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Entry version 25 (26 Feb 2020)
Sequence version 1 (24 Nov 2009)
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Protein

Abhydrolase domain-containing protein ACTT2-2

Gene

ACTT2-2

Organism
Alternaria alternata (Alternaria rot fungus) (Torula alternata)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:3 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Abhydrolase domain-containing protein; part of the gene clusters that mediate the biosynthesis of the host-selective toxins (HSTs) ACT-toxins responsible for brown spot of tangerine disease by the tangerine pathotype which affects tangerines and mandarins (PubMed:18944496, PubMed:18986255). ACT-toxins consist of three moieties, 9,10-epoxy-8-hydroxy-9-methyl-decatrienoic acid (EDA), valine and a polyketide (PubMed:22846083). ACT-toxin I is toxic to both citrus and pear; toxin II the 5''-deoxy derivative of ACT-toxin I, is highly toxic to pear and slightly toxic to citrus (PubMed:22846083). On cellular level, ACT-toxins affect plasma membrane of susceptible cells and cause a sudden increase in loss of K+ after a few minutes of toxin treatment (PubMed:22846083). The acyl-CoA ligase ACTT1, the hydrolase ACTT2, the enoyl-CoA hydratases ACTT3 and ACTT6, and the acyl-CoA synthetase ACTT5 are all involved in the biosynthesis of the AK-, AF- and ACT-toxin common 9,10-epoxy-8-hydroxy-9-methyl-decatrienoic acid (EDA) structural moiety (PubMed:18944496, PubMed:18986255, PubMed:19271978). The exact role of each enzyme, and of additional enzymes identified within the AF-toxin clusters have still to be determined (PubMed:18944496, PubMed:18986255, PubMed:19271978). On the other hand, ACTTS1 to ACTTS4 are specific to the tangerine pathotype (PubMed:22846083). The function of ACTTS3 is to elongate the polyketide chain portion of ACT-toxin that is unique to this toxin (PubMed:20192828). The enoyl-reductase ACTTS2 might complement the missing enoyl-reductase (ER) domain in ACTTS3 in the synthesis of the polyketide portion of ACT-toxin (PubMed:20055645). The roles of the nonribosomal peptide synthetases-related proteins ACTTS1 and ACTTS4 have also still not been elucidated (PubMed:22846083).1 Publication5 Publications

Miscellaneous

Gene clusters encoding host-selective toxins (HSTs) are localized on conditionally dispensable chromosomes (CDCs), also called supernumerary chromosomes, where they are present in multiple copies (PubMed:18986255). The CDCs are not essential for saprophytic growth but controls host-selective pathogenicity (PubMed:18986255). Although conventional disruption of ACTT2 could not be accomplished due to the high number of the copies identified in the genome, the high sequence identity among these copies of ACTT2 is likely an advantage for RNA silencing, because it allows knockdown of all copies of this gene simultaneously (PubMed:18986255).1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: Mycotoxin biosynthesis

This protein is involved in Mycotoxin biosynthesis.1 Publication
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in Mycotoxin biosynthesis.

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionHydrolase
Biological processVirulence

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Abhydrolase domain-containing protein ACTT2-21 Publication (EC:3.1.1.-1 Publication)
Alternative name(s):
ACT-toxin biosynthesis protein 2-21 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:ACTT2-2
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiAlternaria alternata (Alternaria rot fungus) (Torula alternata)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri5599 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaPezizomycotinaDothideomycetesPleosporomycetidaePleosporalesPleosporineaePleosporaceaeAlternariaAlternaria sect. AlternariaAlternaria alternata complex

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cell wall Cytoskeleton Vacuole Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Peroxisome

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

<p>This subsection of the 'Pathology and Biotech' section describes the in vivo effects caused by ablation of the gene (or one or more transcripts) coding for the protein described in the entry. This includes gene knockout and knockdown, provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell level.<p><a href='/help/disruption_phenotype' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disruption phenotypei

Abolishes the production of ACT-toxin and impairs the formation of lesions on leaves sprayed with conidia (PubMed:18986255). Does not affect growth rate of cultures, sporulation, and spore germination (PubMed:18986255).1 Publication

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004448281 – 262Abhydrolase domain-containing protein ACTT2-2Add BLAST262

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the 'Expression' section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

Expression is positively regulated by CSN5 during infection.1 Publication

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a short (usually not more than 20 amino acids) conserved sequence motif of biological significance.<p><a href='/help/motif' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Motifi260 – 262Peroxisomal targeting signal type 1By similarity3

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
3.40.50.1820, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR029058, AB_hydrolase
IPR000073, AB_hydrolase_1

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF12697, Abhydrolase_6, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF53474, SSF53474, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

C9K1M9-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MQQPIVGVGH SMGGCQIATL SVTSRRIFST MILLDPAIGP PEMGLATLGL
60 70 80 90 100
GQLTLRRRTQ WLTREDAEKA LRTSFSTWDP QVLDLLIKHS IHSDKQSVEM
110 120 130 140 150
EDGPVSLVTG RYQELVNYIK PSFIRSGKVV GQELVHQTGP VDMYHMLGLV
160 170 180 190 200
TCSTLYLCGG ESTLSTPRAR ELWLSRTAEL SYSKDPGEMR KVDERIVPDT
210 220 230 240 250
GHFLPMEEPK ECADIIADWI DKDECMIWNC HIGKQGKIWR DLSNTNRKMN
260
AEVWIEYLQS KL
Length:262
Mass (Da):29,589
Last modified:November 24, 2009 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i71013A68943826A7
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

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DDBJi
Links Updated
AB432916 Genomic DNA Translation: BAI44323.1

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB432916 Genomic DNA Translation: BAI44323.1

3D structure databases

Database of comparative protein structure models

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ModBasei
Search...

SWISS-MODEL Interactive Workspace

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SWISS-MODEL-Workspacei
Submit a new modelling project...

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.50.1820, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR029058, AB_hydrolase
IPR000073, AB_hydrolase_1
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF12697, Abhydrolase_6, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF53474, SSF53474, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

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MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiACT22_ALTAL
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: C9K1M9
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 18, 2018
Last sequence update: November 24, 2009
Last modified: February 26, 2020
This is version 25 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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