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Entry version 74 (16 Jan 2019)
Sequence version 1 (10 Jun 2008)
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Protein

Free fatty acid receptor 3

Gene

Ffar3

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by a major product of dietary fiber digestion, the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and that plays a role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis and in intestinal immunity. In omnivorous mammals, the short chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate are produced primarily by the gut microbiome that metabolizes dietary fibers. SCFAs serve as a source of energy but also act as signaling molecules. That G protein-coupled receptor is probably coupled to the pertussis toxin-sensitive, G(i/o)-alpha family of G proteins. Its activation results in the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, the mobilization of intracellular calcium, the phosphorylation of the MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2 kinases and the inhibition of intracellular cAMP accumulation. Activated by SCFAs and by beta-hydroxybutyrate, a ketone body produced by the liver upon starvation, it inhibits N-type calcium channels and modulates the activity of sympathetic neurons through a signaling cascade involving the beta and gamma subunits of its coupled G protein, phospholipase C and MAP kinases (PubMed:24305827). Thereby, it may regulate energy expenditure through the control of the sympathetic nervous system that controls for instance heart rate. Upon activation by SCFAs accumulating in the intestine, it may also signal to the brain via neural circuits which in turn would regulate intestinal gluconeogenesis (PubMed:24412651). May also control the production of hormones involved in whole-body energy homeostasis. May for instance, regulate blood pressure through renin secretion. May also regulate secretion of the PYY peptide by enteroendocrine cells and control gut motility, intestinal transit rate, and the harvesting of energy from SCFAs produced by gut microbiota. May also indirectly regulate the production of LEP/Leptin, a hormone acting on the CNS to inhibit food intake, in response to the presence of short-chain fatty acids in the intestine. Finally, may also play a role in glucose homeostasis. Besides its role in energy homeostasis, may play a role in intestinal immunity. May mediate the activation of the inflammatory and immune response by SCFAs in the gut, regulating the rapid production of chemokines and cytokines by intestinal epithelial cells.3 Publications

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

  • G protein-coupled receptor activity Source: UniProtKB
  • lipid binding Source: UniProtKB-KW

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionG-protein coupled receptor, Receptor, Transducer
Biological processImmunity, Inflammatory response
LigandLipid-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-RNO-416476 G alpha (q) signalling events
R-RNO-444209 Free fatty acid receptors

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Free fatty acid receptor 3
Alternative name(s):
G-protein coupled receptor 41
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:Ffar3
Synonyms:Gpr41
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

Rat genome database

More...
RGDi
1311035 Ffar3

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular_location_section">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the subcellular compartment where each non-membrane region of a membrane-spanning protein is found.<p><a href='/help/topo_dom' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Topological domaini1 – 15ExtracellularSequence analysisAdd BLAST15
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/subcellular_location_section">'Subcellular location'</a> section describes the extent of a membrane-spanning region of the protein. It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel transmembrane proteins.<p><a href='/help/transmem' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Transmembranei16 – 36Helical; Name=1Sequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini37 – 43CytoplasmicSequence analysis7
Transmembranei44 – 64Helical; Name=2Sequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini65 – 98ExtracellularSequence analysisAdd BLAST34
Transmembranei99 – 119Helical; Name=3Sequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini120 – 127CytoplasmicSequence analysis8
Transmembranei128 – 148Helical; Name=4Sequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini149 – 183ExtracellularSequence analysisAdd BLAST35
Transmembranei184 – 206Helical; Name=5Sequence analysisAdd BLAST23
Topological domaini207 – 218CytoplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST12
Transmembranei219 – 239Helical; Name=6Sequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini240 – 254ExtracellularSequence analysisAdd BLAST15
Transmembranei255 – 275Helical; Name=7Sequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini276 – 319CytoplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST44

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Membrane

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology_and_biotech_section">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi40R → Q: No effect on activation by propionate. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi41R → C: No effect on activation by propionate. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi170R → W: Loss of activation by propionate. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi223L → V: Constitutively active. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi252T → V: Reduced activation by propionate. 1 Publication1

Chemistry databases

ChEMBL database of bioactive drug-like small molecules

More...
ChEMBLi
CHEMBL3886125

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004303121 – 319Free fatty acid receptor 3Add BLAST319

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing":/help/ptm_processing_section section describes the positions of cysteine residues participating in disulfide bonds.<p><a href='/help/disulfid' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Disulfide bondi84 ↔ 165PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
B2GV46

