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Entry version 27 (12 Aug 2020)
Sequence version 1 (01 May 2013)
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Protein

Averantin hydroxylase

Gene

avnA

Organism
Dothistroma septosporum (strain NZE10 / CBS 128990) (Red band needle blight fungus) (Mycosphaerella pini)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:4 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Averantin hydroxylase; part of the fragmented gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of dothistromin (DOTH), a polyketide toxin very similar in structure to the aflatoxin precursor, versicolorin B (PubMed:12039746, PubMed:17683963, PubMed:22069571, PubMed:23207690, PubMed:23448391).

The first step of the pathway is the conversion of acetate to norsolorinic acid (NOR) and requires the fatty acid synthase subunits hexA and hexB, as well as the polyketide synthase pksA (PubMed:16649078, PubMed:23207690).

PksA combines a hexanoyl starter unit and 7 malonyl-CoA extender units to synthesize the precursor NOR (By similarity).

The hexanoyl starter unit is provided to the acyl-carrier protein (ACP) domain by the fungal fatty acid synthase hexA/hexB (By similarity).

The second step is the conversion of NOR to averantin (AVN) and requires the norsolorinic acid ketoreductase nor1, which catalyzes the dehydration of norsolorinic acid to form (1'S)-averantin (PubMed:23207690).

The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase avnA then catalyzes the hydroxylation of AVN to 5'hydroxyaverantin (HAVN) (PubMed:23207690).

The next step is performed by adhA that transforms HAVN to averufin (AVF) (PubMed:23207690).

Averufin might then be converted to hydroxyversicolorone by cypX and avfA (PubMed:23207690).

Hydroxyversicolorone is further converted versiconal hemiacetal acetate (VHA) by moxY (PubMed:23207690).

VHA is then the substrate for the versiconal hemiacetal acetate esterase est1 to yield versiconal (VAL) (PubMed:23207690).

Versicolorin B synthase vbsA then converts VAL to versicolorin B (VERB) by closing the bisfuran ring (PubMed:16649078, PubMed:23207690).

Then, the activity of the versicolorin B desaturase verB leads to versicolorin A (VERA) (PubMed:23207690).

DotB, a predicted chloroperoxidase, may perform epoxidation of the A-ring of VERA (PubMed:23207690).

Alternatively, a cytochrome P450, such as cypX or avnA could catalyze this step (PubMed:23207690).

It is also possible that another, uncharacterized, cytochrome P450 enzyme is responsible for this step (PubMed:23207690).

Opening of the epoxide could potentially be achieved by the epoxide hydrolase epoA (PubMed:23207690).

However, epoA seems not to be required for DOTH biosynthesis, but other epoxide hydrolases may have the ability to complement this hydrolysis (PubMed:23207690).

Alternatively, opening of the epoxide ring could be achieved non-enzymatically (PubMed:23207690).

The next step is the deoxygenation of ring A to yield the 5,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone which is most likely catalyzed by the NADPH dehydrogenase encoded by ver1 (PubMed:23207690).

The last stages of DOTH biosynthesis are proposed to involve hydroxylation of the bisfuran (PubMed:23207690).

OrdB and norB might have oxidative roles here (PubMed:23207690).

An alternative possibility is that cytochrome P450 monoogenases such as avnA and cypX might perform these steps in addition to previously proposed steps (PubMed:23207690).

1 PublicationBy similarity3 Publications2 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

hemeBy similarity

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: Mycotoxin biosynthesis

This protein is involved in Mycotoxin biosynthesis.1 Publication1 Publication
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in Mycotoxin biosynthesis.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the 'Description' field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi462Iron (heme axial ligand)By similarity1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionMonooxygenase, Oxidoreductase
LigandHeme, Iron, Metal-binding

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Averantin hydroxylaseBy similarity (EC:1.14.14.116By similarity)
Alternative name(s):
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase avnACurated
Dothistromin biosynthesis protein avnA1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:avnA1 Publication
ORF Names:DOTSEDRAFT_57312
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiDothistroma septosporum (strain NZE10 / CBS 128990) (Red band needle blight fungus) (Mycosphaerella pini)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri675120 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaPezizomycotinaDothideomycetesDothideomycetidaeMycosphaerellalesMycosphaerellaceaeDothistroma
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000016933 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unassembled WGS sequence

