation score:
J3KSA0J3KSA0_HUMAN
Galectin
LGALS9
137Annotation score:
J3QKK6J3QKK6_HUMAN
Galectin-9
LGALS9
75Annotation score:

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti48N → D in CAB93851 (Ref. 6) Curated1
Sequence conflicti79 – 81NGS → KGR in CAB93851 (Ref. 6) Curated3
Sequence conflicti88K → R in CAA88922 (PubMed:9045665).Curated1
Sequence conflicti89T → M in CAB93851 (Ref. 6) Curated1
Sequence conflicti93F → S in BAD96952 (Ref. 7) Curated1
Sequence conflicti135S → F in CAA88922 (PubMed:9045665).Curated1
Sequence conflicti270P → L in CAA88922 (PubMed:9045665).Curated1
Sequence conflicti313E → G in CAA88922 (PubMed:9045665).Curated1
Sequence conflicti326L → V in CAB93851 (Ref. 6) Curated1
Sequence conflicti341R → K in CAB93851 (Ref. 6) Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_0204535G → S2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs3751093Ensembl.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_003096149 – 180Missing in isoform 2, isoform 3, isoform 4 and isoform 5. 5 Publications1 PublicationAdd BLAST32
Alternative sequenceiVSP_057842181 – 192Missing in isoform 3, isoform 5 and isoform 6. 2 PublicationsAdd BLAST12
Alternative sequenceiVSP_057843254 – 355FHINL…THVQT → CGSCVKLTASRWPWMVSTCL NTTIA in isoform 4 and isoform 5. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST102

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
Z49107 mRNA Translation: CAA88922.1
AB006782 mRNA Translation: BAA22166.1
AB005894 mRNA Translation: BAA31542.1
AB003517 mRNA Translation: BAF76327.1
AB008492 mRNA Translation: BAF76328.1
AB040130 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB83623.1
AB040130 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB83625.1
AB040130 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB83624.1
AJ288083
, AJ288084, AJ288085, AJ288086, AJ288087, AJ288088, AJ288089, AJ288090 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB93851.1
AK223232 mRNA Translation: BAD96952.1
AC015688 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471159 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW51037.1
CH471159 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW51038.1
CH471159 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW51039.1
CH471159 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW51044.1
BC105942 mRNA Translation: AAI05943.1
BC105944 mRNA Translation: AAI05945.1
BC110340 mRNA Translation: AAI10341.1
CCDSiCCDS11222.1 [O00182-1]
CCDS32592.1 [O00182-2]
CCDS82093.1 [O00182-4]
RefSeqiNP_001317092.1, NM_001330163.1 [O00182-4]
NP_002299.2, NM_002308.3 [O00182-2]
NP_033665.1, NM_009587.2 [O00182-1]
XP_006721955.1, XM_006721892.2 [O00182-3]
XP_006721958.1, XM_006721895.3 [O00182-5]
XP_016880112.1, XM_017024623.1 [O00182-6]
UniGeneiHs.81337

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000302228; ENSP00000306228; ENSG00000168961 [O00182-2]
ENST00000313648; ENSP00000318214; ENSG00000168961 [O00182-4]
ENST00000395473; ENSP00000378856; ENSG00000168961 [O00182-1]
GeneIDi3965
KEGGihsa:3965
UCSCiuc002gzp.4 human [O00182-1]
uc060cvd.1 human

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Similar proteinsi

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Functional Glycomics Gateway - Glycan Binding

Galectin-9

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
Z49107 mRNA Translation: CAA88922.1
AB006782 mRNA Translation: BAA22166.1
AB005894 mRNA Translation: BAA31542.1
AB003517 mRNA Translation: BAF76327.1
AB008492 mRNA Translation: BAF76328.1
AB040130 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB83623.1
AB040130 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB83625.1
AB040130 Genomic DNA Translation: BAB83624.1
AJ288083
, AJ288084, AJ288085, AJ288086, AJ288087, AJ288088, AJ288089, AJ288090 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB93851.1
AK223232 mRNA Translation: BAD96952.1
AC015688 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471159 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW51037.1
CH471159 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW51038.1
CH471159 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW51039.1
CH471159 Genomic DNA Translation: EAW51044.1
BC105942 mRNA Translation: AAI05943.1
BC105944 mRNA Translation: AAI05945.1
BC110340 mRNA Translation: AAI10341.1
CCDSiCCDS11222.1 [O00182-1]
CCDS32592.1 [O00182-2]
CCDS82093.1 [O00182-4]
RefSeqiNP_001317092.1, NM_001330163.1 [O00182-4]
NP_002299.2, NM_002308.3 [O00182-2]
NP_033665.1, NM_009587.2 [O00182-1]
XP_006721955.1, XM_006721892.2 [O00182-3]
XP_006721958.1, XM_006721895.3 [O00182-5]
XP_016880112.1, XM_017024623.1 [O00182-6]
UniGeneiHs.81337