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
B2GV46

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Expressed in the sympathetic nervous system.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution

More...
Bgeei
ENSRNOG00000037467 Expressed in 3 organ(s), highest expression level in colon

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
10116.ENSRNOP00000053557

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

Protein Model Portal of the PSI-Nature Structural Biology Knowledgebase

More...
ProteinModelPortali
B2GV46

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
ENOG410IITC Eukaryota
ENOG4111Q82 LUCA

Ensembl GeneTree

More...
GeneTreei
ENSGT00940000153898

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

More...
HOGENOMi
HOG000026778

The HOVERGEN Database of Homologous Vertebrate Genes

More...
HOVERGENi
HBG051811

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

More...
InParanoidi
B2GV46

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K04326

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
AYPLWYK

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
1129026at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
B2GV46

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

More...
TreeFami
TF350010

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR000276 GPCR_Rhodpsn
IPR017452 GPCR_Rhodpsn_7TM
IPR013312 GPR40-rel_orph

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00001 7tm_1, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00237 GPCRRHODOPSN
PR01904 GPR40FAMILY

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00237 G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_1, 1 hit
PS50262 G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_2, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>.<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

B2GV46-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MDTSFFPGNH WLFFSVDLLV FLVGLPLNVM ALVVFVNKLR RRPVAVDLLL
60 70 80 90 100
LNLTISDLLL LLFLPFRIVE AACGMKWILP FIFCPLSGFL FFTTIYLTSL
110 120 130 140 150
FLMTVSIERF LSVAYPLWYK TRPRLAQAGL VSGICWFLAS AHCSVIYVTE
160 170 180 190 200
YWGNATYSQG TNGTCYLEFR EDQLAILLPV RLEMAVVLFM VPLCITSYCY
210 220 230 240 250
SRLVWILSQG ASRRRRKRVM GLLVATLLIF FVCFGPYNMS HVVGYVRGES
260 270 280 290 300
PTWRSYVLLL STLNSCIDPL VFYFSSSKFQ ADFHQLLSRL IRACVPWTQE
310
VSLELKVKNG EEPSKECPS
Length:319
Mass (Da):36,483
Last modified:June 10, 2008 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i076C42FB2383161A
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AABR06004309 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH473979 Genomic DNA Translation: EDM07705.1
BC166522 mRNA Translation: AAI66522.1

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_001102382.1, NM_001108912.1

UniGene gene-oriented nucleotide sequence clusters

More...
UniGenei
Rn.122324

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl eukaryotic genome annotation project

More...
Ensembli
ENSRNOT00000056714; ENSRNOP00000053557; ENSRNOG00000037467

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
365228

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
rno:365228

UCSC genome browser

More...
UCSCi
RGD:1311035 rat

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AABR06004309 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH473979 Genomic DNA Translation: EDM07705.1
BC166522 mRNA Translation: AAI66522.1
RefSeqiNP_001102382.1, NM_001108912.1
UniGeneiRn.122324

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliB2GV46
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000053557

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL3886125

Protein family/group databases

Information system for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)

More...
GPCRDBi
Search...

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiB2GV46
PRIDEiB2GV46

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000056714; ENSRNOP00000053557; ENSRNOG00000037467
GeneIDi365228
KEGGirno:365228
UCSCiRGD:1311035 rat

Organism-specific databases

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

More...
CTDi
2865
RGDi1311035 Ffar3

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IITC Eukaryota
ENOG4111Q82 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00940000153898
HOGENOMiHOG000026778
HOVERGENiHBG051811
InParanoidiB2GV46
KOiK04326
OMAiAYPLWYK
OrthoDBi1129026at2759
PhylomeDBiB2GV46
TreeFamiTF350010

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-RNO-416476 G alpha (q) signalling events
R-RNO-444209 Free fatty acid receptors

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:B2GV46

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSRNOG00000037467 Expressed in 3 organ(s), highest expression level in colon

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000276 GPCR_Rhodpsn
IPR017452 GPCR_Rhodpsn_7TM
IPR013312 GPR40-rel_orph
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00001 7tm_1, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00237 GPCRRHODOPSN
PR01904 GPR40FAMILY
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00237 G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_1, 1 hit
PS50262 G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_2, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiFFAR3_RAT
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: B2GV46
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 2014
Last sequence update: June 10, 2008
Last modified: January 16, 2019
This is version 74 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. 7-transmembrane G-linked receptors
    List of 7-transmembrane G-linked receptor entries
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