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Entry version 35 (12 Aug 2020)
Sequence version 2 (13 Jun 2012)
Previous versions | rss
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Protein

CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9

Gene

cas9

Organism
Streptococcus thermophilus
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) is an adaptive immune system that provides protection against mobile genetic elements (viruses, transposable elements and conjugative plasmids). CRISPR clusters contain spacers, sequences complementary to antecedent mobile elements, and target invading nucleic acids. CRISPR clusters are transcribed and processed into CRISPR RNA (crRNA). In type II CRISPR systems correct processing of pre-crRNA requires a trans-encoded small RNA (tracrRNA), endogenous ribonuclease 3 (rnc) and Cas9. The tracrRNA serves as a guide for ribonuclease 3-aided processing of pre-crRNA (Probable). Cas9/crRNA/tracrRNA endonucleolytically cleaves linear or circular dsDNA target complementary to the spacer yielding blunt ends; Cas9 is inactive in the absence of the 2 guide RNAs (gRNA). Cas9 recognizes a 3'-G-rich protospacer adjacent motif (PAM, TGGTG in this organism) in the CRISPR repeat sequences to help distinguish self versus nonself, as targets within the bacterial CRISPR locus do not have PAMs. PAM recognition is also required for catalytic activity. When the CRISPR3/cas system consisting of cas9-cas1-cas2-csn2-CRISPR3 or just cas9-CRISPR3 is expressed in E.coli it prevents plasmids homologous to spacers 1 or 2 from transforming.Curated3 Publications

Miscellaneous

This strain encodes 4 CRISPR-Cas systems; this is CRISPR3.

Caution

It is uncertain whether Met-1 or Met-22 is the initiator.Curated

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

Mg2+1 PublicationNote: Endonuclease activity on target DNA requires Mg2+.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Only has nuclease activity when bound to both gRNAs (crRNA plus tracrRNA).1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei31For RuvC-like nuclease domainUniRule annotation1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the 'Description' field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi31Magnesium 1UniRule annotation1
Metal bindingi31Magnesium 2UniRule annotation1
Metal bindingi784Magnesium 1UniRule annotation1
Metal bindingi788Magnesium 1UniRule annotation1
Metal bindingi788Magnesium 2UniRule annotation1
Active sitei868Proton acceptor for HNH nuclease domainUniRule annotation1
Metal bindingi1011Magnesium 2; via pros nitrogenUniRule annotation1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionDNA-binding, Endonuclease, Hydrolase, Nuclease, RNA-binding
Biological processAntiviral defense
LigandMagnesium, Manganese, Metal-binding

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9UniRule annotation (EC:3.1.-.-UniRule annotation)
Alternative name(s):
St-Cas9
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:cas9UniRule annotation
Synonyms:csn1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiStreptococcus thermophilus
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri1308 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaFirmicutesBacilliLactobacillalesStreptococcaceaeStreptococcus

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the use of a specific protein in the biotechnological industry.<p><a href='/help/biotechnological_use' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Biotechnological usei

The simplicity of the Cas9-gRNAs RNA-directed DNA endonuclease activity may be used to target and modify a DNA sequence of interest.

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the in vivo effects caused by ablation of the gene (or one or more transcripts) coding for the protein described in the entry. This includes gene knockout and knockdown, provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell level.<p><a href='/help/disruption_phenotype' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disruption phenotypei

Plasmid transformation is restored.1 Publication

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology%5Fand%5Fbiotech%5Fsection">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi31D → A: No longer prevents plasmid transformation. Target DNA noncomplementary to the crRNA is not cleaved. 2 Publications1
Mutagenesisi868H → A: No longer prevents plasmid transformation. Target DNA complementary to the crRNA is not cleaved. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi882N → A: No longer prevents plasmid transformation. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi891N → A: No longer prevents plasmid transformation. 2 Publications1

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004178791 – 1409CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9Add BLAST1409

Proteomic databases

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
G3ECR1

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Monomer (Probable). Binds crRNA and tracrRNA.

UniRule annotationCurated1 Publication

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
322159.STER_1477

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
G3ECR1

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/family%5Fand%5Fdomains%5Fsection">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini792 – 949HNH Cas9-typePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST158

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides general information on the biological role of a domain. The term 'domain' is intended here in its wide acceptation, it may be a structural domain, a transmembrane region or a functional domain. Several domains are described in this subsection.<p><a href='/help/domain_cc' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini

Has 2 endonuclease domains. The discontinuous RuvC-like domain cleaves the target DNA noncomplementary to crRNA while the HNH nuclease domain cleaves the target DNA complementary to crRNA.UniRule annotation

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
COG3513, Bacteria

Family and domain databases

HAMAP database of protein families

More...
HAMAPi
MF_01480, Cas9, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR028629, Cas9
IPR032239, Cas9-BH
IPR032237, Cas9_PI
IPR032240, Cas9_REC
IPR033114, HNH_CAS9
IPR003615, HNH_nuc

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF16593, Cas9-BH, 1 hit
PF16595, Cas9_PI, 1 hit
PF16592, Cas9_REC, 1 hit
PF13395, HNH_4, 1 hit

TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

More...
TIGRFAMsi
TIGR01865, cas_Csn1, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS51749, HNH_CAS9, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

