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Entry version 63 (12 Aug 2020)
Sequence version 1 (05 Apr 2011)
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Protein

Hydroxynaphthalene reductase arp2

Gene

arp2

Organism
Neosartorya fumigata (strain ATCC MYA-4609 / Af293 / CBS 101355 / FGSC A1100) (Aspergillus fumigatus)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:4 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Protein inferred from homologyi <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Hydroxynaphthalene reductase; part of the gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin, a bluish-green pigment and a structural component of the conidial wall (PubMed:10515939, PubMed:19156203). The first step of the pathway is the production of the heptaketide naphtopyrone YWA1 by the polyketide synthase alb1 though condensation of acetyl-CoA with malonyl-CoA (PubMed:10515939). The naphtopyrone YWA1 is then converted to the pentaketide 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene (1,3,6,8-THN) by the heptaketide hydrolyase ayg1 though chain-length shortening (PubMed:10515939). 1,3,6,8-THN is substrate of the hydroxynaphthalene reductase arp2 to yield scytalone (PubMed:10515939). The scytalone dehydratase arp1 then reduces scytalone to 1,3,8-THN (PubMed:10515939). 1,3,8-THN is also substrate of the hydroxynaphthalene reductase arp2 to yield vermelone (PubMed:10515939). Vermelone is further converted by the multicopper oxidase abr1 to 1,8-DHN (PubMed:10515939). Finally the laccase abr2 transforms 1,8-DHN to DHN-melanin (PubMed:10515939). DHN-melanin biosynthesis appears to be initiated in endosomes where early enzymes (abl1, ayg1, arp1 and arp2) localize, with exocytosis leading to melanin deposition on the cell surface where late enzymes (abr1 and abr2) localize (PubMed:26972005). DHN-melanin is an important structural component of the outer cell wall and is required for the presence of conidial surface hydrophobins (PubMed:19703288). DHN-melanin plays also a crucial role in fungal virulence, including a protective role against the host's immune defenses (PubMed:19156203, PubMed:20145078, PubMed:21747802, PubMed:21573171, PubMed:24818666). DHN-melanin protects also conidia against amoeba predation (PubMed:25684622).9 Publications

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Tricyclazole and pyroquilon inhibit arp2 hydroxynaphtalene reductase activity (PubMed:19703288).1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: melanin biosynthesis

This protein is involved in the pathway melanin biosynthesis, which is part of Pigment biosynthesis.3 Publications
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway melanin biosynthesis and in Pigment biosynthesis.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei70NADPBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei160Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Binding sitei164NADPBy similarity1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi17 – 46NADPBy similarityAdd BLAST30

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

  • tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase activity Source: AspGD

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionOxidoreductase
LigandNADP

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

More...
UniPathwayi
UPA00785

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Hydroxynaphthalene reductase arp21 Publication (EC:1.1.-.-1 Publication)
Alternative name(s):
Conidial pigment biosynthesis oxidase arp2Curated
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:arp21 Publication
ORF Names:AFUA_2G17560
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiNeosartorya fumigata (strain ATCC MYA-4609 / Af293 / CBS 101355 / FGSC A1100) (Aspergillus fumigatus)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri330879 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaPezizomycotinaEurotiomycetesEurotiomycetidaeEurotialesAspergillaceaeAspergillusAspergillus subgen. Fumigati
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000002530 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componentsi: Chromosome 2, Unassembled WGS sequence

Organism-specific databases

Eukaryotic Pathogen Database Resources

More...
EuPathDBi
FungiDB:Afu2g17560

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cell wall Cytoskeleton Vacuole Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Endosome

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the in vivo effects caused by ablation of the gene (or one or more transcripts) coding for the protein described in the entry. This includes gene knockout and knockdown, provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell level.<p><a href='/help/disruption_phenotype' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disruption phenotypei

Results in brownish conidial phenotype (PubMed:19703288, PubMed:26972005). Results in an altered conidial surface with masked surface rodlet layer, leaky cell wall allowing the deposition of proteins on the cell surface and exposing the otherwise-masked cell wall polysaccharides at the surface (PubMed:24818666).3 Publications

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004368761 – 273Hydroxynaphthalene reductase arp2Add BLAST273

Proteomic databases

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
E9QUT3

PTM databases

SwissPalm database of S-palmitoylation events

More...
SwissPalmi
E9QUT3

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
746128.CADAFUBP00003259

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
E9QUT3

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
KOG0725, Eukaryota

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_010194_1_3_1

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
E9QUT3

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K00059

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

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OMAi
NAWHYIP

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
913128at2759

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR036291, NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf
IPR020904, Sc_DH/Rdtase_CS
IPR002347, SDR_fam

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00081, GDHRDH
PR00080, SDRFAMILY

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF51735, SSF51735, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00061, ADH_SHORT, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

E9QUT3-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MVNTCTYLPL SGKVALVTGG GRGIGAGIAL ELARRGASVA INYGHSAKSA
60 70 80 90 100
QEVVEAIQAI GRQAVAIQAD LTCVPNIESL IQEVVRHFGR LDIVVSNSGM
110 120 130 140 150
EKFKPLEETT LEDFNEVFNL NTRAQMFVAR YAYDHIQPGG RVILMSSIAA
160 170 180 190 200
GLGVPGHALY AGSKAAIEGF TRCLAADFGR KGCTVNAIAP AGVKSDMWRE
210 220 230 240 250
NAWRYAPGCD KSSSLEEIET ALASGSPLKR CGVPEDIGKV VSFLASPDAE
260 270
WVNGEFFSPP PCKGPLPGGD LEC
Length:273
Mass (Da):28,843
Last modified:April 5, 2011 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iB5F610612AFA41ED
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AAHF01000001 Genomic DNA Translation: EAL94053.1

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
XP_756091.1, XM_750998.1

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl fungal genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblFungii
EAL94053; EAL94053; AFUA_2G17560

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
3513287

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
afm:AFUA_2G17560

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AAHF01000001 Genomic DNA Translation: EAL94053.1
RefSeqiXP_756091.1, XM_750998.1

3D structure databases

SMRiE9QUT3
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi746128.CADAFUBP00003259

PTM databases

SwissPalmiE9QUT3

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiE9QUT3

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblFungiiEAL94053; EAL94053; AFUA_2G17560
GeneIDi3513287
KEGGiafm:AFUA_2G17560

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiFungiDB:Afu2g17560

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0725, Eukaryota
HOGENOMiCLU_010194_1_3_1
InParanoidiE9QUT3
KOiK00059
OMAiNAWHYIP
OrthoDBi913128at2759

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00785

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR036291, NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf
IPR020904, Sc_DH/Rdtase_CS
IPR002347, SDR_fam
PRINTSiPR00081, GDHRDH
PR00080, SDRFAMILY
SUPFAMiSSF51735, SSF51735, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00061, ADH_SHORT, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiARP2_ASPFU
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: E9QUT3
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 6, 2016
Last sequence update: April 5, 2011
Last modified: August 12, 2020
This is version 63 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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