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2EAKX-ray1.97A/B/C1-148[»]
2EALX-ray1.85A/B1-148[»]
2YY1X-ray2.17A1-147[»]
2ZHKX-ray1.80A/B1-148[»]
2ZHLX-ray1.75A/B/C/D1-148[»]
2ZHMX-ray1.84A/B/C/D1-148[»]
2ZHNX-ray1.30A1-148[»]
3LSDX-ray2.03A6-148[»]
3LSEX-ray2.69A6-148[»]
3NV1X-ray1.50A218-355[»]
3NV2X-ray2.34A218-355[»]
3NV3X-ray1.57A218-355[»]
3NV4X-ray1.99A218-355[»]
3WLUX-ray1.40A/B/C/D5-148[»]
3WV6X-ray1.95A/B1-355[»]
ProteinModelPortaliO00182
SMRiO00182
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi110156, 79 interactors
IntActiO00182, 13 interactors
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000378856

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiO00182
ChEMBLiCHEMBL5474
DrugBankiDB04472 (R)-1-Para-Nitro-Phenyl-2-Azido-Ethanol

Protein family/group databases

UniLectiniO00182

PTM databases

iPTMnetiO00182
PhosphoSitePlusiO00182

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiLGALS9

Proteomic databases

EPDiO00182
MaxQBiO00182
PaxDbiO00182
PeptideAtlasiO00182
PRIDEiO00182
ProteomicsDBi47764
47765 [O00182-2]

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000302228; ENSP00000306228; ENSG00000168961 [O00182-2]
ENST00000313648; ENSP00000318214; ENSG00000168961 [O00182-4]
ENST00000395473; ENSP00000378856; ENSG00000168961 [O00182-1]
GeneIDi3965
KEGGihsa:3965
UCSCiuc002gzp.4 human [O00182-1]
uc060cvd.1 human

Organism-specific databases

CTDi3965
DisGeNETi3965
EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000168961.16
GeneCardsiLGALS9
HGNCiHGNC:6570 LGALS9
HPAiHPA046876
HPA047218
MIMi601879 gene
neXtProtiNX_O00182
OpenTargetsiENSG00000168961
PharmGKBiPA30347
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3587 Eukaryota
ENOG4111EA0 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119105
HOGENOMiHOG000290194
HOVERGENiHBG002412
InParanoidiO00182
KOiK10093
OMAiDYEHRLP
OrthoDBiEOG091G0WP8
PhylomeDBiO00182
TreeFamiTF315551

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-451927 Interleukin-2 family signaling

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiLGALS9 human
EvolutionaryTraceiO00182
GeneWikiiLGALS9
GenomeRNAii3965
PROiPR:O00182
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000168961 Expressed in 201 organ(s), highest expression level in mucosa of transverse colon
CleanExiHS_LGALS9
ExpressionAtlasiO00182 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiO00182 HS

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00070 GLECT, 2 hits
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR013320 ConA-like_dom_sf
IPR001079 Galectin_CRD
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00337 Gal-bind_lectin, 2 hits
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00908 Gal-bind_lectin, 2 hits
SM00276 GLECT, 2 hits
SUPFAMiSSF49899 SSF49899, 2 hits
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51304 GALECTIN, 2 hits
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiLEG9_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O00182
Secondary accession number(s): A7VJG6
, F8W9W4, O14532, O75028, Q3B8N1, Q53FQ0, Q8WYQ7, Q9NQ58
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1997
Last sequence update: July 15, 1998
Last modified: November 7, 2018
This is version 177 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  2. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  3. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  4. Human chromosome 17
    Human chromosome 17: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  5. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

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