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular%5Flocation%5Fsection">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the extent of a membrane-spanning region of the protein. It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel transmembrane proteins.<p><a href='/help/transmem' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Transmembranei36 – 56HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Membrane

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004434621 – 525Averantin hydroxylaseAdd BLAST525

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM / Processing</a> section specifies the position and type of each covalently attached glycan group (mono-, di-, or polysaccharide).<p><a href='/help/carbohyd' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Glycosylationi315N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparaginePROSITE-ProRule annotation1

Keywords - PTMi

Glycoprotein

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

Expression is positively regulated by the dothistromin-specific transcription factor aflR (PubMed:23207690).1 Publication

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the cytochrome P450 family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG0158, Eukaryota

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_001570_14_11_1

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
PAKPFIR

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
1247045at2759

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
1.10.630.10, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR001128, Cyt_P450
IPR017972, Cyt_P450_CS
IPR002401, Cyt_P450_E_grp-I
IPR036396, Cyt_P450_sf

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00067, p450, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00463, EP450I
PR00385, P450

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF48264, SSF48264, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00086, CYTOCHROME_P450, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

M2YJD1-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MAPSSAQGLE LLHGYLNLFT PRTGDVSFMR LVSGYVLATF VAGIGALLLW
60 70 80 90 100
TLTTVFYRLY LHPLRRYPGP KLWAISRLPY IRSTVKGTIV HDFHRLHKQY
110 120 130 140 150
GSVVRIAPDE LSYSTPEATK VIYQSSPELH KDPMHLPPFH NGTPGILAAE
160 170 180 190 200
EQHHRRYRRL LAYGFSDRGM RAQQPLIQRH IDLLVKRLSE NSGKGSLDIV
210 220 230 240 250
EWYNWCTFDI IGDLAFGESF GCLEESKTHE WIASIAGNVK AIPIINAIRR
260 270 280 290 300
FKLDWVIPLI APKKLLKMRQ RNAQFTENKV DQRLSHGADR GDLWDGVMDP
310 320 330 340 350
KGTKGGMSRQ EMISNGSAIV LAGSETSSTL LSGCTWLLLQ NPDVLAKLKE
360 370 380 390 400
HVRGSFTDQS EIDLISVGKL DYMAAVLDEA LRLYPPVPMQ SNRIVNPGGA
410 420 430 440 450
DIAGQYVPAG TTVAVQQYAA CRSSDNFRRP DEFLPQRWLE DPEFANDRRA
460 470 480 490 500
TSQPFSVGPR NCIGRQLAHA EMRLILAKIL WHFDLELDAP KMGPRDWLSE
510 520
QGVWILWDKS PLWVRLMPRT LEKSG
Length:525
Mass (Da):59,271
Last modified:May 1, 2013 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i8BF5FDAE60327BA3
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
KB446546 Genomic DNA Translation: EME39031.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl fungal genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblFungii
EME39031; EME39031; DOTSEDRAFT_57312

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
KB446546 Genomic DNA Translation: EME39031.1

3D structure databases

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

SWISS-MODEL Interactive Workspace

More...
SWISS-MODEL-Workspacei
Submit a new modelling project...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblFungiiEME39031; EME39031; DOTSEDRAFT_57312

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0158, Eukaryota
HOGENOMiCLU_001570_14_11_1
OMAiPAKPFIR
OrthoDBi1247045at2759

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.630.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR001128, Cyt_P450
IPR017972, Cyt_P450_CS
IPR002401, Cyt_P450_E_grp-I
IPR036396, Cyt_P450_sf
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00067, p450, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00463, EP450I
PR00385, P450
SUPFAMiSSF48264, SSF48264, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00086, CYTOCHROME_P450, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiAVNA_DOTSN
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: M2YJD1
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 28, 2018
Last sequence update: May 1, 2013
Last modified: August 12, 2020
This is version 27 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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