G3ECR1-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MLFNKCIIIS INLDFSNKEK CMTKPYSIGL DIGTNSVGWA VITDNYKVPS
60 70 80 90 100
KKMKVLGNTS KKYIKKNLLG VLLFDSGITA EGRRLKRTAR RRYTRRRNRI
110 120 130 140 150
LYLQEIFSTE MATLDDAFFQ RLDDSFLVPD DKRDSKYPIF GNLVEEKVYH
160 170 180 190 200
DEFPTIYHLR KYLADSTKKA DLRLVYLALA HMIKYRGHFL IEGEFNSKNN
210 220 230 240 250
DIQKNFQDFL DTYNAIFESD LSLENSKQLE EIVKDKISKL EKKDRILKLF
260 270 280 290 300
PGEKNSGIFS EFLKLIVGNQ ADFRKCFNLD EKASLHFSKE SYDEDLETLL
310 320 330 340 350
GYIGDDYSDV FLKAKKLYDA ILLSGFLTVT DNETEAPLSS AMIKRYNEHK
360 370 380 390 400
EDLALLKEYI RNISLKTYNE VFKDDTKNGY AGYIDGKTNQ EDFYVYLKNL
410 420 430 440 450
LAEFEGADYF LEKIDREDFL RKQRTFDNGS IPYQIHLQEM RAILDKQAKF
460 470 480 490 500
YPFLAKNKER IEKILTFRIP YYVGPLARGN SDFAWSIRKR NEKITPWNFE
510 520 530 540 550
DVIDKESSAE AFINRMTSFD LYLPEEKVLP KHSLLYETFN VYNELTKVRF
560 570 580 590 600
IAESMRDYQF LDSKQKKDIV RLYFKDKRKV TDKDIIEYLH AIYGYDGIEL
610 620 630 640 650
KGIEKQFNSS LSTYHDLLNI INDKEFLDDS SNEAIIEEII HTLTIFEDRE
660 670 680 690 700
MIKQRLSKFE NIFDKSVLKK LSRRHYTGWG KLSAKLINGI RDEKSGNTIL
710 720 730 740 750
DYLIDDGISN RNFMQLIHDD ALSFKKKIQK AQIIGDEDKG NIKEVVKSLP
760 770 780 790 800
GSPAIKKGIL QSIKIVDELV KVMGGRKPES IVVEMARENQ YTNQGKSNSQ
810 820 830 840 850
QRLKRLEKSL KELGSKILKE NIPAKLSKID NNALQNDRLY LYYLQNGKDM
860 870 880 890 900
YTGDDLDIDR LSNYDIDHII PQAFLKDNSI DNKVLVSSAS NRGKSDDFPS
910 920 930 940 950
LEVVKKRKTF WYQLLKSKLI SQRKFDNLTK AERGGLLPED KAGFIQRQLV
960 970 980 990 1000
ETRQITKHVA RLLDEKFNNK KDENNRAVRT VKIITLKSTL VSQFRKDFEL
1010 1020 1030 1040 1050
YKVREINDFH HAHDAYLNAV IASALLKKYP KLEPEFVYGD YPKYNSFRER
1060 1070 1080 1090 1100
KSATEKVYFY SNIMNIFKKS ISLADGRVIE RPLIEVNEET GESVWNKESD
1110 1120 1130 1140 1150
LATVRRVLSY PQVNVVKKVE EQNHGLDRGK PKGLFNANLS SKPKPNSNEN
1160 1170 1180 1190 1200
LVGAKEYLDP KKYGGYAGIS NSFAVLVKGT IEKGAKKKIT NVLEFQGISI
1210 1220 1230 1240 1250
LDRINYRKDK LNFLLEKGYK DIELIIELPK YSLFELSDGS RRMLASILST
1260 1270 1280 1290 1300
NNKRGEIHKG NQIFLSQKFV KLLYHAKRIS NTINENHRKY VENHKKEFEE
1310 1320 1330 1340 1350
LFYYILEFNE NYVGAKKNGK LLNSAFQSWQ NHSIDELCSS FIGPTGSERK
1360 1370 1380 1390 1400
GLFELTSRGS AADFEFLGVK IPRYRDYTPS SLLKDATLIH QSVTGLYETR

IDLAKLGEG
Length:1,409
Mass (Da):163,571
Last modified:June 13, 2012 - v2
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i6A511E727C853AA6
GO

<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

The sequence AEM62887 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Truncated N-terminus.Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
HQ712120 Genomic DNA Translation: AEM62887.1 Different initiation.

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
WP_024703962.1, NZ_WMLD01000001.1

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
HQ712120 Genomic DNA Translation: AEM62887.1 Different initiation.
RefSeqiWP_024703962.1, NZ_WMLD01000001.1

3D structure databases

SMRiG3ECR1
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi322159.STER_1477

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiG3ECR1

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG3513, Bacteria

Family and domain databases

HAMAPiMF_01480, Cas9, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR028629, Cas9
IPR032239, Cas9-BH
IPR032237, Cas9_PI
IPR032240, Cas9_REC
IPR033114, HNH_CAS9
IPR003615, HNH_nuc
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF16593, Cas9-BH, 1 hit
PF16595, Cas9_PI, 1 hit
PF16592, Cas9_REC, 1 hit
PF13395, HNH_4, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01865, cas_Csn1, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51749, HNH_CAS9, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiCAS9_STRTR
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: G3ECR1
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: June 13, 2012
Last sequence update: June 13, 2012
Last modified: August 12, 2020
This is version 35 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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