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Entry version 59 (10 Feb 2021)
Sequence version 1 (08 Mar 2011)
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Protein

Galanin peptides

Gene

gal

Organism
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (Brachydanio rerio)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:4 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Endocrine hormone of the central and peripheral nervous systems that binds and activates the G protein-coupled receptors GALR1 (galr1a and galr1b) and GALR2 (galr2a and galr2b). This small neuropeptide may regulate diverse physiologic functions including contraction of smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, growth hormone and insulin release and adrenal secretion.

By similarity

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionHormone, Neuropeptide

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-DRE-375276, Peptide ligand-binding receptors
R-DRE-418594, G alpha (i) signalling events

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Galanin peptidesBy similarity
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
Galanin1 Publication
Galanin message-associated peptide1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:gal1 Publication
Synonyms:galnCurated, ppg1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiDanio rerio (Zebrafish) (Brachydanio rerio)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri7955 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiActinopterygiiNeopterygiiTeleosteiOstariophysiCypriniformesDanionidaeDanioninaeDanio
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000000437 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes%5Fmanual">proteome</a> can consist of several components.<br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 25

Organism-specific databases

Zebrafish Information Network genome database

More...
ZFINi
ZDB-GENE-111117-2, gal

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section denotes the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide.<p><a href='/help/signal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Signal peptidei1 – 19Sequence analysisAdd BLAST19
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM / Processing</a> section describes a propeptide, which is a part of a protein that is cleaved during maturation or activation. Once cleaved, a propeptide generally has no independent biological function.<p><a href='/help/propep' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PropeptideiPRO_000042435120 – 30By similarityAdd BLAST11
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the position and length of an active peptide in the mature protein.<p><a href='/help/peptide' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PeptideiPRO_000042435233 – 61GalaninBy similarityAdd BLAST29
PeptideiPRO_000042435365 – 118Galanin message-associated peptideBy similarityAdd BLAST54

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei61Alanine amideBy similarity1

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
E7EZ53

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
E7EZ53

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified 'at protein level'.<br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Strongly expressed in brain and stomach, moderately in the eye, and very weakly in heart, kidney and gills. Not detected in liver.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section provides information on the expression of the gene product at various stages of a cell, tissue or organism development. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified 'at the protein level'.<p><a href='/help/developmental_stage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Developmental stagei

In embryos and larvae, detected mainly in nerve cells in the preoptic-hypothalamic regions and fibers innervating several brain regions (at protein level) (PubMed:22522977, PubMed:27315774). In embryos, detected in the anterior commissure, postoptic commissure, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ventral hindbrain and the white matter of the ventral spinal cord (at protein level) (PubMed:27315774, PubMed:30903017). In larvae, detected in brain regions including telencephalon, hypothalamus, mesencephalon, medulla oblongata and pituitary at 30 hpf onwards (at protein level) (PubMed:22522977). Both isoforms are maternally expressed and detected throughout embryonic development (PubMed:22522977). Low-level expression detected throughout the developing embryo at 6-24 hours post-fertilization (hpf) with more focused expression detected in specific groups of neurons in the brain at 28 hpf onwards (PubMed:22522977).3 Publications

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSDARG00000091377, Expressed in multi-cellular organism and 21 other tissues

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the galanin family.Sequence analysis

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

Ensembl GeneTree

More...
GeneTreei
ENSGT00390000009663

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
CLU_166244_0_0_1

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
E7EZ53

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
QPADEMK

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
1518030at2759

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

More...
TreeFami
TF335850

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR008174, Galanin
IPR008175, Galanin_pre
IPR013068, GMAP

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR16839, PTHR16839, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF01296, Galanin, 1 hit
PF06540, GMAP, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00273, GALANIN

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM00071, Galanin, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00861, GALANIN, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequences (2)i

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is in its mature form or if it represents the precursor.<p><a href='/help/sequence_processing' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 <p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section lists the alternative protein sequences (isoforms) that can be generated from the same gene by a single or by the combination of up to four biological events (alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, alternative initiation and ribosomal frameshifting). Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.<p><a href='/help/alternative_products' target='_top'>More...</a></p> isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket
Isoform A1 Publication (identifier: E7EZ53-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the <div> <p><b>What is the canonical sequence?</b><p><a href='/help/canonical_and_isoforms' target='_top'>More...</a></p>canonicali sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MHRCVGGVCV SLIVCAFLTE TLGMVIAAKE KRGWTLNSAG YLLGPHAIDS
60 70 80 90 100
HRSLSDKHGL AGKREMPLDE DFKTGALRIA DEDVVHTIID FLSYLKLKEI
110
GALDSLPSSL TSEEISQP
Length:118
Mass (Da):12,808
Last modified:March 8, 2011 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:iFB12352A5098C185
GO
Isoform B1 Publication (identifier: E7EZ53-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     45-46: PH → PRRIDHLIQIKDTPSARGREDLLGQY

Show »
Length:142
Mass (Da):15,604
Checksum:i7DD09343D01DDBD5
GO

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Sequence' section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting.<p><a href='/help/var_seq' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Alternative sequenceiVSP_05339845 – 46PH → PRRIDHLIQIKDTPSARGRE DLLGQY in isoform B. 1 Publication2

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
CR391967 Genomic DNA No translation available.

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_001333168.1, NM_001346239.1 [E7EZ53-2]
XP_005163049.1, XM_005162992.3 [E7EZ53-1]

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENSDART00000130608; ENSDARP00000111687; ENSDARG00000091377 [E7EZ53-2]
ENSDART00000154776; ENSDARP00000128202; ENSDARG00000091377 [E7EZ53-2]
ENSDART00000190212; ENSDARP00000154557; ENSDARG00000091377 [E7EZ53-1]

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
100006361

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
dre:100006361

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
CR391967 Genomic DNA No translation available.
RefSeqiNP_001333168.1, NM_001346239.1 [E7EZ53-2]
XP_005163049.1, XM_005162992.3 [E7EZ53-1]

3D structure databases

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

SWISS-MODEL Interactive Workspace

More...
SWISS-MODEL-Workspacei
Submit a new modelling project...

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiE7EZ53
PRIDEiE7EZ53

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSDART00000130608; ENSDARP00000111687; ENSDARG00000091377 [E7EZ53-2]
ENSDART00000154776; ENSDARP00000128202; ENSDARG00000091377 [E7EZ53-2]
ENSDART00000190212; ENSDARP00000154557; ENSDARG00000091377 [E7EZ53-1]
GeneIDi100006361
KEGGidre:100006361

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
51083
ZFINiZDB-GENE-111117-2, gal

Phylogenomic databases

GeneTreeiENSGT00390000009663
HOGENOMiCLU_166244_0_0_1
InParanoidiE7EZ53
OMAiQPADEMK
OrthoDBi1518030at2759
TreeFamiTF335850

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-DRE-375276, Peptide ligand-binding receptors
R-DRE-418594, G alpha (i) signalling events

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:E7EZ53

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSDARG00000091377, Expressed in multi-cellular organism and 21 other tissues

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR008174, Galanin
IPR008175, Galanin_pre
IPR013068, GMAP
PANTHERiPTHR16839, PTHR16839, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF01296, Galanin, 1 hit
PF06540, GMAP, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00273, GALANIN
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00071, Galanin, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00861, GALANIN, 1 hit

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiGALA_DANRE
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: E7EZ53
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 13, 2013
Last sequence update: March 8, 2011
Last modified: February 10, 2021
This is version 59 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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